Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Smart	City	Solution	and	Implementation
AUST	Summer	Course	2016
Chapter	1	:		World	challenges	&	Role	
of	the	City
Professor...
Q1	:	Major	world	challenges?
Q2	:	Role	of	the	City	?	
2	Questions
1. World	population	growth
2. Natural	resources
3. Pollution
4. Urbanisation
5. Socio-economic	challenges
6. Sustainabilit...
1.	World	Population	Growth	
UN		High
UN		Medium
UN		Low
10	Billions
16	Billions
6	Billions
World	Population	Growth
Consequences	of	the	population	growth	
Increase	demand	for:
• Natural	resources	(Energy,	water,	raw	materials…)
• Food
• C...
Increase	demand	for	services:
- Education,	
- Health,	
- Transportation
- Culture,	Entertainment,
- Customized	services	(o...
1. World	population	growth
2. Natural	resources
3. Pollution
4. Urbanisation
5. Socio-economic	challenges
6. Sustainabilit...
Resources	:
• Water
• Energy
• Air	
• Raw	materials
2.	Natural	resources
Availability	to	consumers
• Quantity
• Quality	
• Transport	/	Logistic
• Accessibility		(poverty)
2.	Natural	resources
Major	menaces	
• World	population	growth
• Limited	resources	
• Over	exploitation	
2.	Protection	of	natural	resources
• Po...
Energy	challenges
OECD	:	Organization	for	Economic	Co-operation	and	Development
OECD		35	members
Energy	supply	Security
Other	blackout	:
• Italy	(2003):	
$	55	billions
• Indonesia	(2005)
$	100	billions
US	Blackout	(2003...
http://www.forbes.com/sites/williampentland/2013/08/30/blackout-risk-tool-puts-price-tag-on-power-reliability/
“Our	grids	...
Water	Challenges	stress	evolution
Source:	Le	Monde	diplomatique
(%	Water	withdrawal	of	the	total	available	water)
Water	st...
Lack	of	infrastructures:
1	billion	of	the	world	population	do	not	have	access	
to	drinking	water	service		(health	risk,..)...
Water	Chalenges
Lack	of	infrastructures:
2.4	billion	of	the	world	population	do	not	have	access	
to	sewage	water	service		...
Water	leakage	:
• 20%	of	the	water	supply	
• in	some	cities	about	40%
1. World	population	growth
2. Protection	of	natural	resources
3. Pollution
4. Urbanisation
5. Socio-economic	challenges
6....
Pollution
- Air
- Water
- Soils	
3.	Pollution
Origin:
- Buildings	
- Transport
- Industry	
- Agriculture
3.	Pollution
Menaces:
• Health
• Life	quality	
• Biodiversity
• Climate	change/Global	Warming
Air	pollution
Buildings,	Transport,	industry
Air	pollution	map Population	concentration	
map
Source:	USGCRP	(2009)
Greenhouse	gas	emission
Air	pollution	impact
Kills		7		millions	/	year
Economic	cost:		Europe (2009)	:		€ 170	billion
Soil	and	water	pollution	
Industrial	activity	- Brownfields
France	:	Brownfield	repartition
1. World	population	growth
2. Protection	of	natural	resources
3. Pollution
4. Urbanisation
5. Socio-economic	challenges
6....
4.	Urbanisation	
Urban	planning
- City	Design	(spatial	organization)
- Infrastructures
- Public	space
- Housing
Consequenc...
4.	Urbanisation	
Challenges	:
• Population	Growth	(huge	metropolis)
• Increase	demand	for	quality	of	life	(services,	
publ...
Slums	issue
Mumbai’s	Slum
More	than	one	million
Neza-Chalco-Itza,		Mexico	City,	
4 Million
Slums	issue
The	slum	population	is	projected	to	increase	from	780	
million	(in	2000)to	somewhere	between	900	and	1,	500	
m...
1. World	population	growth
2. Protection	of	natural	resources
3. Pollution
4. Urbanisation
5. Socio-economic	challenges
6....
United	Nation
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_issues_in_Germany#The_Hood
Absolute	poverty	(World	Bank):
People	living	with	less	than	$1.25	per	day.
Measured	in	international	dollars,	adjusted	for...
Absolute	poverty		evolution
Poverty
%	of	the	world	population	by	level	of	income
Globalization,	the	free	market
Unemployment
Labor	costs	:	operator	Hour	
25$
1	$
Unemployment	rate	in	Europe	(2013)
Unemployment	rate	in	Europe	(2015)		
Eurostat for September 2015 –
http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/europpblog/2015/11/09/investing-...
Unemployment	
Consequences	on
• Economy
• Social	cohesion
• prosperity
• Political	stability
Age	dependency	ratio	(%)	=	
Population	ageing	
Lebanon	:	?
People	older	than	64	or	less	than	15	years	old
People	between	1...
http://www.indexmundi.com/lebanon/demographics_profile.html
Population	ageing	
Challenges	
• Retirement	funding
• Health	and	social	care
• Customized	services
1. World	population	growth
2. Protection	of	natural	resources
3. Pollution
4. Urbanisation
5. Socio-economic	challenges
6....
• Spatial	and	time	scales
• Environmental,	social	and	economic	
interaction
6.	Sustainability	issue
Spatial	scale
Household
World
Interaction
Life	
Quality
Time
Future	generation
Time	scale
1
2
3
Sustainability:
Environmental,	social	and	economic	interaction
Video :	
A1	Urbanization and	the	evolution of	cities across 10,000	years - Vance	Kite
A2	Human Role in	Climate Change
A3	N...
Q&	:	Major	world	challenges?
Q2	:	Role	of	the	City	?	
2	Questions
• High	concentration	of	the	world		population
• Concentration	of	the	economic	activity
• High	energy	consumption
• High	po...
Concentration	of	the	world	population
• 55%	of	the	World	
population	
• France	(	>	80%)
•Lebanon	85%
•2050	:	70	of	the	Wor...
By	2030	:
• 400,000	km2	will	be	constructed	for	urban	
use	(doubling	the	world’s	built	urban	area)
• Nearly	2 billion	new	...
Cities	with	more	than	1	millions	inhabitants
Concentration in large cities
The	light	Map
Concentration in large cities
In	the	close		future,	cites	with	more	
than	50	millions	inhabitants
• High	concentration	of	the	world		
population
• Concentration	of	the	economic	activity
• High	energy	consumption
• High	p...
The	City	:
• 70%	of	the	world	GDP	…
• 600	metropolis	generate	60%	of	the	world		GDP
• 95%	of	the	population	growth	in	the	...
GDP	of	major	Cities	(billion	$)
Lebanon	GDP
• High	concentration	of	the	world		
population
• Concentration	of	the	economic	activity
• High	energy	consumption
• High	p...
The	City	:
• 70%	of	the	total	energy	consumption
• 75%	of	the	electrical	energy	consumption	
Energy	consumption
Etats	Unis
New	York
Buildings	:	41	%
Transport	:	30%
Industry	:	29%
Buildings	:	76	%
Transport	:	24	%
Transport
Industry
Buildings
Tokyo
(2005)
Mexico
(2006)
London	
(1999)
Shanghai	
(2007)
Urban	Transport Time	lost		at	rush	hour	
(minutes	/hour)
Transport	Challenges
• Urbanization
• Population	growth
• Lack	of	infrastructures	
• Lack	of	public	transportation
• Manag...
Energy	consumption	- urban	densification
Smart	Stockholm:		Reduce	Transport	Congestion
2005	– 2006:
Traffic	reduction	:	18%
CO2	Reduction	:	14-18	%
• High	concentration	of	the	world		
population
• Concentration	of	the	economic	activity
• High	energy	consumption
• High	p...
The	City	:	80%	 of	the	greenhouse	emission
Pollution	emission	
London
Paris
Buildings	:	50%
Transport	32%
North	of	France	:	48%	from	the	industry,	17%	transport	
France	:	20%	from	the	industry,	26%	from	transport		
Huge variatio...
Targets	2030	:
• Cut	greenhouse	gases	by	at	least	40%		
(reference	1990)
• Renewable	energy	27%
• Energy	efficiency	improv...
• High	concentration	of	the	world		
population
• Concentration	of	the	economic	activity
• High	energy	consumption
• High	p...
High	risk	to	disasters	
Urban	population	subjected	to	natural	disasters	:
• Flood	:	379	millions	
• Earthquakes	:	283	Mill...
Flood	Risk	(380		millions)
Earthquake	Risk	(283		millions)
Storms	Risk	(157	millions)
Conclusion
• Huge	increase	in	the	population,	mainly	in	
developing	countries,	in	urban	area
• Increase	pressure	on	natura...
Conclusion
In	developed	countries
- Ageing	infrastructures
- Ageing	population
- “Economic	crisis”
Conclusion
Cities	is	the	center	of	the	world	challenges,	
They	should	afford	for	the	
– Increase	demand	for	services
– Inc...
Conclusion
How	to	do	?
Could	the	Smart	City		be	a	« the »	Solution	?
Response	:	Next	chapters
VIDEOS	
B1		Why are	cities so important	in	assessing global	energy?
B2	Mexico	City's Urban Sprawl - copie
B3	Sydney	Scheme...
Thank you
Smart City AUST Summer Course_Lecture1 World Challenges_summer2016
Smart City AUST Summer Course_Lecture1 World Challenges_summer2016
Smart City AUST Summer Course_Lecture1 World Challenges_summer2016
Smart City AUST Summer Course_Lecture1 World Challenges_summer2016
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

Smart City AUST Summer Course_Lecture1 World Challenges_summer2016

919 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

The first lecture of the Smart City Summer Course at AUST (2016) presents the main world challenges concerning the environment, the economy and the society as well as the role of the city in these challenges. It aims at introducing why we have to focus on the city and on the role of the Smart City Concept to meet the city challenges, the world challenges.

Veröffentlicht in: Bildung
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier

Smart City AUST Summer Course_Lecture1 World Challenges_summer2016

  1. 1. Smart City Solution and Implementation AUST Summer Course 2016 Chapter 1 : World challenges & Role of the City Professor Isam SHAHROUR Isam.shahrour@univ-lille1.fr
  2. 2. Q1 : Major world challenges? Q2 : Role of the City ? 2 Questions
  3. 3. 1. World population growth 2. Natural resources 3. Pollution 4. Urbanisation 5. Socio-economic challenges 6. Sustainability Major world challenges
  4. 4. 1. World Population Growth UN High UN Medium UN Low 10 Billions 16 Billions 6 Billions
  5. 5. World Population Growth
  6. 6. Consequences of the population growth Increase demand for: • Natural resources (Energy, water, raw materials…) • Food • Constructions (housing, services, industry,…) • Infrastructures (roads, energy, water, communication, municipal wastes,..)
  7. 7. Increase demand for services: - Education, - Health, - Transportation - Culture, Entertainment, - Customized services (old people,..) Consequences of the population growth
  8. 8. 1. World population growth 2. Natural resources 3. Pollution 4. Urbanisation 5. Socio-economic challenges 6. Sustainability Major world challenges
  9. 9. Resources : • Water • Energy • Air • Raw materials 2. Natural resources
  10. 10. Availability to consumers • Quantity • Quality • Transport / Logistic • Accessibility (poverty) 2. Natural resources
  11. 11. Major menaces • World population growth • Limited resources • Over exploitation 2. Protection of natural resources • Pollution • Provision security
  12. 12. Energy challenges OECD : Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
  13. 13. OECD 35 members
  14. 14. Energy supply Security Other blackout : • Italy (2003): $ 55 billions • Indonesia (2005) $ 100 billions US Blackout (2003) • 50 Million people • 24 hours for full recovery • Cost: $6 to $10 billion
  15. 15. http://www.forbes.com/sites/williampentland/2013/08/30/blackout-risk-tool-puts-price-tag-on-power-reliability/ “Our grids are old and our equipment is aging,” said Robin Luo, vice president and blackout model project manager at Hartford Steam Boiler. US, the yearly cost of electrical outages = $ 150B
  16. 16. Water Challenges stress evolution Source: Le Monde diplomatique (% Water withdrawal of the total available water) Water stress
  17. 17. Lack of infrastructures: 1 billion of the world population do not have access to drinking water service (health risk,..) Water Chalenges
  18. 18. Water Chalenges Lack of infrastructures: 2.4 billion of the world population do not have access to sewage water service (health and flood risks,..)
  19. 19. Water leakage : • 20% of the water supply • in some cities about 40%
  20. 20. 1. World population growth 2. Protection of natural resources 3. Pollution 4. Urbanisation 5. Socio-economic challenges 6. Sustainability Major world challenges
  21. 21. Pollution - Air - Water - Soils 3. Pollution Origin: - Buildings - Transport - Industry - Agriculture
  22. 22. 3. Pollution Menaces: • Health • Life quality • Biodiversity • Climate change/Global Warming
  23. 23. Air pollution Buildings, Transport, industry Air pollution map Population concentration map
  24. 24. Source: USGCRP (2009) Greenhouse gas emission
  25. 25. Air pollution impact Kills 7 millions / year Economic cost: Europe (2009) : € 170 billion
  26. 26. Soil and water pollution Industrial activity - Brownfields
  27. 27. France : Brownfield repartition
  28. 28. 1. World population growth 2. Protection of natural resources 3. Pollution 4. Urbanisation 5. Socio-economic challenges 6. Sustainability Major world challenges
  29. 29. 4. Urbanisation Urban planning - City Design (spatial organization) - Infrastructures - Public space - Housing Consequences : - Quality of Life Attractiveness - Social stability - Economic activity - Slums
  30. 30. 4. Urbanisation Challenges : • Population Growth (huge metropolis) • Increase demand for quality of life (services, public space,..) • Transport congestion (new urban and social models) • Opportunities offered by the digital and social innovations
  31. 31. Slums issue Mumbai’s Slum More than one million Neza-Chalco-Itza, Mexico City, 4 Million
  32. 32. Slums issue The slum population is projected to increase from 780 million (in 2000)to somewhere between 900 and 1, 500 million (in 2020). What to do ?
  33. 33. 1. World population growth 2. Protection of natural resources 3. Pollution 4. Urbanisation 5. Socio-economic challenges 6. Sustainability Major world challenges
  34. 34. United Nation
  35. 35. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_issues_in_Germany#The_Hood
  36. 36. Absolute poverty (World Bank): People living with less than $1.25 per day. Measured in international dollars, adjusted for: • Price level in the country (PPP adjustment) • Price changes over time. Poverty
  37. 37. Absolute poverty evolution Poverty
  38. 38. % of the world population by level of income
  39. 39. Globalization, the free market Unemployment
  40. 40. Labor costs : operator Hour 25$ 1 $
  41. 41. Unemployment rate in Europe (2013)
  42. 42. Unemployment rate in Europe (2015) Eurostat for September 2015 – http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/europpblog/2015/11/09/investing-in-a-zero-carbon-economy-could-help-the-eu-escape-secular-stagnation/
  43. 43. Unemployment Consequences on • Economy • Social cohesion • prosperity • Political stability
  44. 44. Age dependency ratio (%) = Population ageing Lebanon : ? People older than 64 or less than 15 years old People between 15-64
  45. 45. http://www.indexmundi.com/lebanon/demographics_profile.html
  46. 46. Population ageing Challenges • Retirement funding • Health and social care • Customized services
  47. 47. 1. World population growth 2. Protection of natural resources 3. Pollution 4. Urbanisation 5. Socio-economic challenges 6. Sustainability Major world challenges
  48. 48. • Spatial and time scales • Environmental, social and economic interaction 6. Sustainability issue
  49. 49. Spatial scale Household World Interaction
  50. 50. Life Quality Time Future generation Time scale 1 2 3
  51. 51. Sustainability: Environmental, social and economic interaction
  52. 52. Video : A1 Urbanization and the evolution of cities across 10,000 years - Vance Kite A2 Human Role in Climate Change A3 NASA | A Year in the Life of Earth s CO2
  53. 53. Q& : Major world challenges? Q2 : Role of the City ? 2 Questions
  54. 54. • High concentration of the world population • Concentration of the economic activity • High energy consumption • High pollution emission • High risk to disasters Place of the City ?
  55. 55. Concentration of the world population • 55% of the World population • France ( > 80%) •Lebanon 85% •2050 : 70 of the World population
  56. 56. By 2030 : • 400,000 km2 will be constructed for urban use (doubling the world’s built urban area) • Nearly 2 billion new urban residents Developing countries : center of urban transformation
  57. 57. Cities with more than 1 millions inhabitants Concentration in large cities
  58. 58. The light Map
  59. 59. Concentration in large cities
  60. 60. In the close future, cites with more than 50 millions inhabitants
  61. 61. • High concentration of the world population • Concentration of the economic activity • High energy consumption • High pollution emission • High risk to disasters Role of the City ?
  62. 62. The City : • 70% of the world GDP … • 600 metropolis generate 60% of the world GDP • 95% of the population growth in the developing countries Concentration of the economic activity
  63. 63. GDP of major Cities (billion $)
  64. 64. Lebanon GDP
  65. 65. • High concentration of the world population • Concentration of the economic activity • High energy consumption • High pollution emission • High risk to disasters Place of the City ?
  66. 66. The City : • 70% of the total energy consumption • 75% of the electrical energy consumption Energy consumption
  67. 67. Etats Unis New York Buildings : 41 % Transport : 30% Industry : 29% Buildings : 76 % Transport : 24 %
  68. 68. Transport Industry Buildings Tokyo (2005) Mexico (2006) London (1999) Shanghai (2007)
  69. 69. Urban Transport Time lost at rush hour (minutes /hour)
  70. 70. Transport Challenges • Urbanization • Population growth • Lack of infrastructures • Lack of public transportation • Management • Lack of innovation
  71. 71. Energy consumption - urban densification
  72. 72. Smart Stockholm: Reduce Transport Congestion 2005 – 2006: Traffic reduction : 18% CO2 Reduction : 14-18 %
  73. 73. • High concentration of the world population • Concentration of the economic activity • High energy consumption • High pollution emission • High risk to disasters Place of the City ?
  74. 74. The City : 80% of the greenhouse emission Pollution emission London
  75. 75. Paris Buildings : 50% Transport 32%
  76. 76. North of France : 48% from the industry, 17% transport France : 20% from the industry, 26% from transport Huge variation in countries
  77. 77. Targets 2030 : • Cut greenhouse gases by at least 40% (reference 1990) • Renewable energy 27% • Energy efficiency improvement by 27% Europe : Targets 2020 (Reference 1990): Strategies to reduce the Greenhouse Gas Emission
  78. 78. • High concentration of the world population • Concentration of the economic activity • High energy consumption • High pollution emission • Disasters risk Place of the City ?
  79. 79. High risk to disasters Urban population subjected to natural disasters : • Flood : 379 millions • Earthquakes : 283 Millions • Storms : 157 Millions
  80. 80. Flood Risk (380 millions)
  81. 81. Earthquake Risk (283 millions)
  82. 82. Storms Risk (157 millions)
  83. 83. Conclusion • Huge increase in the population, mainly in developing countries, in urban area • Increase pressure on natural resources • Increase demand for services and infrastructures • High environmental risk : – For the planet (Global Warming, Climate Change) – For public health
  84. 84. Conclusion In developed countries - Ageing infrastructures - Ageing population - “Economic crisis”
  85. 85. Conclusion Cities is the center of the world challenges, They should afford for the – Increase demand for services – Increase demand for jobs – Increase demand for comfort – Social tension,…. Context : Lack of funding (financial crisis)
  86. 86. Conclusion How to do ? Could the Smart City be a « the » Solution ? Response : Next chapters
  87. 87. VIDEOS B1 Why are cities so important in assessing global energy? B2 Mexico City's Urban Sprawl - copie B3 Sydney Scheme to Go Green and Cut Greenhouse Gases
  88. 88. Thank you

×