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Chapter 8 Persuasion

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Chapter 8 Persuasion

  1. 1. Chapter 8: Persuasion Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  2. 2. Introduction Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  3. 3. Consider your audience’s three broader goals: <ul><ul><li>security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal and professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul></ul>Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  4. 4. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  5. 5. Work within eight constraints: <ul><ul><li>ethical constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legal constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>political constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>informational constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personnel constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>financial constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>format and tone constraints </li></ul></ul>Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  6. 6. Ethical Constraints Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  7. 7. Ethical Compass of BP Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  8. 8. Legal Constraints Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  9. 9. Political Constraints Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  10. 10. Informational Constraints Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  11. 11. Personnel Constraints Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  12. 12. Time Constraints Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  13. 13. Financial Constraints Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  14. 14. Format and Tone Constraints Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  15. 15. Humor and Fear Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  16. 16. Anger Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  17. 17. Fear & Realism Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  18. 18. Follow five steps to craft a persuasive argument: <ul><ul><li>Identify the elements of a persuasive argument. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the right kinds of evidence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider opposing viewpoints. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to emotions responsibly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide where to present the claim. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  19. 19. Understand the three elements of your argument : <ul><ul><li>the claim: the idea you are communicating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the evidence: the facts and judgments that support your claim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the reasoning: the logic that you use to derive the claim from the evidence </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Claims Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  21. 21. Use the right kinds of evidence: <ul><ul><li>“ commonsense” arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>numerical data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expert testimony </li></ul></ul>Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  22. 22. You’re the Daddy! Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  23. 23. Most Effective Evidence: Numerical/Scientific Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  24. 24. Consider three ways of meeting possible objections to your argument: <ul><li>Show that the opposing argument is based on illogical reasoning or on inaccurate or incomplete facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Show that the opposing argument is valid but less powerful than your own. </li></ul><ul><li>Show that there may be a way to reconcile the two arguments. </li></ul>Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  25. 25. Opposing Arguments Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  26. 26. Avoid ten common logical fallacies: <ul><li>ad hominem attack, or argument against the speaker </li></ul><ul><li>argument from ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>appeal to pity </li></ul><ul><li>argument from authority </li></ul><ul><li>circular argument, or begging the question </li></ul>Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  27. 27. Avoid ten common logical fallacies (cont.): <ul><li>either-or argument </li></ul><ul><li>ad populum , or the bandwagon argument </li></ul><ul><li>hasty generalization, or inadequate sampling </li></ul><ul><li>post-hoc reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>oversimplifying </li></ul>Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  28. 28. Demonstrate four characteristics in creating a professional persona: <ul><li>cooperativeness </li></ul><ul><li>moderation </li></ul><ul><li>fair-mindedness </li></ul><ul><li>modesty </li></ul>Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  29. 29. Creating a Professional Persona Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's

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