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Plant Parts

  1. 1. Parts of the Plant and Their Functions By: Ita Rodríguez 3rd Grade
  2. 2. Importance of plants • Without plants life on earth would not exist
  3. 3. Plants • Primary source of food for people and animals • Produce oxygen • Help keep us cool • Renew (filter) the air
  4. 4. Plants • Slow wind speed • Provide a home for wildlife • Beautify surroundings • Perfume the air • Provide building materials and fuel
  5. 5. Plants • Need nutrients • Soil • Water • Sunlight
  6. 6. Plant Photosynethesis • Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make food (sugar or glucose) – Sunlight provides energy – The air provides carbon dioxide – Nutrients and water are absorbed by the roots – Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast in the leaves – Sugars are made as food for the plant and oxygen is released Carbon dioxide enters the leaves through stomata (tiny holes) in the leaves. Oxygen leaves the same way.
  7. 7. Soil Nutrients Nitrogen – growth, photosynthesis Phosphorus – photosynthesis, flowering Potassium – build proteins, prevent disease Calcium – strong cells Magnesium – photosynthesis Sulfur - build proteins and produce food
  8. 8. Parts of a Plant • Four basic parts – leaves – stems – roots – flowers
  9. 9. Leaves • Definition: flattened outgrowth of stem • Used for: photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration • Produces food used by the plant and also store it for later use
  10. 10. Shape and Size of Leaves • Vary among plants • Used for identification of plants
  11. 11. Leaves: Their Basic Parts •Leaf Base •Petiole •Lamina (blade) •Midrib •Veins •Margins (edges)
  13. 13. Leaf Base •Part attached to the stem or branch •Protects a bud in its axil
  14. 14. Petiole • Part of leaf that connects the lamina with the stem (leaf stalk) •Some time a leaf may not have a petiole, such leaves are called – Sessile
  15. 15. Lamina (blade) •The flat, expended, and broad part of leaf •Most important part of the leaf (food manufacturer) • Has veins • Forms structural framework of the leaf
  16. 16. Midrib • Large center vein from which all other leaf veins extend
  17. 17. Veins • Systems of tubes (xylem and phloem) for the transport of nutrients and water – Xylem: ducts that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf – Phloem: ducts that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose, produced by photosynthesis in the leaf, out of the leaf
  18. 18. Venation Types Netted or Reticulate Venation
  19. 19. Margins • Edges of leaves • Assists in plant identification
  20. 20. Leaf Arrangement • Alternate • Opposite • Whorled – arranged in a circle around the stem
  21. 21. Leaf Types • Simple leaf: undivided blade with a single axillary bud at the base of its petiole
  22. 22. Leaf Types • Compound leaf: blade divided into leaflets has a single bud at the base of its petiole – pinnate -- palmate
  23. 23. Leaf Types • Peltate leaves: petioles that are attached to the middle of the blade • Perfoliate leaves: sessile leaves that surround and are pierced by stems
  24. 24. Specialized or Modified Leaves • Cotyledons • Tendrils • Shade leaves • Drought-resistant leaves • Prickles and thorn • Storage leaves • Reproductive leaves • Insect-trapping leaves • Bracts • Window leaves • Flower pot leaves
  25. 25. Cotyledons or “Seed Leaves” •First leaves produced by a germinating seed •Often contains a store of food to help the seedling become established
  26. 26. Tendrils Garden Pea •Leaflets are reduced in size •Allows plant to cling to other objects
  27. 27. Leaves: Needles and Spines Drought Resistant leaves
  28. 28. Leaves: Colorful Bracts Petal-like leaves
  29. 29. Internal Leaf Structure • Epidermis –skin of the leaf –single layer of cells –protects leaf from loss of too much moisture
  30. 30. Internal Leaf Structure
  31. 31. Stoma • Small hole • Opened and closed by 2 guard cells • Allows the plant to breathe and transpire – gives off moisture open closed
  32. 32. Stoma Function: gas exchange in the leaf Guard oxygen cell When a plant is photosynthesising Carbon dioxide
  33. 33. Leaf Cell (Palisade)
  34. 34. Chloroplasts • Contains chlorophyll • Located inside the food making cells
  35. 35. Photosynthesis • Process by which CO2 and H2O in the presence of sunlight are converted to sugar and oxygen • This makes the plants' food
  36. 36. Respiration • Plants respire 24 hours a day • They consume O2 and nutrients and give off CO2 and water
  37. 37. Stems • Have two main functions –movement of water and minerals from the roots upward –movement of manufactured food down
  38. 38. Stem Functions • Support of leaves and reproductive structures
  39. 39. Stem Functions • Used for food storage and reproduction of plants involving cuttings • Green stems manufacture food just as leaves do
  40. 40. External Stem Structure • Lenticels: breathing pores • Bud scale scars: indicate where terminal bud has been located previous year
  41. 41. Leaf Scars • Show where leaf was attached • Distance between the two represents one year of growth
  42. 42. Internal Stem Structure • Phloem- bark, carries manufactured foods down • Xylem- wood, carries water and minerals up • Cambium- separates the 2 and produces all new cells
  43. 43. Roots • Underground or above ground • Functions: – anchor plant and hold upright – absorb water and minerals form soil and conduct to stem – store food
  44. 44. External • Root Cap – produces new cells – protects roots as they push through soil • Root Hair – increases surface area of roots – facilitate the absorption of water and nutrients
  45. 45. Root Structure • Internal – similar to stems – older roots have xylem, phloem and cambian
  46. 46. Type of Root Systems • Fibrous Roots: – easier transplanting – shorter, smaller, more compact Examples of plants with this root system are  Banana  Coconut  Rice  Corn  Sugar Cane All grasses
  47. 47. Type of Root Systems • Tap Roots: – large central roots with shorter, branching roots Examples of plants with this root system are Mango Avocado Carrots Tomatoes Peppers
  48. 48. Type of Root Systems • Aerial Roots: – hang down in mid-air and absorb water from rainfall Examples of plants with this root system are Some mangroves Wild Pine Orchids
  49. 49. Specialized Root Systems • Stilt Roots: – grow down from lateral branches, branching in the soil
  50. 50. Specialized Root Systems • Adventitious Roots: – Grow from unusual places on plants such as stems, leaves and even fruits
  51. 51. Specialized Root Systems • Stilt Roots: – grow down from lateral branches, branching in the soil
  52. 52. Flowers • Definition: the seed-bearing part of a plant, consisting of reproductive organs (stamens and carpels) that are typically surrounded by a brightly colored corolla (petals) and a green calyx (sepals) • Vary in size, shape, and colors • Flowering plants are called angiosperms
  53. 53. Flower Structure • Petals • Stamen and pistil: reproductive organs • Anther and ovary • Calyx (sepal): green leaf-like part that covers and protects bud before opening
  54. 54. Petals • Are actually leaves • Usually bright colors to attract pollinating insects
  55. 55. Stamen • Stamens –male part of flower – has two parts 1.filament 2.anther Anther Filament
  56. 56. Pistil • Stamens – female part of flower – has three parts 1.stigma 2.style 3.ovary
  57. 57. Anther • Anther: sac-like structure on top of filament, contains pollen
  58. 58. Ovary • Egg cells develop here • Grows to become fruit or seedcoat
  59. 59. Animals: A Simbiotic Relationship • Pollination: color of flower attracts insects to fertilize flower – beginning of fruit and seed formation • Fruits and seed are attractive to birds who eat and spread seeds – reproduces plant – some seeds carried on animals coats
  60. 60. Types of Flowers • Complete contains 4 main parts • Incomplete does not have all 4 main parts
  61. 61. Flower Classification • Monoecious – stamens and pistils are found in separate flowers on the same plant – ex: Corn
  62. 62. Flower Classification • Dioecious – stamens and pistils are found in separate flowers on separate plant – ex: Holly
  63. 63. Gymnosperms • Group of non-flowering, seed-producing plants: – conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and Gnetales – comes from the Greek word gymnospermos, meaning "naked seeds" – seeds develop either on the surface of scales or leaves, often modified to form cones, or at the end of short stalks
  64. 64. Pteridophyta • Primitive plant • Do not produce flowers or seeds • Reproduce by spores • Have xylem and phloem (making them vascular plants) • Have stems, leaves, and roots
  65. 65. SSeeeeddss A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food
  66. 66. EExxtteerrnnaall SSeeeedd SSttrruuccttuurree Seed Coat
  67. 67. SSeeeedd CCooaatt TTeexxttuurree • Cactus seed under a powerful microscope
  68. 68. IInntteerrnnaall SSeeeedd SSttrruuccttuurree
  69. 69. Different Types of Seeds
  70. 70. GGEERRMMIINNAATTIIOONN Steps: • Seed coat breaks • Radicle becomes root • Hypocotyl and epicotyl become the stem • First leaves grow and photosynthesis begins First leaves Watch the following video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oYzXToyEzBU
  71. 71. LLiiffee CCyyccllee
  72. 72. THE END