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G bspanish4 part one

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G bspanish4 part one

  1. 1. Spanish 4 Grammar Concepts Heli Martin
  2. 2. Table of Contents 1. El Presente 2. Irregular yo form 3. Irregulars 4. Ser 5. Estar 6. Ser y estar con adjectivos 7. Gustar 8. Verbs like gustar 9. Preterite v Imperfect 10. Preterite y trigger words 11. Preterite Conjugation 12. Preterite Irregulars 13. Imperfect y trigger words 14. Imperfect conjugation 15. Imperfect Irregulars
  3. 3. El Presente • Used to express actions or situations that are happening in the present • Used to express habitual actions or actions that will take place in the near future • Regular –ar, -er, -ir • -ar: o, as, a, amos, áis, an • -er: o, es, e, emos, éis, en • -ir: o, es, e, imos, ís, en
  4. 4. Irregular yo form • Irregular yo forms: many –er and –ir verbs have irregualr yo forms in the present tense. • Verbs ending in –ger or –gir change to –jo coger, colegir (e:i), dirigir, escoger, recoger… ex: Coger – changes to cojo in yo form • Verbs ending in –guir change the gu to g in the yo form conseguir,distinguir, extinguir, seguir… ex: Conseguir (e:i) – changes to consigo in yo form • Verbs ending in –cer or –cir change the c to z in yo form coercer, convencer, ejercer, esparicir, mecer, remecer, vencer, zurcir, conducir, producir, concocer, palcer, crecer, aparacer exceptions are hacer and decir • Verbs that end in –uir add y before o, e, and a atribuir, concluir, construir, distruir, exclurir, destruir, incluir ex: atribuir – atribuyo, atribuyes, atribuye, atribuimos, atribuís, atribuyen
  5. 5. Irregulars • Irregular in present tense or combine a stem change with an irregular yo form or spell change • Stem changes: e-ie, o-ue, e-i • e-ie: acertar, advertir, negar, atravesar, entender, comenzar, defendir, pensar… ex: cerrar- cierro, cierras, cierra, cerramos, cerráis, cierran • o-ue:almorzar, rogar , dormir, volver, sonar, soler, poder, morir, encontrar… ex: contar- cuento, cuentas, cuenta, contamos, contáis, cuentan • e-i: competir, concebir, despedir, medir, servir, repetir, vestir… ex: pedir- pido, pides, pide, pedimos, pedís, piden • *Notice that there is no stem change in the Vosotros or Nosotros form* • Ir: voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van • Dar: doy, das, damos, dais, dan • Tener: tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, tenéis, tienen • Venir: vengo, vienes, viene, venimos, venís, vienen
  6. 6. Ser Description, Origin, Characteristics, Time, Occupation, Relationship, Possession, Event, Date
  7. 7. Ser • Means to be • Used to express an essential equality soy somos eres sois es son
  8. 8. Health Estar Emotions Location Present Condition Present Participles. Rules: •-ar to –ando •-er and –ir to – iendo or -yendo
  9. 9. Estar estoy estamos estás estáis está están • Means to be • Used to express condition
  10. 10. Ser y estar con adjectivos • Some adjectives change their meaning when used with either "ser" or "estar". • Examples : Listo : means clever when used with ser means ready when used estar Malo: means bad when used with ser means ill when used with estar Rico: means rich when used with ser means tasty when used with estar Vivo: means lively when used with ser means alive when used with estar Bueno: means good when used with ser means well when used with estar Moreno: means dark haired when used with ser means suntanned when used with estar Aburrido: means boring when used with ser means bored when used with estar Seguro: means safe when used with ser means sure, certain when used with estar
  11. 11. Gustar • Means to like or to be pleasing • Me gusta el libro - I like the book • Me gustan los libros – I like the books • When the noun that you like is plural use –an • Pronouns – me, te, le, nos, os, les • A mi me gusta, a ti te gusta, etc.
  12. 12. Verbs Like Gustar • These verbs follow the same conjugation as gustar with doler having an “e” stem changer. • Aburrir- to bore • Importar- tp be important to • Caer bien/mal- to (not) suit • Interesar- to be interesting to • Digustar- to hate soemthing • Parecer- to appear to be • Encantar- to love • Quedar- to be left over, remain • Volver loco- to be crazy about • Faltar- to lack • Doler- to hurt • Fascinar- to fascinate • Molestar- to bother Examples: Te falta pelo. Nos gustan los libros.
  13. 13. Preterite Imperfect •To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the •To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the preterite, simply drop the ending (-ar) imperfect, simply drop the ending (-ar) and add one of the following: and add one of the following: •é •aba aste abas ó aba amos ábamos asteis abais aron aban •The preterite is used for actions in the •The imperfect is used for actions in the past that are seen as completed. Use of past that are not seen as completed. the preterite tense implies that the past Use of the imperfect tense implies that action had a definite beginning and the past action did not have a definite definite end. beginning or a definite end. The preterite tells us specifically when an action took place.The imperfect tells us in general when an action took place.
  14. 14. El Pretérito y Trigger Words It is a definite time in the past, and has a beginning or an ending. Trigger words that you could assume may deal with this are: Ayer Anoche El año pasado La semana pasada Ante ayer
  15. 15. ER -í -imos El -iste -isteí s Pretérito -ió -ieron IR -í -imos -iste -isteís -ió -ieron
  16. 16. El Pretérito Irregulars There are 3 main types of Irregular Pretérito verbs we have learned about. They are: Car, Gar, y Zar Cucaracha Spock
  17. 17. Car, Gar, y Zar Irregulars -qué -camos -gué -gamos -cé -zamos -caste casteís -gaste -zaste -zasteís -gasteís -có -caron -gó -garon -zo -zaron
  18. 18. Spock Irregulars! 3 different groupings. The words in each grouping are conjugated the same way. The groupings are: 1. IR y SER 2.DAR y VER 3.HACER
  19. 19. DAR- to give VER- to see IR- to go SER- to be I Imos Fui Fuimos Iste Isteís Fuiste Fuisteís Io Ieron Fue Fueron HACER…. TO MAKE OR DO Hice Hicimos Hiciste Hicisteís Hito Hicieron
  20. 20. Cucaracha Verbs Endings for all are the same:
  21. 21. Andar- aduv Estar- estuv Conducir- Poder- pud conduj Poner- pus Producir- produj Querer- quis Traducir- traduj Saber- sup Tener- tuv Decir- dij Venir- vin Traer- traj Cucaracha Verbs
  22. 22. Snake • In the 3rd person, the stem change occurs. • The stem change is to opposite vowel with the first vowel. Dormi Dormimos Dormiste Dormisteis Durmio Durmierion
  23. 23. Snakeys Follows same concept as SNAKE, but is more specific. In the 3rd person the stem change is the vowel “I” to the vowel “y”. Leer
  24. 24. Imperfect y Trigger Words • The imperfect tense is used to refer to actions in the past that occurred repeatedly. • They have no definite end or beginning • Trigger words: muchas veces a menudo mucho a veces cada día nunca cada año por un rato con frecuencia siempre de vez en cuando tantas veces en aquella época todas las semanas frecuentemente todos los días generalmente todo el tiempo varias veces
  25. 25. Imperfect - ar -er and –ir aba ábamos ía íamos abas abais ías íais aba aban ía ían
  26. 26. Imperfect Irregulars

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