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Animal Kingdom

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Kingdom animalia
Kingdom animalia
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Animal Kingdom

  1. 1. T- 1-855-694-8886 Email- info@iTutor.com By iTutor.com
  2. 2. What is an animal?  Kingdom Animalia divided into two major groups: – invertebrates – vertebrates Worm Snail Cockroach  An invertebrate is an animal without a backbone.  About 98 percent of all animals are invertebrates. Invertebrate
  3. 3. Vertebrates  Only about two percent of all animals are vertebrates which belong to the Phylum Chordata.  Vertebrates include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. BirdFrog Rat Animals share the following characteristics: 1. Animals are multi cellular and have eukaryotic cells. 2. Animal cells lack cell walls. 3. Animals have a period of embryonic development. 4. Animals are consumers. 5. Animals can move. 6. Most animals have muscle and nervous tissue. 7. Animals are diploid.
  4. 4.  Animals have different levels of organization.  Some animals consist of cells with a few tissue layers.  Others are complex with organ systems.  All animals have sex cells that are haploid and are produced by meiosis.  All animal life cycles consist of haploid and diploid cell development.
  5. 5. Animal body plan and Symmetry  The arrangement of an animal’s body parts is called its symmetry.  Animals that do not have an orderly body plan, like sponges, are called asymmetrical.  Radial symmetry means that the body parts are arranged in a circle around a central point.  In bilateral symmetry, the body consists of two similar halves.
  6. 6.  The gut is the digestive tract.  It enables an animal to digest food outside of its cells.  In animals without a gut (like sponges), food is digested inside of their cells.  Complex animals also have a body cavity that holds the gut and other organs.  The body cavity provides an open space for organs to grow and function.
  7. 7.  As animals evolved and became more complex, they developed organ systems to perform basic functions. Organ Systems  Some important organ systems are: – Skeletal – Muscular – Circulatory – Digestive – Nervous – Reproductive  Sponges belong to the Phylum Porifera (“pore bearing.”)  They are asymmetrical and do not have a body cavity. Sponges
  8. 8.  Adult sponges do not move around.  They feed by pulling water into the pores of their bodies and filtering out food particles.  They have specialized collar cells that move water and collect and digest food. Cnidarians  The Phylum Cnidarians includes jellyfish, coral, sea anemones, and hydra.  They have radial symmetry and do not have a body cavity.  Cnidarians have differentiated cells that are organized into two layers of tissues and nerves that form a network.  Many cnidarians have specialized stinging cells to capture food or defend themselves.
  9. 9. Flatworms  Planarians belong to the Phylum Platy helminthes—the flatworms.  Flatworms are the simplest animals having bilateral symmetry.  They have a sac-like gut but no body cavity.  Planarians secrete digestive enzymes onto their food and suck the food particles through an organ called a pharynx.  They digest food in a gastro vascular cavity. Roundworms  Members of the Phylum Nematode are called roundworms.  Roundworms are the simplest animals with a complete gut that runs from mouth to anus.
  10. 10. Annelids  Earthworms belong to the Phylum Annelida.  All annelids have bodies that are divided into individual segments.  Annelids have bilateral symmetry and a true body cavity.
  11. 11. Mollusks  Snails, clams, and squids are all members of the Phylum Mollusca.  Mollusks have bilateral symmetry and a true body cavity.  The body of a mollusk typically has a foot, gut, mantle, and shell. Body of a mollusk
  12. 12. Mollusks  Clams and their relatives have a simple nervous system with nerve cords and a few ganglia.  Octopi and their relatives have a more advanced nervous system.  An octopus has a well-developed brain and eyes.  Most mollusks have a sense of touch and taste. Arthropods  The Phylum Arthropod includes insects, spiders, and crustaceans such as lobsters and crabs.  Arthropods have segmented bodies, jointed limbs, an exoskeleton, and well-developed organ systems.  Like annelids, arthropod bodies are segmented.  Some segments form three distinct regions: a head, a thorax, and an abdomen.
  13. 13. Echinoderms  The Phylum Echinodermata (meaning “spiny skin”) includes starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers.  Echinoderms have radial symmetry, a body cavity, an internal skeleton, and spiny skin.  Echinoderms have a specialized water vascular system.  The water vascular system is a network of fluid-filled canals connected to hundreds of tiny, tube-like feet.  The water vascular system helps them move and capture food.
  14. 14. Vertebrate structure and function  Humans and sea squirts are members of the Phylum Chordata (called chordates).  All chordates have a structure called a notochord.  A notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped structure found in the embryos of all chordates. Characteristics of vertebrates  All vertebrates have a backbone and a skull.  The backbone is a segmented column of interlocking bones called vertebrae.  All vertebrates have an internal skeleton for support, protection, and a place for muscles to be attached.  The bones and muscles of vertebrates work together to provide a structural framework for movement.
  15. 15.  All vertebrates have a body cavity that holds the organ systems. – The thoracic cavity holds the heart and the lungs of air-breathing vertebrates. – The abdominal cavity holds the digestive organs including the stomach, intestines, and liver. Vertebrate organs are made of four types of tissues  An organ is a group of tissues that function together.  Vertebrate organs are made of four types of tissues: – nervous – epithelial – connective – muscle
  16. 16. Fish  Fish are exothermic, aquatic vertebrates with fins, gills, and a streamlined body.  They were the first vertebrates, and evolved about 500 million years ago.  There are three classes of fish living today. – jawless fish – cartilaginous fish – bony fish
  17. 17. Amphibians  Amphibians are ectothermic, smooth-skinned vertebrates, such as frogs and salamanders, that usually hatch as an aquatic larva with gills. Birds  Birds are endothermic, egg- laying vertebrates with forelimbs modified to form wings.  They have many adaptations for flight such as feathers, wings, hollow bones, and air sacs.
  18. 18.  Mammals are endothermic vertebrates that have mammary glands.  Mammary glands are organs that produce a nutritious fluid called milk. Mammals  Mammals evolved from a now-extinct group of reptiles called therapsids.  The earliest true mammals appeared over 200 million years ago.
  19. 19. The end Call us for more Information: www.iTutor.com 1-855-694-8886 Visit

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