Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

Mini project 2 --teaching and learning theories

Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Wird geladen in …3
×

Hier ansehen

1 von 25 Anzeige

Mini project 2 --teaching and learning theories

Herunterladen, um offline zu lesen

Directions:

Imagine you are the principal in a school with a large influx of new teachers who have been prepared to use constructivist teaching strategies and to distrust direct instruction. Your older teachers, on the other hand, are the opposite – they distrust the new constructivist approaches and believe strongly in “traditional teaching.”

Prepare a 20 minute (or longer) discussion/presentation about different theories of teaching and learning, including direct instruction. Include a PowerPoint presentation with recorded audio on the strengths and weaknesses of each of the learning perspectives discussed in this chapter –behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist. Be sure to discuss the situations for which the behavioral approach is best. Give at least one example for each approach. Make sure that during your presentation, you:

Consider the pros and cons of direct instruction
Contrast direct instruction with a constructivist approach to teaching
Examine under what situations each approach is appropriate
Propose and defend a balanced approach to teaching.

This is a wonderful information and cite the author if you are using it in your presentation. Thank you for checking it out.

Directions:

Imagine you are the principal in a school with a large influx of new teachers who have been prepared to use constructivist teaching strategies and to distrust direct instruction. Your older teachers, on the other hand, are the opposite – they distrust the new constructivist approaches and believe strongly in “traditional teaching.”

Prepare a 20 minute (or longer) discussion/presentation about different theories of teaching and learning, including direct instruction. Include a PowerPoint presentation with recorded audio on the strengths and weaknesses of each of the learning perspectives discussed in this chapter –behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist. Be sure to discuss the situations for which the behavioral approach is best. Give at least one example for each approach. Make sure that during your presentation, you:

Consider the pros and cons of direct instruction
Contrast direct instruction with a constructivist approach to teaching
Examine under what situations each approach is appropriate
Propose and defend a balanced approach to teaching.

This is a wonderful information and cite the author if you are using it in your presentation. Thank you for checking it out.

Anzeige
Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Diashows für Sie (20)

Andere mochten auch (19)

Anzeige

Ähnlich wie Mini project 2 --teaching and learning theories (20)

Weitere von jistudents (20)

Anzeige

Aktuellste (20)

Mini project 2 --teaching and learning theories

  1. 1. Teaching and Learning Presenter: Lamekia L. Hardman
  2. 2. Teaching and Learning  Technical core of all schools  Heart and soul of all educational organizations  Shapes many of the administrative decisions that must be made
  3. 3. Learning  Learning happens when experience produces a stable change in someone’s knowledge or behavior  Involves a change in the individual’s knowledge or behavior  A complex cognitive process and there is no one best explanation of learning
  4. 4. 3 Theories of Learning Behavioral Theories of Learning Cognitive Theories of Learning Constructivist Theories of Learning
  5. 5. Behavioral Learning  B.F. Skinner (1950)  Stress observable changes in behaviors, skills, and habits  Learning is regular expected responses  Instruction is repetition and reinforcement
  6. 6. Behavioral Learning  Behavior is what a person does in a given situation  Environmental Influences Antecedents Consequences  Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C)
  7. 7. Consequences  Determine whether the behavior will be repeated  Will either strengthen or weaken the prosperity of an individual to repeat a behavior  2 Kinds: Reinforcement and Punishment
  8. 8. Reinforcement  Strengthens the behavior that it follows  Increases the frequency or duration of a given behavior  2 types: Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement
  9. 9. Positive Reinforcement  Occurs when a behavior produces a new stimulus or motivating force  Potential problem for all teachers  Occurs when a consequence strengthens a behavior by providing the addition of a stimulus
  10. 10. Negative Reinforcement  Occurs when the consequence that reinforces or strengthens behavior is obtained by eliminating a stimulus  A behavior is reinforced or strengthened by removing a negative or aversive stimulus
  11. 11. Punishment  Involves weakening or suppressing behavior  The effect of decreasing behavior that defines the consequences as punishment  2 Kinds: Type I and Type II
  12. 12. Punishment  Direct Punishment  Occurs when the appearance of the stimulus following the behavior suppresses or weakens the behavior  Removal Punishment  Occurs when a stimulus is removed
  13. 13. Antecedents  Provide information about which behaviors will lead to positive consequences and which to negative ones  Cueing: providing an antecedent stimulus just prior to a particular behavior  Prompting: providing an additional cue following the first cue
  14. 14. Behavioral Learning Pros  Observable behavior is observable and measurable  Easily implemented Cons  Does not contribute to changes in internal (cognitive, affective) things  Has limits
  15. 15. Cognitive Learning  Piaget  Underscore such internal mental activities as thinking, remembering, creating, and problem solving  Learning is recall of stored information  Instruction is grab attention and help store it
  16. 16. Knowledge Learning  Five Kinds of Knowledge General Domain-Specific Declarative Procedural Self-regulatory
  17. 17. Cognitive Learning Pros  More autonomous  Develops cognitive abilities and the potentials of his/her own  Clarifies process in language use and language learning Cons  Questions how one can reach beyond internal representations into the reality  Ignores creative thinking and consciousness
  18. 18. Constructivist Learning  Vygotsky  Interested in how individuals make meaning of events and activities  Learning is seen as the construction of knowledge  Instruction is guiding problem solving
  19. 19. Constructivist Learning  Students build knowledge based upon prior knowledge  Learners create the answer as they see it  Teacher guides students in discovering knowledge on their own
  20. 20. Constructivist Learning Pros  More engaged  Ability to apply knowledge and thinking skills  More collaboration  Think more critically  Self-awareness Cons  Teachers have to spend more time getting to know students  Students not the best judge of their own learning needs
  21. 21. Direct Instruction  Explicit teaching  Best when teaching basic skills – clearly structured knowledge and essential skills  Skills involve tasks that can be taught step by step and tested by standardized tests
  22. 22. Direct Instruction Pros  Can help students learn actively, not passively  Lends itself to higher- order thinking  Provides student responsibility  Provides developmental learning Cons  Limited to lower-level objectives  Based on traditional teaching methods  Ignores innovative models  Discourages students’ independent thought and action
  23. 23. Comparing Theories Direct Instruction Constructivist Direct Instruction Constructivist Theory Stress individual work Stress group-based, collaboration Specific skill-based goals Global goals Teachers generate set body of skills Students generate their own knowledge though experience Traditional teacher-directed methods and materials: lectures, skill worksheet Nontraditional materials used to promote student-driven explorations and problem-solving Traditional Assessment Non-Traditional Assessments Quality of instruction must be consistent Increase relevancy Convergent Thinking Divergent Thinking
  24. 24. Balanced Approach to Teaching In a balanced approach to literacy instruction, teachers integrate instruction with authentic reading and writing and experiences so that students learn how to use literacy strategies and skills and have opportunities to apply what they are learning.
  25. 25. Balanced Approach to Teaching  Ongoing assessment  Direct instruction of strategies and skills  Independent reading and writing as well as guided reading and writing  Sustained silent reading  Shared reading  Reading aloud

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • (2 and 3) The process
  • The change may be intentional or not, but to qualify as learning the change must occur because of experience as the individual interacts with his or her environment.
    The books definition of learning…..
    In addition, the book states that learning
  • (1) Behaviorism perceives the mind as a black box or blank slate.
    (2) Cognitivist sees the mind as a computer
    (3) Constructivism views the mind as rhizome or an integral part of interconnected ecosystem.
  • 1) Skinner and his followers emphasized the importance of antecedents and consequences in changing behavior
    3) Learning is defined as a change in behavior brought about by experience with virtually no concern for the mental or internal process of thinking.
  • 2) Antecedents come before the behavior and consequences come after the behavior
    3) As behavior happens, a given consequence transforms into an antecedent for the next ABC sequence. Behavior, then, is altered by changes in antecedents, consequences, or both.
  • 2) The kind and timing of the consequence……
    3) Reinforcement strengthens the behavior. Punishment weakens the behavior.
  • Common meaning is reward, but in learning theory it has a specific connotation.
    For example, students who are routinely sent to the principal’s office for misbehaving in class may be getting reinforcement for such behavior. There is probably something about this consequence that is reinforcing for them, even if it doesn’t seem desirable to their teachers. Perhaps the behavior provides needed attention or produces status among fellow students. Behaviorists would argue that repeated misbehavior is being reinforced in some way for that student.
  • 2) Because often teachers unintentionally reinforce misbehavior of students.
  • Therefore, behavior followed by punishment is less likely to be repeated in similar situations in the future.
    3) Type I is direct punishment. Type II is removal punishment.
  • 1b) something is added to suppress behavior . Example: detention, extra work, and lower grades for students
    2b) For example, when parents or teachers remove a student’s privileges. They are removing something that is desired.
  • 2) For example, police car sitting under an overpass or simply along the highway provides an instantaneous cue about the consequences of speeding.
    3) An example of prompting is providing students with a checklist or a “to do list” when the work in pairs as part of peer tutoring. As the students learn the procedures, the checklist is gradually withdrawn. When the students have learned the procedures, no written or oral prompts are needed because they have learned how to react appropriately to the cue of working in pairs.
  • 1 Pro) We can infer whether changes have been made in student’s understanding from behavioral change.
    2 Pro) Such things as positive verbal reinforcement, or that look of “I’m tired of your nonsense” take little time or effort and usually bring about the desired behavior quickly.

    1 Con) Some of our most important goals for students learning involve changes in internal (cognitive, affective) things which cannot be directly observed.
    2 Con) It has its limits. Michael Shayer and Philip Adey made the observation: “In two studies it was found that no evidence of formal thinking capacity could be found in children under the age of 10, no matter how clever they were.”
  • G- applies to variety of situations. Foe example general knowledge about how to read or use a computer is useful in many situations
    DS- relates to a particular task or subject. For example, knowing there are nine innings in a game is specific to the domain of baseball.
    D- says that knowledge can be declared, usually in words, through lectures, books, writing, verbal exchange, mathematical notation, and so on.
    P- is knowing how to do something such as divide fractions or overhaul an air conditioner
    S-r – knowing when and why to apply declarative and procedural knowledge
  • 1Pro) Students are more engaged because they have more ownership over learning
    2Pro) Students gain the ability to apply knowledge and thinking skills in different settings
    3Pro) Students work more collaboratively building social and cooperation skills
    4Pro)
    5Pro) Students become more self-aware through reflection and goal-setting
  • 1) Psychologists have identified this approach to be consistent with behavioral theory that helps improve student learning
    2) Skills such as science facts, math computations, reading vocabulary, and grammar rules.
  • Goals:
    Skills:
    Assessment:
    Quality Assurance and Increase Relevancy
    Thinking:
  • The best approach to teaching reading is a combination of approaches. No single approach is sufficient for any child, nor is any predetermined combination of approaches."
  • Current education research supports a balanced approached to literacy, one that views reading, writing, speaking and listening as interrelated.

×