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4.0 COMPUTER ETHICS
    AND SECURITY

 4.2 Computer Security
     4.2.1 Computer Security Risks
LEARNING OUTCOMES:

   At the end of this topic, students should
    be able to:
           Define computer security risks.
           Identify types of security risks.




                                                2
DEFINITION

• Computer Security Risks
  is any event or action that could
  cause a loss of or damage to
  computer hardware, software, data,
  information, or processing
  capability.


                                       3
Types of Computer Security Risks
Types of Computer Security Risks
                Internet and network attack

               Unauthorized access and use

                      Hardware theft

                      Software theft

                     Information theft

                      System failure


                                              5
1. Internet and network attacks

• Information transmitted over networks has a higher
  degree of security risk than information kept on an
  organization’s premises.
1. Malware                           5. Spoofing




              Internet and
             network attacks

2. Botnets                 4. Denial of service attacks


                3. Back Doors
                                                      7
1a.Malware
• Malware (malicious software) – which are
    program that act without a user’s knowledge and
    deliberately alter the computer operation.
• Type of malware:
i. Computer viruses
ii. Worms
iii. Trojan Horses
iv. Rootkit
v. Back door
vi. Spyware
Malware
                                 Symptoms Malware

• Operating system runs much slower than usual
• Available memory is less than expected
• Files become corrupted
• Screen displays unusual message or image
• Music or unusual sound plays randomly
• Existing programs and files disappear

                                                 9
Malware
                                  Symptoms Malware

• Programs or files do not work properly
• Unknown programs or files mysteriously appear
• System properties change
• Operating system does not start up
• Operating system shuts down unexpectedly



                                                  10
Malware
                                           1. Worm




Is a program that copies itself repeatedly, for
example in memory or on a network, using up
resources and possibly shutting down the
computer or network.



                                                  11
Malware
                                2. Computer Virus


 is a potentially damaging computer program
that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by
altering the way the computer works without the
user’s knowledge or permission.




                                                     12
Malware
                             2. Computer Virus


 it can spread throughout and may damage files
and system software, including the operating
system.




                                              13
Internet and network attacks
                Malware
                                 3. Trojan horse



Is a program that hides within or looks like a
legitimate program. It does not replicate itself
to other computers.




                                                   14
Internet and network attacks
                 Malware
                                3. Trojan horse



it can spread throughout and may damage files
and system software, including the operating
system.




                                                15
Internet and network attacks
                Malware
                                   4. Rootkit


•Is a program that hides in a computer and allows
someone from a remote location to take full control
of the computer.

•The rootkit author can execute programs, change
settings, monitor activity, and access files on the
remote computer

                                                 16
Internet and network attacks
                Malware
                        5. Spyware & Adware


• Spyware is a program placed on a computer
without the users knowledge that secretly collects
information about the user.

• Adware is a program that displays an online
advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on
web pages, e-mail messages or other internet
services
                                                17
1b.Botnets

• a group of compromised computers
  connected to a network such as the Internet
  that are used as part of a network that attacks
  other networks, usually for nefarious
  purposes.
1c.Back Door

• A program or set of instructions in a program
  that allow users to bypass security controls
  when accessing a program, computer, or
  network
1d.Denial of Service Attacks

 Denial of service attacks or DoS attack, is
  an assault whose purpose is to disrupt
  computer access to an Internet service such
  as the Web or e-mail.
1e.Spoofing

• A technique intruders use to make their
  network or Internet transmission appear
  legitimate to a victim computer or network.
2.Unauthorized Access and Use

                 Unauthorized access
The use of a computer or network without permission.


                  Unauthorized use
The use of a computer or its data for unapproved or
 possibly illegal activities.
3.Hardware Theft and Vandalism

                Hardware theft
Is the act of stealing computer equipment.

             Hardware vandalism
The act of defacing or destroying computer
 equipment.
4.Software Theft

 Steals         Intentionally
software           erases
 media            programs



                  Illegally
Illegally        registers
copies a           and/or
program         activates a
                 program
5.Information Theft



Occurs when someone steals personal or
confidential information.
If stolen, the loss of information can cause as
much damage as (if not more than) hardware or
software theft.
System Failure



A system failure is the prolonged malfunction of a
computer

A variety of factors can lead to system failure,
including:
   • Aging hardware
   • Natural disasters
   • Electrical power problems
      • Noise, undervoltages, and overvoltages
   • Errors in computer programs

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Computer Security Risks

  • 1. 4.0 COMPUTER ETHICS AND SECURITY 4.2 Computer Security 4.2.1 Computer Security Risks
  • 2. LEARNING OUTCOMES:  At the end of this topic, students should be able to:  Define computer security risks.  Identify types of security risks. 2
  • 3. DEFINITION • Computer Security Risks is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware, software, data, information, or processing capability. 3
  • 4. Types of Computer Security Risks
  • 5. Types of Computer Security Risks Internet and network attack Unauthorized access and use Hardware theft Software theft Information theft System failure 5
  • 6. 1. Internet and network attacks • Information transmitted over networks has a higher degree of security risk than information kept on an organization’s premises.
  • 7. 1. Malware 5. Spoofing Internet and network attacks 2. Botnets 4. Denial of service attacks 3. Back Doors 7
  • 8. 1a.Malware • Malware (malicious software) – which are program that act without a user’s knowledge and deliberately alter the computer operation. • Type of malware: i. Computer viruses ii. Worms iii. Trojan Horses iv. Rootkit v. Back door vi. Spyware
  • 9. Malware Symptoms Malware • Operating system runs much slower than usual • Available memory is less than expected • Files become corrupted • Screen displays unusual message or image • Music or unusual sound plays randomly • Existing programs and files disappear 9
  • 10. Malware Symptoms Malware • Programs or files do not work properly • Unknown programs or files mysteriously appear • System properties change • Operating system does not start up • Operating system shuts down unexpectedly 10
  • 11. Malware 1. Worm Is a program that copies itself repeatedly, for example in memory or on a network, using up resources and possibly shutting down the computer or network. 11
  • 12. Malware 2. Computer Virus  is a potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user’s knowledge or permission. 12
  • 13. Malware 2. Computer Virus  it can spread throughout and may damage files and system software, including the operating system. 13
  • 14. Internet and network attacks Malware 3. Trojan horse Is a program that hides within or looks like a legitimate program. It does not replicate itself to other computers. 14
  • 15. Internet and network attacks Malware 3. Trojan horse it can spread throughout and may damage files and system software, including the operating system. 15
  • 16. Internet and network attacks Malware 4. Rootkit •Is a program that hides in a computer and allows someone from a remote location to take full control of the computer. •The rootkit author can execute programs, change settings, monitor activity, and access files on the remote computer 16
  • 17. Internet and network attacks Malware 5. Spyware & Adware • Spyware is a program placed on a computer without the users knowledge that secretly collects information about the user. • Adware is a program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on web pages, e-mail messages or other internet services 17
  • 18. 1b.Botnets • a group of compromised computers connected to a network such as the Internet that are used as part of a network that attacks other networks, usually for nefarious purposes.
  • 19. 1c.Back Door • A program or set of instructions in a program that allow users to bypass security controls when accessing a program, computer, or network
  • 20. 1d.Denial of Service Attacks  Denial of service attacks or DoS attack, is an assault whose purpose is to disrupt computer access to an Internet service such as the Web or e-mail.
  • 21. 1e.Spoofing • A technique intruders use to make their network or Internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or network.
  • 22. 2.Unauthorized Access and Use Unauthorized access The use of a computer or network without permission. Unauthorized use The use of a computer or its data for unapproved or possibly illegal activities.
  • 23. 3.Hardware Theft and Vandalism Hardware theft Is the act of stealing computer equipment. Hardware vandalism The act of defacing or destroying computer equipment.
  • 24. 4.Software Theft Steals Intentionally software erases media programs Illegally Illegally registers copies a and/or program activates a program
  • 25. 5.Information Theft Occurs when someone steals personal or confidential information. If stolen, the loss of information can cause as much damage as (if not more than) hardware or software theft.
  • 26. System Failure A system failure is the prolonged malfunction of a computer A variety of factors can lead to system failure, including: • Aging hardware • Natural disasters • Electrical power problems • Noise, undervoltages, and overvoltages • Errors in computer programs