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CHAPTER 1 SANITARY APPLIANCESUnderstand the design requirements forsanitary appliance used in all types ofbuilding.
Sanitary Appliances Sanitary appliances are divided into two main groups: “Waste” appliances “Soil” appliances
DESIGN REQUIREMENT A sanitary appliance should be designed so that itsfouling area is reduced to the minimum and shouldhave durable, easily cleaned and non-absorbentsurface. Before starting to design the floor plan of anystructure, the designer needs to know the followinginformation:- a. Types of buildings : i. Residential Building ii. Public Building / Commercial / Office Building b. Consumer
TYPES OF SANITARY APPLIANCES Fitting used for cleansing and disposing of waste product, most sanitary appliances fall into two groups:- i. Waste appliances ( bidets, wash basins, sinks, showers / baths tubs , drinking fountains ) ii. Soil appliances ( water closet, urinal ). All sanitary appliances are made of non-absorbent, non-corroding, smooth and easily cleaned material and usually made from ceramic ware, vitreous enameled cast iron, vitreous enameled pressed steel, stainless steel or plastics (thermosetting and thermoplastic).
WATER CLOSET This is the most common type of plumbing appliance and also known as a toilet. Water closet are usually subdivided according to where they are mounted (floor mounted and wall mounted ) and how they are flushed (tank type and flush valve type ). The most widely used pattern is the “wash-down”, in which the contents of the pan are removed by gravity water flush.
WATER CLOSET The pan shape has been developed from the earlier long and short hopper types, to provide the minimum of fouling area. They are designed to maintain a 50 mm minimum water seal. The outlet may be obtained left or right hand and also ‘P’ or ‘S’ as shown; it may be flushed from a high or low level flushing cistern. The high-level cistern provides a more effective flush compare to low level cistern.
FLUSHING CISTERN Function : Used to flush away the contents of soil fitting to the drain. Specification: Fixed 2m and 0.6 m above floor level. Capacity of the cistern from 5 to 15 liters (popular : 9 liter)
PISTON FLUSHING CISTERN The piston type flushing cistern, operates as follows: •When the lever is depressed sharply, the piston is lifted, which displaces water over the siphon. •Water discharging down the flush pipe takes some air with it and creates a partial vacuum in the siphon. •The greater air pressure acting upon the water in the cistern forces water through the siphon until air is admitted under the piston, which breaks the siphon action.
AUTOMATIC FLUSHINGCISTERN Automatic flushing cistern designed to discharge its contents of water at regular intervals into a urinal. The rate at which the water will flush depends upon the rate at which the water is fed into the cistern and for a single installation this should not exceed ten liters per hour . These flush water automatically once in 10 – 15 minutes. To prevent wastage of water from these cistern, at times when the cistern is not used such as at weekends, an Automatic Flow Cut Off Device should be fitted.
Bell-Type FlushingCistern • The bell-type flushing cistern is rather noisy but may be used in factories and schools. • The cistern is operated by the chain being pulled down which also lifts the bell. • When the chain is released the bell falls thus displacing water under the bell down the stand pipe. • Siphonic action is then created which empties the cistern.
URINAL They are designed to accept and dispose of liquid human wastes only. The types of urinal are ceramic slab , stall type and bowl type. The slab type is cheaper than the stall type , but it does not provide the same degree of privacy. The installation of ceramic bowl-type urinal, which have less fouling area then the slab and stall urinals.
BIDET A sanitary appliance primarily designed to wash the excretory organs and may also be used as footbath. The hot and cold water supplies are 13 mm internal diameter and hot water may be supplied to the rim. Bidets which are fitted to main supply must be of a design which is not equipped with a submersible ascending spray, but must be of the over-rim type, i.e. pillar taps.
WASH BASINMany wash basin designs areavailable, ranging from surgeon’s basin tosmall hand basin.They can be obtained to fit into a corner ofthe room and may be supported onbrackets, a pedestal or by a ‘built in’ corbel.
SINK Sinks of all types are in wide use in a multitude of different applications. Such as Surgeon’s scrub sinks, service sinks, lavatories sinks, bar sinks, kitchen sink are just a few of the more common ones used in plumbing systems. Sinks can be made of porcelain, stainless steel, plastic, fiberglass or any other nonporous material. Sinks can be wall mounted, floor mounted, set into countertop or free standing with legs.
BATHTUBS A sanitary appliance in which the human body can be immersed and cleansed. Bath tubs are available in enameled cast iron, pressed steel or in various types of plastics and acrylics. Bath tub should be fixed as low as possible to assist getting in and out. The standard length of a rectangular bath tub is 1.7 m. The water supply may be pillar tabs or by a special fitting incorporating a diverter and a shower. For domestic installations, the taps and supply pipes are 19 mm internal diameter, but for institutions these are sometimes enlarge to 25 mm, to increase the speed of filling.
SHOWER A shower is a device for washing, typicallyconsisting of an enclosed area and an overheadnozzle.To use a shower a human stands in theenclosed area while the nozzle sprays water downon the body.Showers are primarily used for hygiene andwashing purposes and are often installed inbathrooms.
SHOWER TRAY A preformed tray that creates a hob in the shower recess area. Size of shower tray :- i. 915 mm x 915 mm x 178 mm ii. 760 mm x 760 mm x 178 mm iii. 610 mm x 610 mm x 178 mm
MATERIALS The materials from which appliances are manufactured are depend upon the type of fitment and the use of building into which it is to be installed. In general terms the material must be non – corroding, non-absorbent and easily cleaned.
MATERIALS Materials DescriptionCeramics Popular material for such appliances as WCs, wash basins, urinals, sinks, and shower trays. The term ceramic means a substance made by firing clay. The strength and degree of impermeability of the materials depends upon the composition of the clay mixture and temperature at which they are fired.Glaze earthenware This produces appliances of good colour, lends itself well to formation of complicated shapes and relatively cheap. It is used mainly for sinks and W.C . pansGlazed fireclay This produces a tough appliance which is resistant to knocks and hard wear. Fireclay appliances such as urinals, sinks and W.C. pans are often used in schools and factories.Glazed stoneware This produces a tough appliance which is resistant to knocks and hard wear, but, unlike earthenware and fireclay, the material is non-absorbent even when it is unglazed. It is mainly used for channels, sinks and urinal stalls.Vitreous China This lends itself to fine detail and good finish, but is not as strong as fireclay and is therefore unsuitable for buildings where hard wear is expected, such as schools and factories. It is, however used extensively in houses and hotels. The material does not absorb water even when the glaze is broken, can be used to manufacture almost all types of appliances, in various colours.
MATERIALS Materials DescriptionAcrylic plastic This is produced in many colours, it is light in weight and(Perspex) relatively cheap. It takes a hard gloss finish and has an excellent appearance. Hot water however, tends to soften the material and baths made from it must be supported with metal cradles.Glass-Reinforced This material is more expensive than acrylic plastic , but isPolyster much stronger. A good gel coat finish is essential to protect the reinforcing fibres and various colours may be obtained.