He 1. Si termina Y después de consonante se le cambia por –ies
She 2. si termina en o-x-z-ch-ss- sh- se le agrega es
He 3. si no cumple la regla 1 y 2 se le agrega stermine en lo que termine
1. If the verb ends in y before a consonant change to i and add -es:
study – studies
copy – copies
2. If the verb ends in -ss, -sh, -ch, -x or -o, add -es to the base form:
kiss - kisses
finish - finishes
go – goes
3. When the verbs doesn’t have the rules 1 and 2 only give one s
play - pays
Speak – speaks
1. He speaks Spanish
2. He doesn't speak Spanish.
3. Does he speak English?
Simple present is used for
Opinions and states of mind
He doesn't agree with you.
I think he is a wonderful student.
Timetables and schedules
The plane leaves at 4 p.m.
The train doesn't arrive until 10.35.
Common present time expressions include:
Usually, always, often, sometimes, on Saturdays, at weekends (on weekends US
English), rarely, on occasion, never, seldom
Regular habits and daily routines
I usually get up at 7 o'clock.
She doesn't often go to the cinema.
When do they usually have lunch?
The Earth revolves around the Sun.
Water doesn't boil at 20 degrees.
I love walking around late at night during the summer.
She hates flying!
Tim works for a company in Sacramento, California. He's a customer service
representative. He gets up at six o'clock each workday. He drives to work and begins his
job at eight o'clock. He speaks to people on the telephone to help them with their banking
problems. People telephone the bank to ask questions about their accounts. He doesn't
give information about accounts until people answer a few questions. Tim asks callers
their birth date, the last four digits of their social security number and their address. If a
person gives incorrect information, Tim asks him to call back with the correct information.
Tim is polite and friendly with everyone. He has lunch in a park next to his office. He
returns home at five o'clock in the evening. After work, he goes to the gym to work out. He
has dinner at seven o'clock. Tim likes watching TV after dinner. He goes to bed at eleven
o'clock at night.
Where does Tim work?
A. In Europe
B. In the USA
C. In Asia
When does he get up?
A. He gets up at seven o'clock in
B. He gets up at six o'clock in the
C. He gets up at six o'clock in the
How does he get to work?
A. He walks to work.
B. He drives to work.
C. He takes the bus to work.
What does he do during the day?
A. He helps customers in a bank.
B. He helps customers on the
C. He helps customers outside.
What does he do to check
A. He asks people some
B. He tells them to call later.
C. He asks to see documents.
Which question does he NOT ask?
A. What is your birth date?
B. What is your job?
C. What is your address?
What does he do if the information
A. He gives banking account
B. He asks the callers to call back
with correct information.
C. He asks to speak to the
What is Tim like on the job?
A. He is unfriendly and helpful.
B. He is funny and helpful.
C. He is polite and friendly.
Where does he eat lunch?
A. At work
B. In a park near work
C. At home
What does he do in the evening?
A. He works out at the gym and
B. He works out at the gym and
reads a book.
C. He watches TV and plays ping
We use some adverbs to describe how frequently
we do an activity.
These are called adverbs of frequency and include:
Frequency Adverb of Frequency Example Sentence
100% always I always go to bed before 11pm.
90% usually I usually have cereal for breakfast.
80% normally / generally I normally go to the gym.
70% often* / frequently I often surf the internet.
50% sometimes I sometimes forget my wife's birthday.
30% occasionally I occasionally eat junk food.
10% seldom I seldom read the newspaper.
5% hardly ever / rarely I hardly ever drink alcohol.
0% never I never swim in the sea.
* Some people pronounce the 'T' in often but many others do not.
The Position of the Adverb in a Sentence
An adverb of frequency goes before a main verb (except with To Be).
Subject + adverb + main verb
I always remember to do my homework.
He normally gets good marks in exams.
An adverb of frequency goes after the
verb To Be.
Subject + to be + adverb
They are never pleased to see me.
She isn't usually bad tempered.
When we use an auxiliary verb (have, will, must, might, could, would, can, etc.), the adverb is
placed between the auxiliary and the main verb. This is also true for to be.
Subject + auxiliary + adverb + main verb
She can sometimes beat me in a race.
I would hardly ever be unkind to someone.
They might never see each other again.
They could occasionally be heard laughing.
We can also use the following adverbs at the start of a sentence:
Usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes, occasionally
Occasionally, I like to eat Thai food.
BUT we cannot use the following at the beginning of a sentence:
Always, seldom, rarely, hardly, ever, never.
We use hardly ever and never with positive, not negative verbs:
She hardly ever comes to my parties.
They never say 'thank you'.
We use ever in questions and negative statements:
Have you ever been to New Zealand?
I haven't ever been to Switzerland. (The same as 'I have never been Switzerland').
We can also use the following expressions when we want to be more specific about the
- every day - once a month - twice a year - four times a day - every other week
I always go to school by bus.
Siempre voy a la escuela en autobús.
I usually get up at 7.
Usualmente me despierto a las 7.
I often / frequently watch TV in the
Frecuentemente miro TV por la noche.
I sometimes have lunch in a restaurant.
A veces almuerzo en un restaurant.
I seldom have breakfast.
Rara vez tomo el desayuno.
I never arrive late.
Nunca llego tarde.
Mary's Hobbies and Interests
Mary has a lot of hobbies and interests. She usually gets up early so she can run
before work. She doesn't often have time to ski, but she occasionally goes on
Saturdays during the winter. Mary often rides a horse at a stable near here home.
She sometimes goes after work, but she usually goes horseback riding on
Sundays. She loves music. She always goes to choir practice on Wednesday
evenings and sings in church on Sundays. She doesn't have much extra money, so
she rarely goes to concerts in the city. She seldom watches TV because she likes
doing things outside. She usually goes to the gym if it's raining outside. She isn't
often alone because she has a lot of friends. She occasionally does something
alone, but she usually does her activities with one of her friends. She's a happy
Why does she usually get up
a) She gets up early to run before
b) She gets up early to go to
c) She gets up early to have
How often does she ski?
a) She often skis.
b) She occasionally skis in winter.
c) She rarely skis in winter.
How often does she ride a horse?
a) She rides a horse every day.
b) She often rides a horse.
c) She never rides a horse.
When doe she usually go
a) She usually goes horseback
riding after work.
b) She usually goes horseback
riding on Saturdays.
c) She usually goes horseback
riding on Sundays.
What kind of music does she like
a) Playing the violin
c) Playing the piano
How often does she go to concerts
in the city?
a) Every Sunday
How often does she watch TV?
a) She usually watches TV every
b) She seldom watches TV.
c) She never watches TV.
What does she usually do if it's
a) She goes outside.
b) She goes to the gym.
c) She calls friends.
How often is she alone?
a) She is often alone.
b) She isn't often alone.
c) She is usually alone.
How often does she do something
a) She never does something
b) She occasionally does
c) She always does something
1. Si el verbo termina en Consonante-vocal-consonante, se debe duplicar la
ultima consonante antes de agregarle “-ing”. Cut-cutting (cortar –
cortando) Sit-sitting (sentar – sentando)
2. Si el verbo termina en “-e” y ésta es precedida por una consonante, la “e” se
elimina y en su lugar se agrega “-ing”. Come – coming ( venir –
viniendo) Write – writing (escribir – escribiendo)
3. En los verbos que terminan en “-ie”, esta partícula debe ser sustituida por
una “y” para entonces agregar el “-ing”. Lie – Lying (mentir – mintiendo)
Subject + Verb To Be + Verb (ing)
I am runing
Kelly is eating in her home at the moment.
Kelly is not eating in her home at the moment.
Is Kelly eating in her home at the moment?
John is reading a book.
She is having breakfast now.
Now fill in the every gap with the correct word
1) It ………. rain ………. in New York. Está lloviendo en Nueva York.
2) Mary………. cook………. in her house. Mary está cocinando en su casa.
3) Peter and Susan ………. play ……… in the beach. Peter y Susan están jugando en la playa.
4) My father ………. work ………. in the garden. Mi padre está trabajando en el jardín.
5) I ………. learn ………. French. Yo estoy aprendiendo francés.
6) You ………. ………. study ……… math. Tú no estás estudiando matemáticas.
7) My sister ………. eat ………. at the restaurant. Mi hermana está comiendo en el restaurante.
8) We ………. enjoy ………. the party. Nosotros estamos disfrutando la fiesta.
9) They ………. ………. see ………. the pictures. Ellos no están viendo las fotografías.
10) ………. my mother talk ………. to Jane? ¿Está mi madre hablando a Jane?
11) The children ………. visit ………. the Zoo. Los niños están visitando el zoológico.
12) Mike ………. call ………. you. Mike te está llamando.
13) Robert and Alice ………. travel ………. to Europe. Robert y Alice están viajando a Europa.
14) The dog ………. sleep ………. in the street. El perro está durmiendo en la calle.
15) What ………. you do ……….? ¿Qué estás tu haciendo?
16) My grandfather ………. watch ………. T.V. Mi abuelo está mirando TV.
17) My friends ………. drink ………. at the bar. Mis amigos están bebiendo en el bar.
18) Lisa ………. paint ………. her house. Lisa está pintando su casa.
19) I ………. play ………. the guitar. Yo estoy tocando la guitarra.
20) The pupils ………. shout ………. in the park. Los alumnos están gritando en el parque.
Completa los recuadros con las respuestas correctas. Entre paréntesis se indica el verbo que se
What is she doing?
She_____ (read)_________ a book.
What is she doing?
She _______ (have)_______ a drink.
What are they doing?
What is he doing?
He_______ (write)_________ a letter.
What is he doing?
He________ (work) _______
What are they doing?
They __________(watch)_______ the
Elige la opción más adecuada para
responder a las siguientes preguntas.
Is Brian reading a book?
A. Yes, he does.
B. Yes, he is.
What is Brian reading?
A. He's reading a magazine.
B. Yes, he does.
Is Susan writing a poem?
A. No, she is not.
B. Yes, she does.
Is this your book?
A. Yes, it's my book.
B. Yes, it's your book.
Is your brother playing hockey?
A. Yes, he is.
B. Yes, she is.
Does your nephew go to school?
A. Yes, he does.
B. Yes, she does.
What is your father doing?
A. He's working.
B. Yes, he is.
Is your aunt studying English?
A. No, he isn't.
B. No, she isn't.
What are you doing?
A. I'm studying English.
B. You're studying English.
Is your sister using your computer?
A. Yes, she does.
B. Yes, she is.
Reading comprehension text with present continuous
It is the afternoon and the family is at home.
Anna´s mother and father are in the dining room, writing letters. Her uncle and aunt
are in the sitting room: Ben´s reading a book and Rita´s watching TV. Katherine´s in
the garden playing football with Margaret´s brothers. Anna´s brother and sister are
playing with their trains in the attic. William´s in the kitchen. he´s making coffee with
two of his cousins. Anna´s in her bedroom, reading a comic.
Answer these questions:
1)What´s Ben doing?__________________________________________________
2) Where´s Rita? _____________________________________________________
3)What´s Katherine doing?______________________________________________
4) Where is she?______________________________________________________
5) Where´s William? ___________________________________________________
6) What´s he doing?___________________________________________________
Simple past regular verbs
En el caso de los verbos regulares, el pasado simple se forma tomando el propio verbo y
agregando "ed", o "d" si termina en la vocal e. Si termina en "y", después ce consonante se
cambia por "ied". y si termina en consonante vocal consonante se repite la última consonante
antes de agregarle ed
We played tennis for two hours.
nosotros jugamos tenis por dos horas.
She arrived late.
ella llegó tarde.
You studied a lot.
Los verbos irregulares tienen su propia forma del pasado simple y la única manera de aprenderlos
es memorizarlos. Normalmente son los que aparecen en la segunda columna de los listados de
verbos irregulares en los diccionarios de inglés.
Por ejemplo el pasado del verbo to go (ir) es "went". El pasado de to see (ver) es "saw". Siempre
es igual para todas las personas.
We went to London in 1994.
Fuimos a Londres es 1994.
We saw the double-decker buses.
Vimos los autobuses de dos pisos.
Sick on Saturday (simple past)
I have just had a terrible weekend! On Saturday I was so tired that I slept all
morning. When I woke up I had a head ache and my throat was sore. My
body ached all over. My nose ran and I coughed a lot. My mother took my
temperature but I did not have a fever.
My mother made me some soup for lunch and I ate it in bed. I drank some juice.
I tried to read a book but I couldn’t keep my eyes open. I lay in bed all
afternoon. I drifted in and out of sleep. I drank more juice. I felt miserable all
afternoon. I didn’t want to do anything.
I got out of bed at dinner time. My parents ordered pizza for dinner and
I was able to eat some of it. I drank more juice! I felt a bit better after dinner so
I stayed up. I snuggled under a blanket on the couch and watched some TV
with my parents. I fell asleep in front of the TV.
The next morning I felt better but now my mother had a cold!
She looked miserable. It was her turn to be sick.
Fill in the Blanks:
5. The family had _______________ for dinner on Saturday.
6. On Saturday night the boy fell asleep while he __________________________.
7. He had a head ______________ and his throat was ________________.
8. The boy drank lots of _______________.
9. What is the present tense of these verbs? tried _____________, took ________________,
felt ________________, did _________________
Skating! (simple past)
This winter I learned to skate! A friend of mine had an extra pair of skates.
He persuadedme to go skating with him one Saturday afternoon in February.
I borrowed the skates and we went skating!
It was cold outside! We wore hats, scarves and mitts to keep warm.
He showed me how to put on the skates. He helped me walk onto the ice.
He showed me how to start moving. He also showed me how to stop!
I moved very slowly at first and lots of people skatedpast me. When
I fell nobody laughed at me. Instead, they helped me get back up. I kepttrying!
Soon I felt much better. I liked skating!
Fill in the Blanks:
6. If you want to _________ to do something, you have to keep trying!
7. When he _____________ nobody laughed at him.
8. He borrowed a pair of skates from a ___________ who had an extra pair of skates.
9. They went skating on a _______________ in February.
10. They wore hats and mitts because it was _______________ outside that day.
11. His friend ____________ him walk onto the ice.
When I woke up this morning, I found my dog, Fox, waiting for me. He wanted me to take
him for a walk. I was too hungry, so first I had breakfast. I had a glass of milk and a piece of
toast. Then I washed my teeth and put on a track-suit and a heavy coat, because it was
really cold outside. Fox was already impatient. We both went out, and walked to the park
near home. Haran and jumped, and pursued some passers-by. He also destroyed some
pieces of furniture somebody left on the road. I sat on a bench all the time, wishing I could
be inside my warm bed. When my hands were frozen, I decided it was time to go back home.
Fox didn’t want to, but I pulled hard and I managed to take him back. When we arrived at
the front door, I realized I didn’t have my keys with me, so we stayed out in the cold for more
than an hour! Fox was happy, but I was late for work!
1. Write all the verbs you find in the past simple tense.
2. Which of them are regular?
3. Which are irregular?
4. Write the infinitive of the irregular verbs:
Answer the questions
5. Who was happy to stay outside?
6. What did Ben do in the park?
7. What did Fox do in the park?
8. What did Ben have for breakfast?
9. What was the weather like?
10. What was Ben wearing?
11. When did Ben decide it was time to go home?
Comparatives and Superlatives
Los comparativos sirven justamente para comparar una misma cualidad o característica en
Para formar el comparativo, se deben seguir las siguientes reglas:
Se agrega al adjetivo "er" o "r", si ya termina en "e". nice- nicer small - smaller
Si la el adjetivo termina en consonante vocal + consonante, se duplica la última
consonante. big – bigger, fat- fatter
Si termina en "y" se cambia por "ier". happy – happier
Cuando el adjetivo tiene más de tres sílabas, el comparativo se forma usando la palabra
"more" antes del adjetivo.
Expensive - more expensive - careful - more careful
Para comparar dos objetos en una oración, se agrega "than".
This shirt is smaller than than shirt. - Esta camisa es más chica que aquella camisa.
Los superlativos sirven para referirse a sustantivos que son los únicos que presentan una
cualidad que los diferencia del resto.
Como vimos, en la frase "a small shirt" (una camisa chica), small es un adjetivo. Si todas
las demás camisas son grandes, se puede comparar usando el superlativo "the smallest
shirt" (la camisa más chica). Siempre se agrega "the" adelante.
Para formar el superlativo, se deben seguir las siguientes reglas:
Se agrega al adjetivo "est" o "st", si ya termina en "e". small - the smallest
Si la palabra termina en vocal + consonante, se duplica la consonante.
big - the biggest
Si termina en "y" se cambia por "iest". happy - the happiest
Cuando el adjetivo tiene más de tres sílabas, el superlativo se forma usando las palabras
"the most" adelante.
Expensive - the most expensive - careful - the most careful
Existen ciertos adjetivos con comparativos y superlativos irregulares. La única forma de
aprenderlos es memorizarlos.
Now, choose the correct answer:
I think Hanna is ...............Laura.
A. a best student
B. a better student than
C. best student
b) I think that Greta ........................Rachel.
A. isn't as attractive as
B. is most attractive as
C. is the most attractive
c) In my opinion, Laura is ...........of the girls.
A. the most clever
B. the cleverest
C. more clever than
d) As I see it, Greta's job must be .................
A. the more difficult
B. as difficult as
C. the most difficult
e) I think Hanna must be ................the rest
of the girls.
A. funnier than
B. the funniest
C. more funny
Compare the following people:
1. Bob is ___________ (YOUNG) than Homer.
2. Homer is____________ (OLD) than Alice.
3. Alice is __________ (SLIM) than Bob.
4. Bob is _____________ (SHORT) than Homer.
5. Homer is __________ (FAT) than Bob.
6. Alice is _____________ (SHORT) than Homer.
7. Homer is ___________ (UGLY) than Alice.
8. Homer is _____________ (SLOW) than Bob.
9. Bob is ______________ (TIDY) than Homer.
10. Alice is ______________ (BEAUTIFUL) than Bob.
11. Ximena has got __________ (LONG) hair than Bob.
12. Anderson can play the guitar _________ (GOOD) than Alice.
13. Alice can run __________ (FAST) than Homer.
14. Alice draws ______________ (BAD) than Bob.
15. Bob is _______________ (INTELLIGENT) than Homer.
16. Homer is a _____________ (INTERESTING) person than Bob.
17. My father is ______________ than Tom's father. (strong)
18. The weather is ___________ than yesterday . (hot)
19. The girls are ____________ than the boys. (happy)
20. Berta is ________________ than Debby.(beautiful)
1. Indian cooking has some of
________dishes in the world.
B. the hottest
2. Tomer is _________ boy in the class.
A. the strongest
D. the most strong
13.That is ____________ song this band has.
the most beautiful
A. more beautiful
3. The China Wall is _____ wall in the world.
A. the longest
B. more long
4. Cities are ____________ than villages
C. the busiest
D. most busy
5. February is ______ than April.
A. the shortest
C. most short
6. Bill Gates is one of ___________ people
in the world.
C. the richest
7. I am ______ at music than my old sister.
C. the best
8. Rita is __________ than the other
students in class.
A. the most hardworking
B. more hardworking
9. Ice hockey is __________ sport in Canada.
A. the most popular
B. more popular
10. Garfield is ___________ than Nemo.
A. the funniest
B. more funny
Opinion, To give personal opinions about something or somebody. Beautiful, nice, friendly,
Size, to describe the way something or somebody looks like. (Appearance) Big, small, huge, great,
Age, To express how old or young something or someone is old, new, adult, young, teenager,
Shape To express or describing The shape of something is. Round, circular, square, triangular,
Color To name the color of someone or something. Red, yellow, blue... pink, orange,
Origin, To express where something or someone is coming from. Russian, Spanish, European,
Italian, American, Scottish, Mexican, French, English,
Material, to express what something is made of. Glass, wooden, fabric, cotton, plastic, leather,
He is a wonderful and young husband.
It is a big blue wooden house.
It is a beautiful purple Australian flower.
It is an ugly, small, old, white and german car
She is a beautiful, tall, Young, Slim and italian gilr
Now choose the best option
Q1.Which is the usual order of adjectives?
A. She was wearing red beautiful shoes.
B. She was wearing beautiful red shoes.
Q2. Which is the usual order of
A. He is just an old silly man.
B. He is just a silly old man.
Q3. Which is the usual order of
A. She bought a new powerful
B. She bought a powerful new
Q4. Which is the usual order of
A. They have just moved into a modern
B. They have just moved into a big
Q5. Which is the usual order of
A. Last night I watched an interesting
B. Last night I watched a German
Q6. Which is the usual order of
A. I need a new electronic dictionary.
B. I need an electronic new dictionary.
Q7. Which is the usual order of
B. My cellar is full of black big spiders.
C. My cellar is full of big black spiders.
Q8. Which is the usual order of
A. She was carrying a new beautiful
B. She was carrying a beautiful new
Q9. Which is the usual order of
I hate this awful wet weather.
I hate this wet awful weather.
Q10. Which is the usual order of
A. I like that small glass coffee table.
B. I like that glass small coffee table.
C. I like that coffee glass small table.
Q11. Which is the usual order of
A. There is a red horrible insect on your
B. There is a horrible red insect on your
Q12. Which is the usual order of
1. Sim City is a new exciting computer
2. Sim City is a new computer exciting
3. Sim City is an exciting new computer
Q13. Which is the usual order of
1. I ate hot delicious soup for lunch.
2. I ate delicious hot soup for lunch.
Q14. Which is the usual order of
A. They live in a wonderful old wooden
B. They live in an old wonderful wooden
C. They live in a wooden wonderful old
Q15. Which is the usual order of
A. They are a heavy loud metal band.
B. They are a loud heavy metal band.
C. They are a metal heavy loud band.