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Chapter 2 ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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Guide to development of academic writing; chapter 2 (literature review) and abstract writing as well as referencing system. Focus area: architecture but not limited to.Research Methodology Class BAGS6106 in University of Malaya, Malaysia. Feb 2019

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Chapter 2 ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Prepared by Dr Hazrina Haja Bava Mohidin For BAGS 6106 2018/19-2 WEEK 2
  2. 2. Week 2 - overview ■ Part 1 – Recap of Writing a Topic ■ Part 2 – Writing an Abstract ■ Part 3 – Literature Review ■ Part 4– Reference System
  3. 3. Part 1: Research Topics / Titles ■ Should be concise yet detailed enough to convey the message. ■ A topic or a title will usually… – Have a description of the end product OR – Stating issues OR – Or a short description that says it all OR – Relational topics
  4. 4. Examples ■ Have a description of the end product “A study of signage as wayfinding in commercial buildings” “Typologies of Churches in Malaysia”
  5. 5. OR.. ■ Stating an issue or issues “Reviving spaces for women in mosques architecture in Shah Alam” “Reusing abandoned heritage buildings for public ameneties”
  6. 6. OR… ■ Simple statement “ Advertisement Architecture” “Kuala Lumpur Micro Housing”
  7. 7. OR…. ■ Relational topics “ Alternative Workspace: A Case study of Kuala Lumpur Business Incubator” “Modern Architecture: Post-colonial Scenario in Malaysia”
  8. 8. Activity ■ Get into pairs ■ Think/rethink/relook at, your topic. ■ Evaluate your choice of topic. ■ Which category your topic fall into? ■ Share
  9. 9. Part 2: Writing an abstract An abstract is a concise summary (100-250 words) of a research. It is a self-contained, short, but powerful statement that describes a larger work Leads readers to understand your research in a holistic manner. It is not a review (hence no referencing) and no evaluation involve (contain no questions etc)
  10. 10. ■ It should consist of: a. Problem statement with clear intend– What do you want to achieve? Purpose b. Scope – what is the nature of your research? (who, what, when? If application) c. Method – How you want to achieve it? d. Findings - the outcome, brief preview of the result e. Contribution and conclusion
  11. 11. Example This study aimed to determine whether the environmental attitudes and behaviors of children attending primary schools designed or adapted for sustainability are different from those of children attending conventional schools. A New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale was developed to measure children's environmental attitudes and a General Ecological Behavior (GEB) scale was developed to measure children's environmental behaviors. Data collected from children aged between 10 and 12 years were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The findings indicate that children attending primary schools designed to engage them with sustainable design had significantly more pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. Thus, it is suggested that pedagogies for environmental education should be developed that require children to directly engage when learning with sustainable design features such as solar panels, the use of recycled water, natural daylighting, gardens and outdoor classrooms. Introduction with purpose of research Scope + Method of the research Findings or Results Conclusion and Contribution
  12. 12. Part 3: Literature Review ■ A literature review is both a summary and explanation of the complete and current state of knowledge on a limited topic as found in academic books and journal articles. ■ The focus and perspective of your research will be determinedby what kind of review you are writing. ■ In other words, it is the interpretationof your reading in the selected area of study
  13. 13. Content of Literature Review INTRODUCTION The introduction explains the focus and establishes the importance of the subject. It discusses what kind of work has been done on the topic and identifies any controversieswithin the field or any recent research which has raised questions about earlier assumptions. It may provide background or history. It concludes with a purpose or thesis statement.In a stand-alone literature review, this statement will sum up and evaluate the state of the art in this field of research; in a review that is an introduction or preparatoryto a thesis or research report, it will suggest how the review findings will lead to the research the writer proposes to undertake.
  14. 14. Content of Literature Review BODY Often divided by headings/subheadings,the body summarizes and evaluatesthe current state of knowledge in the field. It notesmajor themes or topics, the most important trends, and any findings about which researchers agree or disagree. If the review is preliminary to your own thesis or research project, its purpose is to make an argument that will justify your proposed research. Therefore, it will discuss only that research which leads directly to your own project.
  15. 15. Content of Literature Review CONCLUSION The conclusion summarizes all the evidence presentedand shows its significance. If the review is an introduction to your own research, it highlights gaps and indicates how previous research leads to your own research project and chosen methodology.If the review is a stand-alone assignment for a course, it should suggest any practical applications of the research as well as the implications and possibilities for future research.
  16. 16. Effective reviewing ■ Literature has to grow- progressively enlarges a topic – creates a conversation / argument ■ Start off with basic definition of something ■ Set a scene and groundings ■ Go deeper as you go – should include critical arguments of your topic ■ Be precise with headings and sub headings ■ Comparative – it helps to do comparative literature findings ■ Interpret, not reporting ■ Always cite – give credit, paraphrase
  17. 17. ■ Student A: Smith (2000) concludes that personal privacy in their living quarters is the most important factor in nursing home residents' perception of their autonomy. He suggests that the physical environment in the more public spaces of the building did not have much impact on their perceptions. Neither the layout of the building, nor the activities available seem to make much difference. Jones and Johnstone (2001) make the claim that the need to control one's environment is a fundamental need of life, and suggest that the approach of most institutions, which is to provide total care, may be as bad as no care at all. If people have no choices or think that they have none, they become depressed. ■ Student B: After studying residents and staff from two intermediate care facilities in Calgary, Alberta, Smith (2000) came to the conclusion that except for the amount of personal privacy available to residents, the physical environment of these institutions had minimal if any effect on their perceptions of control (autonomy). However, French (1998) and Haroon (2000) found that availability of private areas is not the only aspect of the physical environment that determines residents' autonomy. Haroon interviewed 115 residents from 32 different nursing homes known to have different levels of autonomy (2000). It was found that physical structures, such as standardized furniture, heating that could not be individually regulated, and no possession of a house key for residents limited their feelings of independence. Moreover, Hope (2002), who interviewed 225 residents from various nursing homes, substantiates the claim that characteristics of the institutional environment such as the extent of resources in the facility, as well as its location, are features which residents have indicated as being of great importance to
  18. 18. Importance of Literature Review ■ It gives readers easy access to research on a particular topicby selecting high quality articlesor studies that are relevant, meaningful, important and valid and summarizing them into one complete report ■ It provides an excellent starting point for researchers beginning to do research in a new area by forcing them to summarize,evaluate,and compare original research in that specific area ■ It ensures that researchers do not duplicate work that has already been done ■ It can provide clues as to where future researchis heading or recommend areas on which to focus ■ It highlights key findings ■ It identifiesinconsistencies, gaps and contradictionsin the literature ■ It provides a constructive analysis of the methodologies and approaches of other researchers
  19. 19. Part 4: Referencing System ■ Reference style: ■ APA style is commonly used in Education, Business, and some Social Sciences and Humanities disciplines. ■ MLAstyle is often used in English and Media Studies. ■ Oxford style is often used in History,Philosophy, and Classics. ■ Harvard and Chicago stylesare used by some individual disciplines.
  20. 20. Referencing resources Where to find? ■ Webs – google scholar, researchgate, scribd, issuu, academia, etc ■ Library ■ Archive and other resource centres What to look into? ■ Journals and articles (indexed and non indexed) ■ Books ■ Magazines, newspaper ■ Others – interviews, films, minutes, contract documents, drawings etc
  21. 21. Textual and Non Textual resources (APA Format) Textual: https://www.mendeley.com/guides/apa-citation-guide ■ Books (one author, more than one author, edited, e-book, etc) ■ Magazines ■ Newspaper ■ Journals and articles Non textual: ■ Drawings - https://guides.lib.vt.edu/c.php?g=10365&p=3808911 ■ Interviews - http://www.easybib.com/guides/citation-guides/apa-format/how-to-cite-a-interview- apa/ Extra help: https://www.lib.sfu.ca/help/research-assistance/format-type
  22. 22. In-Text Citation and Quotes ■ Online images ■ Quote – borrowed directly – no paraphrasing When quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page citation https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/03/how-to-cite- direct-quotations.html Sayer, L. (Photographer). (2007). Nurse log. [Digital Image]. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/riss/368673880
  23. 23. EXTRA INFORMATION ■ DATA COLLECTION – 2 TYPES – PRIMARY SOURCES – SECONDARY SOURCES ■ LITERATURE REVIEW IS CATEGORIZED AS SECONDARY SOURCE ■ CASE STUDY TAKEN FROM A BOOK/INTERNET IS SECONDARY ■ INTERVIEW or CASE STUDY (DONE BY YOURSELF) IS PRIMARY ■ ETC
  24. 24. TIPS ■ Before embarking into a research, think ahead on methodsand methodology – QUALITATIVE – QUANTITATIVE ■ Find a topic based on your interest and also current/social issues that are solvable by ARCHITECTURE ■ READ as much as possible and take notesso you won't have to REREAD ■ Use Mendelay to record your references so you won't have to do it manually ■ Use headings and subheadings to clearly categorize your literature review
  25. 25. RESEARCH TASK 2 ■ Based on topics proposed, this week's task is to assign supervisors ■ You are to name your preferred supervisor based on a match of your topic and their expertise

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