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Teaching Strategies

  1. Teaching Methods and Strategies Prepared by: Jenevel I. Intero
  2. Classification of teaching method Direct Approach Indirect Approach • Makes use of expository strategies • Aimed at mastery of knowledge and skills • Teacher-oriented • Direct transmission of information from teacher • Teacher-controlled • Highly structured • Content-Oriented • Learner is passive, receives ready information from the teacher  Makes use of explanatory strategies  Aimed at generating knowledge from experience  Learner-centered  Students search information with teacher supervision  Learner-controlled  Flexibly organized Experience-oriented  Learner is active in search of information
  3. A. DIRECT INSTRUCTION APPROACH 1. Deductive Method - process of teaching that starts with a rule or general statements that is applied to specific cases/examples. When to use: When the students are asked to test a rule or further develop it, to answer questions or to solve problems by referring to laws, principles and theories.
  4. Steps: I. Statement of the Problem – Teacher tells what the problem is. II. Statement of the Generalization – Recall of rule/ principles/ generalization that may help solve problems identified. III. Apply the rule/ Inferring – looking for the principle/ rule/ generalization that fits the solution of the problem. IV. Verification – Establishing validity using inferences/ materials. Try out the rule using other example.
  5. A. DIRECT INSTRUCTION APPROACH 2. Showing Method/ Direct Method - a teacher-centered strategy that uses teacher explanation and modelling combined with students practice and feedback to teach concepts and skills. Steps: I. Introduction: review of prior learning II. Presentation: explaining the new concept/ modelling the skills. III. Guided practice with necessary feedback: practice exercise s to firm up learned skills. IV. More practice of the skill on concepts learned for retention and transfer.
  6. A. DIRECT INSTRUCTION APPROACH 3. Expository Method/ Didactic/ Lecture Method - telling method where facts, concepts, principles and generalization are stated, presented, defined, interpreted by the teacher and followed by the application or testing of these concepts, principles, and generalization in new examples generated by the students.
  7. When to use:  When there is an immediate need of a relevant information to make the students understand a part in the lesson.  When information is not available and time can be saved by the teacher directly telling it.  When an idea or principle can be learned only by explanation.  When the source material is not available.
  8. Steps: I. Planning  Identifying goals  Diagnosing students background  Structuring activities  Preparing advance organizers II. Implementing  Introduction defining the purpose of the lesson, sharing of objectives and overview to help students see the organization of the lesson.
  9. Presentation -- Defining/explain major ideas - Comprehension monitoring, determining whether or not the student understand concepts and ideas. - integration: exploring, interconnections between important ideas - Review and closure
  10. Steps Expository teaching of Concepts Expository Teaching (Principles and Generalization) Step 1 Teacher presents concepts and definition. Teacher states rules, generalization, principles Step 2 Teacher presents and links concepts with related higher concepts. Teacher explains concepts with in a principle or generalization Step 3 Teacher presents positive and negative example. Teacher presents positive and negative examples Step 4 Students classify examples as either positive or negative. Students classify and explain examples, either positive or negative Step 5 Students provide additional examples Students provide additional examples.
  11. Techniques: 1. Outlining technique - a cognitive framework in which subject matter is presented from broad topic to sub-topics. Hierarchy of ideas developed from complex to simple. 2. Component technique - Organization of ideas from small to large. It involves the process of synthesis. 3. Sequential technique - the most effective cognitive framework around which the whole lecture revolves. Logical presentation of ideas.
  12. 4. Relevance technique - presentation of central thought or the singular idea. - giving all impression about this idea - separating the correct impression from the incorrect - concentrating the lecture on the explanation of the correct impressions. 5. Transitional technique - presents an in-depth treatment of particular topic - it aims to expand and provide different but acceptable perspective about the subject of the lecture.
  13. A. DIRECT INSTRUCTION APPROACH 4. Demonstration Method - refers to tell and show method. It is usually performed by a teacher or trained students while the rest of the class become observer. When to use:  when process is significant but apparatus needed is limited.  when the school lacks facilities for every students.  When equipment is sophisticated, expensive and dangerous.  When lesson requires skill in investigative procedure or technical knowhow.
  14. Steps: I. Preparation  Motivation  Identify objectives/ problems/ procedure II. Explanation of Concepts, Principles, Process, theory, etc. III. Demonstration of Concepts, process by the teacher while students closely observe IV. Discussion of students observation V. Verification/ justification/ conclusion
  15. Techniques: 1. Teacher-directed technique - Teacher does the demonstration especially when there is only one set of material available, making it possible for students to work on, when the activity requires the handling of harmful materials and delicate, fragile equipment. 2. Student-directed - The most capable students demonstrate with the teacher’s guidance while others are observing 3. Teacher-student directed - Teacher does the demonstration with the students handling the materials over the teacher. 4. Resource speaker-directed - An invited speaker act as a demonstrating teacher.
  16. A. DIRECT INSTRUCTION APPROACH 5. Concept Teaching Method - a methodology that help the students learn how to get and identify facts and information, help them identify the concepts and the sub-concepts and formulate sub generalization, stresses cognitive learning acquisition of knowledge, categorization of content. The teacher help the learners gather sufficient date to enable them to form generalization.
  17. 1. Concept Attainment Focuses on teaching students the concepts that the teacher has selected for study. Steps: - introduce the concept by name - present example - introduce non-example - present a mixture of example and non-example and ask question which are the correct examples - ask students to define the concepts - ask the students to find other examples of the concept
  18. 2. Concept Formation Method Focuses on the process of concept development/ thinking skills development Steps: - Teacher provides a stimulus in the form of a question or problem - pupils provide a number of answer and categorize them - pupils label the categorized responses
  19. A. DIRECT INSTRUCTION APPROACH 6. Reporting Method - aims to provide students with information in a direct and uninterrupted manner. Technique: 1. Unit or Morrisonian - process of taking the contents of a particular subject as a big blocks and not as isolated and fragmentary bits of information - aims to approach topics as organized and integrated body showing relevance and cognitive relationship - the teacher assign the unit/ chapter as the class activity.
  20. Steps: a. Exploration – teacher discover the prior knowledge / experiences of the students through asking questions, giving tests, or in discussion about the unit to eliminate repetitions of subject matter already learned. b. Presentation – aims to give the students a birds-eye view of the entire unit. It could be done through lectures, demonstration, maps, pictures, stories, outlines, models, blackboard, exercise, etc. c. Assimilation – the students absorb what have been presented by the teacher , the teacher check the study habits of the students – asking question. It is an opportunity for the students to develop the study habits such as outlining, use of references materials, getting the gist of paragraphs. d. Organization – cooperative outlining. It gives an opportunity for the teachers to train the pupils in outlining. The children learn to organize their thoughts. e. Recitation – the students presents their report to the whole class.
  21. Technique: 2. Individual or Group Technique 3. Reading or Story Telling – reading from books or to narrate their own experiences in relation to the given topic. 4. Symposium – entails a lot of preparation and involves certain complexity in the actual implementation. More formal I its setting in which the students prepare in advance discussion points representing views of different people. 5. Schematic technique – it makes use of hardware’s of instruction. The reporter uses the instructional technology. These products of instructional technology should be used as means rather than the end of teaching.
  22. The audio-visual devices serve several purposes during the reporting like making an interesting vivid and well done illustration of an idea. Substantiating points, sustaining the interest of the audience in the report and ensuring permanency in learning.