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Inclusive Design Ah-Ha moments at #opened16

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Inclusive Design, what it is and how you can use it to address gaps in education

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Inclusive Design Ah-Ha moments at #opened16

  1. 1. INCLUSIVE DESIGN THAT AH-HA MOMENT! Jutta Treviranus Jess Mitchell OCAD University, Toronto How many of you consider yourselves designers?
  2. 2. WHAT IS INCLUSIVE DESIGN Inclusive Design is design that considers the full range of human diversity with respect to ability, language, culture, gender, age and other forms of human difference. Stacked, colourful cups https://www.flickr.com/photos/doug88888/2987668742/in/photolist-5y1zQ3-9iioxp-4hGtdR-e86mXv-7S3xLA-oGJ71U-2GKVgd-cqo7RQ- LgBMB-LB3EG-5SZRyN-LBbgF-9GAD7c-6tYNTm-4Ev2tX-4QjDbk-8Vd1QL-gnpzqR-6ZKrmp-rsfoP-teU2X-9q5WPk-9q8YjY-7BF8ob-LBbgP-7EQk6t-dx7TCA-e8bXp5
  3. 3. 3 P R I N C I P L E S O F INCLUSIVE DESIGN 1. recognize diversity and uniqueness 2. use an inclusive process and tools 3. have a broader beneficial impact 3 principles 1. recognize diversity and uniqueness — Empower individuals to express personal needs and preferences 2. use an inclusive process and tools — get experts to make the best solutions — if you’re designing learning materials for 6 year olds who are the experts? use tools to create that do not create barriers to co-create 3. have a broader beneficial impact — Individuals become their own decision-makers and designers of their own experiences breaking down barriers of exclusion and discrimination
  4. 4. 3 P R I N C I P L E S O F INCLUSIVE DESIGN 1. recognize diversity and uniqueness • Let individuals be unique 2. use an inclusive process and tools • Nothing about us without us 3. have a broader beneficial impact • look at the big picture 3 principles 1. recognize diversity and uniqueness — Empower individuals to express personal needs and preferences 2. use an inclusive process and tools — get experts to make the best solutions — if you’re designing learning materials for 6 year olds who are the experts? use tools to create that do not create barriers to co-create 3. have a broader beneficial impact — Individuals become their own decision-makers and designers of their own experiences breaking down barriers of exclusion and discrimination: caution on this one — being invited to the table isn’t enough if you’ve never been there before and have no idea how to participate.
  5. 5. 1. mismatch as design solvable 2. one-size-fits-one 3. design decisions — as exclusion 3 things I want to focus on
  6. 6. DISABILITY Inclusion then is about human difference — one way we describe people who are different is to talk about their difference as a disability. We sometimes hear disability describes as a medical condition — someone is afflicted, they can’t do something — they lack an ability. Stethoscope http://cbsnews1.cbsistatic.com/hub/i/r/2014/01/24/d6bd0d38-cb4a-4411-bd1d-7a5dcc4e319d/thumbnail/620x350/ fa75501812b1d1d699dd40da9648001a/stethoscope.jpg
  7. 7. DISABILITY And it is often associated with the medical model of 4 main categories of disabilities: mobility impaired cognitively impaired hearing impaired seeing impaired But at the IDRC we completely redefine disability. It isn’t a medical condition to us…>>> Four categories of disability:https://www.worknetncc.com/Uploads/Disability_symbols_16.png
  8. 8. MISMATCH Disability is a mismatch between the needs of the individual, their goals, and the learning experience offered Disability is not a personal trait and because it’s so context dependent, it is a relative condition not permanent. Accessibility = the ability of the learning system to match the needs of the individual >>>>> Square peg, round hole: http://wp.production.patheos.com/blogs/adrianwarnock/files/2015/08/3546059144_1b33dfdc0e_o.jpg
  9. 9. DISABILITY IS MISMATCH MIS MAT C H I S SOLVABLE D E S I G N C A N S O LV E M I S M AT C H ALL EXPERIENCE MISMATCH When I’m in the car and I get lost, my navigation system won’t let me easily search (even using voice commands). When I have a passenger in the car with a smartphone we can fire up Google Maps and use it for navigation. Making content available to those with cognitive disabilities often means simplifying the content — you know who else benefits from that? What about the executive 2-pager? In some cases it’s become a 1- pager — they’re busy, they don’t have time or energy to focus. They are cognitively impaired at that moment. I was sitting in a lecture and I got a video from a friend — I wanted to watch it right away (i assure you it was relevant to the lecture) but it had no captions and I had the volume off. Putting earbuds or headphone on would have been too disrespectful so i couldn’t watch it. I wanted to work on this slide deck in the park yesterday — it was so beautiful out — but the sun was shining directly onto my screen making it impossible for me to read my monitor. I can change the brightness and contrast though — this simple solution also helps the sight impaired user who has partial sight but needs slight modifications. Context Ability within the context Needs
  10. 10. 1. mismatch as design solvable 2. one-size-fits-one 3. design decisions — as exclusion 3 things I want to focus on
  11. 11. THE PROBLEM WITH ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL • treats people with different abilities as a homogeneous group • ignore the multiplicity of needs and preferences • marginalizes with one-off solutions for particular populations
  12. 12. THE MAGIC AT THE MARGINS • the edge case and the edge scenario • innovation • benefits the majority • supports the spectrum • resiliency Instead of fearing the edges or trying to forget them we should be focusing on them.
  13. 13. EDG E CASE S “We have clients come to us and say, “Here’s our average customer:”, for instance, “She’s female, she’s 34 years old, she has 2.3 kids…” And we listen politely and say: “Well, that’s great but we don’t care about that person”. What we really need to do to design, is look at the extremes, the weakest, or the person with arthritis, or the athlete, or the strongest or the fastest person. Because if we understand what the extremes are, the middle will take care of itself”. – Dan Formosa, Smart Design, “Objectified”  http://sugoru.com/2013/07/14/designing-for-the-extremes/ They aren’t describing a person. It’s so abstracted and so removed from what a person does, it’s not that functionally useful. In other words, it’s useless. How about instead this is Angela, she’s 74 years old and was a school teacher for 40 years. She taught English literature to high school students (Salinger, Shakespeare, Byron). She loves to read and to garden. Her favourite flower is the lily. Though being on her knees in the garden is painful, Angela spends as much time there as she can. After a long day in the garden she hunkers down with a hot tea and a good book and spends her evening flitting about through Literature masters. On Saturdays Angela’s two granddaughters come over to have a tea party and play in the garden. Angela has a goldfish named Sal. For a great read about how the average isn’t a real person and why we’ve historically come to defer to it so thoroughly, I recommend reading Todd Rose’s book, The End of Average that just came out in February this year. It’s a perspective changer itself.
  14. 14. • Pace, Path, Content, Delivery Method • text, visual, sonification, video… • individual, group, didactic, participatory • Motivation – external, internal, positive, negative • Social support – peer, instructor, other • Degree of structure • Learning Outcome? What is personalization in inclusive spaces?
 It is all of these things — and this is a lot. We have a lot of opportunities to let the individual decide.
  15. 15. ONE SIZE FITS ONE https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/Stafford_livingroom.jpg
  16. 16. ONE-SIZE-FITS-ONE 16 Personalize -­‐ USER  INTERFACES,  CONTENT,  AND  DEVICES!   Adapt  to  me  –  not  me  adapting  to  you!!   Wherever  possible  take  a  one-­‐size-­‐fits-­‐one  approach  —  LET  THE  USER  DECIDE   when  you  can  offer  flexibility  and  customizability  or  personalization  do  it!       examples:   car  dashboard  —  with  digital  i  can  change  units   same  phone,  different  ways  to  organize  the  screen   sit  down  at  someone  else’s  computer  and  everything  is  different:  the  mouse  scrolls  the  other  way,  the  dock  is  somewhere  else,  the  hot  corners  keep  making  your  screen  fly  away.
  17. 17. WHY PERSONALIZE? http:/insideupmc.blogspot.ca http://dc.about.com/od http://www.thejournal.ie http://inhabitat.com/ http://www-­‐03.ibm.com WHO  is  using  WHAT  and  WHERE   E-­‐Z  access  keypad   An  increasingly  digital  world.   Eliminate  barriers  to  access  to   the  web   museum  kiosks,  ticket  machines,  ATMs     public  computer  terminals  (e.g.  library,  school)   Users  and  settings  are  unique  
  18. 18. ONE-SIZE-FITS-ONE • Flexible • Accessible • Meet people where they are FLEXIBLE  (levels  of  complexity)  –  ecosystem  of  tools?  One  adaptable  tool?  Give  user  ability  to  choose  from  multiple  ways  to  interact.  E.g.  keyboard  vs  mouse  interaction,  iphone  provides   multiple  ways  to  take  a  photo   ACCESSIBLE  –  avoiding  assumptions  about  comfort  with  tech,  ability,  environment   MEET  USERS  WHERE  THEY  ARE  ((comfort  level,  environment,  context)  
  19. 19. 1. mismatch as design solvable 2. one-size-fits-one 3. design decisions — as exclusion 3 things I want to focus on
  20. 20. BRILLIANT DECISION? • Mode • Context • Affordances
  21. 21. https://static.pexels.com/photos/1315/stairs-fog-path-entrance.jpg
  22. 22. D E S I G N I D E A S : BR ILLIANT OR EX CLUS IO NARY? • With this brilliant design idea who just got excluded? • Is there a way I can bridge the gap I just created? A way I can solve for the mismatch or avoid it? One way we do this in the digital world is to make it multi-modal - text - audio - video - image avoid hard to read fonts or font sizes create an appropriate level of contrast simulations and visualization provide interesting challenges make targets easy to hit can you use it with the keyboard? be wary of time-based operations keep content structured — semantic content
  23. 23. SCRAPED KNEES, FAILURES, AND MISTAKES •Make mistakes early and fix them •Learn from our mistakes •Get feedback Get to know what works for you by trying things — in a safe way and safe place. You won’t shut out the lights in Cincinnati. It gives us a chance to try things without committing too much or potentially losing too much. And we learn just how important and helpful failure can be! We all strive for perfection, for solutions. First thing you do if someone presents a problem to you —> you try to solve it. Slow down and WAIT. And explore. This is where Innovation happens! 1. Silly Putty — meant to be a synthetic rubber for WWII — there was a rubber shortage because of the war 2. Text Messages — cell phone carriers letting customers know about problems with their network 3. Microplanes were for wood or metal — I use them on orange rinds or horseradish when I cook! Scraped Knees: https://www.flickr.com/photos/theloushe/4630743266/in/photolist-84cLD9-6aJifh-2kUyK-fjxqAu-yA7Bw-hjQKc3-kpzP6x-gKfCM- yA7Br-499dY-4i8wVP-88F5zy-aoQPQc-nKQJQi-f5bAkX-8d7G1D-crYbzb-dSMYUY-hPjrmR-p3SToX-8eeJKQ-p3T4aa-4stR9T-Mnt19-7JnWR-nUuCpS-9JPb8w-awBeAc- rBUPem-7KLPot-8ewzdm-9hkGYk-8qVgNs-2qDqNC-bJLYGg-oLEes2-fhLbKE-GgexGw-oLEfYP-d6pSe-e6Zmjg-9EFqFx-6bKiWZ-e7vMAH-dT5y9B-nmgVY-f4STJ6- cfPSHs-p27npC-aJk6wD
  24. 24. LEARNING EVERMORE •Think broadly •Relaxed attention •Rethinking •Questioning assumptions https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Men_fly_fishing.jpg
  25. 25. CO-DESIGN Avoid  design  decisions  as  exclusion  by  co-­‐design   What  co-­‐design  is  not:   Us  versus  them  –  observing  people   Expecting  others  to  do  the  “work”  of  design   What  co-­‐design  is:   Collaborative   Iterative   Diverse  and  Broad   Blue  Men:  https://www.flickr.com/photos/yuan2003/1796355617/in/ photolist-­‐3JJMWz-­‐8PLu2a-­‐81kpst-­‐8U38eb-­‐8PpkQt-­‐8PtBvS-­‐8X6U3j-­‐8X6U35-­‐4S4YJg-­‐8foVgY-­‐5gSnxx-­‐78JmqH-­‐93jnYo-­‐ dWk7hb-­‐9ad9Pe-­‐7FH6bY-­‐91WSP7-­‐6Lx8wA-­‐vGtnn-­‐exXuEK-­‐9SA9Rx-­‐aPWeJ-­‐77vKw8-­‐dgGDrZ-­‐3Kx1Vx-­‐oVoPYB-­‐5ft8e9-­‐c4zefQ-­‐91WZKG-­‐ hoJ6Lj-­‐4yin56-­‐bBLYiv-­‐hoJ7BN-­‐8n3Cg8-­‐dnkdMw-­‐7ecxTj-­‐72vDN7-­‐FBf6Q-­‐5g7BnW-­‐75uieg-­‐4a4Ad2-­‐67pKFt-­‐5DQz53-­‐9dyrJ6-­‐ac5iB6-­‐
  26. 26. GOAL To co-design inclusive education for diversity— learning that enable a MATCH • Meet people where they are • Allow people to be unique; make learning materials and spaces adapt to those uniquenesses Design  tools  that
  27. 27. What is accessibility? In Universal Design there’s the curb cut — does everyone know what a curb cut is?
  28. 28. What is accessibility? 29 We have examples in the digital world too: 3 uses: 1. in a bar 2. in a gym 3. in bed with a sleeping spouse
  29. 29. ONE-SIZE-FITS-ONE 30 https://www.mavenlink.com/images/blog/mobile_home_screen/04-iphone.png | http://www.flickr.com/photos/scobleizer/4779911251/ -­‐ can’t  take  a  one-­‐size-­‐fits-­‐all  approach  (traditionally  “universal”  design)   when  you  can  offer  flexibility  and  customizability  or  personalization  do  it!       examples:   car  dashboard   same  phone,  different  organization  screen   sit  down  at  someone  else’s  computer  and  everything  is  different:  the  mouse  scrolls  the  other  way,  the  dock  is  somewhere  else,  the  hot  corners  keep  making  your  screen  fly  away.
  30. 30. HOW CAN I DO THIS? • think about the edge cases early and solve for them — MISMATCH • can you let the user decide — ONE-SIZE- FITS-ONE • think about design decisions as excluding rather than solving — BRILLIANT? EXCLUSIONARY?
  31. 31. THANK YOU Email: jtreviranus@ocadu.ca jmitchell@ocadu.ca Twitter: @juttatrevira @jesshmitchell

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