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Organising and organisational culture - MANAGEMENT PROCESS

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Organising and organisational culture - MANAGEMENT PROCESS

  1. 1. MANAGEMENT PROCESS H Ramasubramanian (HRS) Organising and organisational culture
  2. 2. Organising and organisational culture - Prerequisites for effective organising Effectiveness: The extent to which the organisation achieves its goals or goal. Efficiency: Takes into account the amount of resources used to produce the desired output. • Organisational effectiveness is the concept of how effective an organisation is in achieving the outcomes the organisation intends to produce. • The idea of organisational effectiveness is especially important for non-profit organisations as most people who donate money to non-profit organisations and charities are interested in knowing whether the organisation is effective in accomplishing its goals. • Key elements of organisational effectiveness People What makes an organisation effective??? Impact The answer to this question is proper organisation structure. Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 2 Cultutre
  3. 3. Organising and organisational culture - Prerequisites for effective organising • Effectiveness and Efficiency in Organisations High Efficiency • Effectiveness Criteria Effectiveness Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 3 High Low Low
  4. 4. Organising and organisational culture - Avoiding mistakes in organising by planning • Establishment of objectives and orderly planning are necessary for good organisation as with the other functions of managing. • Lack of design in organisation is illogical, wasteful, and insufficient for success of an organisation. • It is illogical because good design, or planning, must come first whether one speaks of engineering or social practice. • The main sufferers from a lack of design in organisation are those individuals who work in an undertaking. • It is wasteful because unless jobs are clearly put together along lines of functional specialisation, it is impossible to train new men (or women) to succeed to positions as the incumbents are promoted, resign or retire. • It is inefficient because if management is not based on principles, it will be based on personalities, with the resultant rise of company politics. • It is like a machine not running smoothly when fundamental engineering principles have been ignored in construction. Planning for the ideal: • The search for an ideal organisation to reflect enterprise goals under given circumstances is the impetus to planning. • The search entails charting the main lines of organisation, considering the organisational philosophy of the enterprise managers – e.g. whether authority should be centralised as much as possible or whether the company should divide its operations into semi independent product or territorial divisions, and sketching out consequent authority relationships. Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 4
  5. 5. Organising and organisational culture - Avoiding mistakes in organising by planning • The ultimate form established like all plans, seldom remains unchanged, and continuous remolding of the ideal plan is normally necessary. • Nevertheless, an ideal organisation plan constitutes a standard, and by comparing present structure with it, enterprises leaders know what changes should be made when possible. • An organiser must always be careful not to be blinded by popular notions in organising, because what may work in one company may not work in another. • Principles of organising have general application, but the background of each company’s operation and needs must be considered in applying these principles. • Organisation structure needs to be tailor made. Modification for the human factor: • If available personnel do not fit into the ideal structure and cannot or should not be pushed aside, the only choice is to modify the structure to fit individual capabilities, attitudes, or limitations. • Although this modification may seem like organising around people, in this case one is first organising around the goals to be met and activities to be undertaken and only then making modifications for the human factor. • Thus, planning will reduce compromising the necessity for principle whenever changes occur in personnel. Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 5
  6. 6. Organising and organisational culture - Avoiding organisational inflexibility • There isn't just one definition of workplace flexibility, because it means different things to different people. • Basically, flexibility is about an employee and an employer making changes to when, where and how a person will work to better meet individual and business needs. • While the basic concept stays the same, it's the type of flexibility which makes the difference. • Essentially, flexibility enables both individual and business needs to be met through making changes to the time (when), location (where) and manner (how) in which an employee works. • Flexibility should be mutually beneficial to both the employer and employee and result in superior outcomes. • Until now, flexibility has been seen as simply a highly desirable perk for employees. • Employers gain benefit from providing flexibility in when and how work gets done -- from lower costs and enhanced organisational performance, profitability and shareholder value. • It establishes flexibility as essential element of a human capital strategy, a powerful business tool and key component of successful management practice. There are a range of creative and practical ways to change when, where and how work is organised: When people work: Flexible working hours - altering the start and finish times of a working day, but maintaining the same number of hours worked per week (for example, 8am to 4pm instead of 9am to 5pm). It can also mean condensing standard hours per week into fewer days (for example, four days per week at ten hours per day) Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 6
  7. 7. Organising and organisational culture - Avoiding organisational inflexibility Part-time work – Generally speaking, working fewer than the standard weekly hours. For example, two days per week, 10 days over four weeks or two days one week and three days every second week Variable year employment – Changing work hours over the month or through the year, depending on the demands of the job (for example working more hours during busy periods and taking time off in quiet times) Part year employment – Also called purchased leave, this means that an employee can take a longer period of leave (e.g. a total of 8 weeks per year) by averaging their 48 week salary across 52 weeks. It's sometimes called 48/52 Leave – Varying from leave in single days or leave without pay, to special or extended leave. For example, parental leave, family/carer's leave, study leave, cultural leave and career breaks. Where people work: Working from home – Also called teleworking, this means working away from the main office (i.e. at home) either full or part-time, and on a regular or intermittent basis. For most people, it's working from home either occasionally or for an agreed number of days each week Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 7
  8. 8. Organising and organisational culture - Avoiding organisational inflexibility Working remotely – In some industries people may work at a different office, or in a client's workplace for some or all of their working hours. How people work: Job-sharing – Two people sharing one full-time job on an ongoing basis. For example, working two and a half days each, a two/three day split or one week on and one week off Phased retirement – Reducing a full-time work commitment over a number of years (e.g. from 4 days to 3 days per week) before moving into retirement. It can also mean becoming an "alumni", i.e. that a "retired" employee returns to the workplace to cover peak work periods or to provide specialist knowledge Annualised hours – Working a set number of hours per year instead of a number of hours per week. Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 8
  9. 9. Organising and organisational culture - Avoiding conflict by clarification • We define conflict as a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs, interests or concerns. • Within this simple definition there are several important understandings that emerge: • A conflict is more than a mere disagreement - it is a situation in which people perceive a threat (physical, emotional, power, status, etc.) to their well-being. • As such, it is a meaningful experience in people's lives, not to be shrugged off by a mere, "it will pass…" • Participants in conflicts tend to respond on the basis of their perceptions of the situation, rather than an objective review of it. • As such, people filter their perceptions (and reactions) through their values, culture, beliefs, information, experience, gender, and other variables. • Conflict responses are both filled with ideas and feelings that can be very strong and powerful guides to our sense of possible solutions. • As in any problem, conflicts contain substantive, procedural, and psychological dimensions to be negotiated. • In order to best understand the threat perceived by those engaged in a conflict, we need to consider all of these dimensions. • Conflicts are normal experiences within the work environment. They are also, to a large degree, predictable and expectable situations that naturally arise as we go about managing complex and stressful projects in which we are significantly invested. • As such, if we develop procedures for identifying conflicts likely to arise, as well as systems through which we can constructively manage conflicts, we may be able to discover new opportunities to transform conflict into a productive learning experience. Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 9
  10. 10. Organising and organisational culture - Avoiding conflict by clarification Why do we tend to avoid dealing with conflict? • Engaging in dialogue and negotiation around conflict is something we tend to approach with fear and hesitation, afraid that the conversation will go worse than the conflict has gone thus far. • All too often, we talk ourselves out of potential dialogue: • "Why should I talk to her? She'll bite my head off and not listen to anything I have to say!" • OR • "I should talk to him about this problem, but maybe it will go away on its own. There's no sense stirring up something that makes us both uncomfortable." • OR • "If I go to him, I'm making myself vulnerable. No, that's his responsibility - he should come to me and ask me to talk!" • Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 10
  11. 11. Organising and organisational culture - Organisational culture • Organisational culture is the behaviour of humans who are part of an organisation and the meanings that the people attach to their actions. • Culture includes the organisation values, visions, norms, working language, systems, symbols, beliefs and habits. • It is also the pattern of such collective behaviours and assumptions that are taught to new organisational members as a way of perceiving, and even thinking and feeling. • Organisational culture affects the way people and groups interact with each other, with clients, and with stakeholders. • Aristotle said, "We are what we repeatedly do." • This view elevates repeated behaviour or habits as the core of culture and deemphasizes what people feel, think or believe. • It also focuses our attention on the forces that shape behaviour in organizations, and so highlights an important question: are all those forces (including structure, processes, and incentives) "culture" or is culture simply the behavioural outputs? Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 11
  12. 12. Organising and organisational culture - Organisational culture • The culture of the workplace controls the way employees behave amongst themselves as well as with people outside the organization. Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 12
  13. 13. Organising and organisational culture - Organisational culture • Organizational socialization is defined as “the process by which a person learns the values, norms, and required behaviors which permit him to participate as a member of the organization.” • One’s first year in a complex organization can be confusing. • There is a constant swirl of new faces, strange jargon, conflicting expectations, and apparently unrelated events. • Some organizations treat new members in a rather haphazard, sink-or-swim manner. • More typically, though, the socialization process is characterized by a sequence of identifiable steps. • Organizational behavior researcher Daniel Feldman has proposed a three-phase • model of organizational socialization that promotes deeper understanding of this important • process. • The three phases are (1) anticipatory socialization, (2) encounter, and (3) change and acquisition. Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 13
  14. 14. Organising and organisational culture - Organisational culture • A Model of Organizational Socialization Organising and organisational culture - MANGEMENT PROCESS 14

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