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Guide to Introduction of research and Chapter 1. Focus area: architecture but not limited to.Research Methodology Class BAGS6106 in University of Malaya, Malaysia. Feb 2019

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  2. 2. Welcome to the course
  3. 3. Overview of the lecture Part 1 •Course information •Content •expectations Part 2 •Introduction to Research •Finding good research topic •What is academic writing - background and setting Part 3 •Research Question •Objectives At the end of the lecture.. Research task 1 briefing
  4. 4. Part 1 About the course BAGS 6106
  5. 5. Part 2 About Research
  6. 6. https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/ What is research?
  7. 7. Research and how is it linked to methods and methodology? ✘ can be understood as the systematicand rigorous searchfor appropriate information on a specific subject. ✘ involvesenunciation of the problem,developing ahypothesis, collecting and analysing data and drawing conclusions,based on the facts and data collected ✘ to do so, the researcheruses research methods,during thecourse of conducting research..
  8. 8. Method ResearchMethod implies the methods employed by the researcher to conduct research.. Research method vs methodology Methodology Researchmethodology signifies wayto efficiently solving researchproblems Method is simply a research tool, a component of research – say for example, a qualitative method such as interviews. Methodology is the justification for using a particular research method Clough, P., and Nurbrown,C. (2012) A Student’sGuideto Methodology(3rd ed.) Sage Publication:California. Thisisthe STRATEGY(ies) InvolvesTECHNIQUE(s)
  9. 9. Research methodology ✘ Methodologyis the philosophicalframeworkwithin which the researchis conducted or the foundationupon whichthe research is based ✘ Research methodologyis a systematic way to solvea problem. It is a scienceof studying how research isto be carried out. ✘ It is the processused to collectinformation and data for the purpose of making decisions
  10. 10. Types of research methods in general Qualitative Used when a research cannot be analysed by means of mathematical techniques. Other than non-numerical and unquantifiable elements. Theoretical Based onobservation Interpretations etc Quantitative Resolves problems using numbers. Emphasis is placed on the collection of numerical data, the summaryof those data and the drawing of inferences from the data. Mathematical solutions Data based on numbers
  11. 11. Research Topic
  12. 12. In search for a good research topic ✘ Ways of getting a good research topic ✗ Given/assigned by supervisor ✗ Out of your own interest ✗ Based on current situation (economics, political,cultural) ✘ Deciding a topic requires thinking and decision making ✘ You will need to ✗ Brainstorm for ideas ✗ choose a topic that will enable you to read and understand the literature ✗ ensure that the topic is manageable and that material is available ✗ make a list of key words ✗ define your topic as a focused research question ✗ research and read more about your topic – read read and read ✗ formulate a thesis statement – clearly state purpose 12
  13. 13. Useful keywords ✘ Keep track of the words that are used to describe your topic. ✗ Look for words that best describe your topic ✗ Look for them in when reading encyclopaedia articles and background and general information ✗ Find broader and narrower terms, synonyms, key concepts for key words to widen your search capabilities ✗ Make note of these words and use them later when searching databases and catalogues 13
  14. 14. Defining a topic as a focused research question Eg: Ideas = Frank Lloyd Wright or modern architecture Research Question = How has Frank Lloyd Wright influenced modern architecture? Focused Research Question = What design principles used by Frank Lloyd Wright are commonin contemporary homes? 14
  15. 15. A research is like a small brick in the wall.. It is a small component that makes the whole wall a wall..You don’t have to solve the world’s problem. 15
  16. 16. Environment of research topics ✘ by geographical area Example: Micro Housing and Land Scarcity in Singapore ✘ by culture Example: Baba Nyonya Cultural Hub ✘ by time frame: Example: Post-colonial architecture ✘ by discipline Example: Deaf architecture ✘ by populationgroup Example: Approaches in designing for Seletar Community 16
  17. 17. Try to avoid topics that are.. ✘ locally confined - Topics is too specific may only be covered by a limited context. ✘ Too recent - If a topic is quite recent, books or journal articles may not be available,but newspaper or magazine articles may. Also, Web sites related to the topic may or may not be available. ✘ broadly interdisciplinary - You could be overwhelmed with superficial information. Example: How can the environment contribute to the culture, politics and society of Malaysia? ✘ popular - You will only find very popular articles about some topics such and find it has already being covered by others. 17
  18. 18. Academic writing
  19. 19. Thesis Structure – Chapter 1 (see example) What I know? - Introduce the topic - Background information What I want to know? - Aim - research question - Objective How to do it? - Methodology and methods Closing/Summary 19 Background and setting Identification of problem State objective (aim) Purpose statement Scope and Limitations Definition of terms Significance of the study Clear statement of intent Strategies to the problems and what are the techniques used to achieve this?
  20. 20. Background information ✘ This is the first passage in a dissertation, thesis, or research article. ✘ The introduction should address the following: ✗ Create reader interest in the topic ✗ Establish the problem that leads to the study ✗ Place the study within the larger context of the scholarly literature ✗ Reach out to a specific audience 20
  21. 21. Background and Setting ✘ Where is the research taking place? ✘ Who is to be affected by your research? ✘ What is already known? This will begin to lead us to your Review of Literature (Chapter II). 21
  22. 22. What is the difference between Introduction & Background? ✘ Introduction – addresses the main points of the study – what the research will reveal ✘ Background – preliminarydiscussion of the topic – opening up ventures into problems and gaps of the topic 22
  23. 23. See it like a movie, the introduction is the trailer of the movie, background is the elaborated story.. 23
  24. 24. Scope and Limitation ✘ This section informs the readers of the boundaries you set in your research. The perimeters and limit to you research are. ✘ For example, only on elderly as a target group, or school as a typology. ✘ Can go even more focused 24
  25. 25. Part 3 Research Question & Objective
  26. 26. Research questionsand research objectives ✘ The two components are highly important. ✘ research objectives are directly linked to your research questions and are used to describe the general and specific aims and outcomes that are intended to be achieved by a study 26
  27. 27. Difference between.. ✘ Research Questions and Hypothesis ✗ Researchquestionis open ended (non- predictive) while hypothesisaims for a specific prediction, proving it to betrue or false. ✘ Research Questions and Aim ✗ Researchquestions are more specific – leadsto the aim (smaller componentsor a series of processes) while aim of the research is covers a broader idea (what is the big idea?) 27
  28. 28. Afterwards.. The methodology and method sections in chapter 1 will usually be in a framework. That will also show readers what the finding and outcome will be. (see example) 28
  29. 29. Research Task 1 Finding the right topic for you
  30. 30. Task 1 ✘ List out 3 topics ✘ Rank the topics according to your preference ✘ Submit to me via dropbox (to fill in a single document) 30
  31. 31. What will be observed in Chapter 1 ✘ Introduction • ResearchbackgroundProblem Statement ✘ Explore related topics • Extractpoints fromliteraturereview • Usesthe literaturepoint out researchgap ✘ Research Questions, Aim and Objectives • Formulationof researchquestions • Identifyingreasonable researchobjectives • Inclusion of ResearchMethodologyTable ✘ Academic English • Grammar, spelling,syntax, punctuation, expression, tone, vocabulary, flow ✘ Presentation • Logicalstructureof reportand acceptableproperlength (maximum 2000words) 31