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1.1 mark spalding solving the crisis in the seas final

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1.1 mark spalding solving the crisis in the seas final

  1. 1. Solving the crisis in the seas Do Marine Protected Areas do the job? Mark D Spalding
  2. 2. Crisis? What crisis?
  3. 3. Eutrophication, hypoxia and dead zones NASA Earth Observatory P.J. Hahn
  4. 4. Marine fisheries FAO, 2012
  5. 5. Increasing fishing power Albatun Tres – 115m seiner takes up to 3000 tons of tuna from a single trip
  6. 6. Marine Protected Areas “A protected area is a clearly defined geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values.”
  7. 7. Vast and strictly protected
  8. 8. Large, multiple uses: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Wavelength.com Northern Prawn Fishery
  9. 9. Monterrey Bay National Marine Sanctuary
  10. 10. Small, strict no-take T and J Enderby
  11. 11. Paul Naylor Small, partially protected NOAA
  12. 12. Almost meaningless Carol Stoker, NASA Crown Copyright/MOD 2012
  13. 13. From Diktat to Dialogue
  14. 14. Global targets • By 2012: Marine and coastal MPA networks “should include strictly protected areas that amount to at least 20–30% of each habitat” (Vth World Parks Congress, 2003) • By 2010/2012: “at least 10% of the worlds marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved” (CBD, 2006) • …by 2020: “10 percent of coastal and marine areas, especially those of importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved…” (CBD, UNEP, 2010)
  15. 15. What are MPAs achieving, and where? • Massive benefits for biodiversity
  16. 16. What are MPAs achieving, and where? • Massive benefits for biodiversity • Benefits for fishers, recreation, tourism…
  17. 17. • >10,000 sites • 2.3% of the ocean • 7.9% of continental shelf • 1.79% of off-shelf waters • 0.17% of the high seas Where? Spalding et al., 2013
  18. 18. Remote, massive MPAs High Seas Locally managed marine areasInternational declarations Where are we going? the big new stories in MPAs
  19. 19. Hitting the Target Wood et al, 2008
  20. 20. Wood et al, 2008 New predictions Hitting the Target
  21. 21. …but missing the point? “A protected area is a clearly defined geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values.” …by 2020: “10 percent of coastal and marine areas, especially those of importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved…” (CBD, UNEP, 2010)
  22. 22. 2 clams 4 clams Ecosystem services
  23. 23. Aligning with ecosystem services Areas with high coastal populations have low MPA coverage
  24. 24. Mapping value
  25. 25. Mapping value FR = 8.02W0.58 e(-0.015T-27) 2 Where W is dry tissue mass, T is temperature °C
  26. 26. Used modified SWAN model (Suzuki et al., 2011) to estimate wave attenuation behind a mangrove island in front of the port Mangroves on island increase the return period of a 2.5m wave reaching the port from 20 years to 60 years. An extension of the island to the north would further decrease wave height at the port. Mapping value Dhamra Port, Orissa, India (Narayan et al. , 2010)
  27. 27. © SFG Planning and managing for synergies, sharing experiences
  28. 28. TURFs in Chile Loco Fishery Recovered Densities in TURFs Dramatically Higher Than Open Access Strong Incentive for Enforcement TURFs Reserves - MAP not at scale A R T E S A N A L F I S H I N G - Network Not planed Multiple use_ MPA Concessions > 700 TURFs > 40,000 Fishers Loco (Concholepas concholepas) 0 20 40 60 80 100, 120 140 160 a b Open access TURFs NT-MPA Density(ind/200m2) b Gelcich et al. 2008 - 2012 Total richness (algae, reef-fish, invertebrates) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Open Access TURFs No-take MPA Access Regime Richness(numberspecies) b a
  29. 29. Linking MPAs to people: California’s Central Coast Ground fish Project Partnership between: • TNC, regulatory agencies and trawl fishermen • Started in 2005 Shared Goal: • Economically and environmentally sustainable ground fish fishery Bill Blue, Morro Bay fisher sorting his recent catch blackcod by size © Michael Bell, TNC
  30. 30. Not always win-win for everyone • Opportunity costs • Paradoxical impacts – Displacement – Investing in better gear to catch more in surroundings – Starting new fisheries! • Certain fisheries may be a lower-value ocean use!
  31. 31. Crowded oceans, multiple users AP Photo/Geert Vanden Wijngaert
  32. 32. Chris Gotschalk Alexander Mustard
  33. 33. Bringing ES values to the table GAUFRE, 2005
  34. 34. Where is this taking us?
  35. 35. Final thoughts • MPAs are a critical tool: – for biodiversity – AND for people! • Engage people! • Look for synergies, but don’t always expect win-win-win-win • Quantify values, don’t talk in generalities • Protect 100% of the oceans, not 10%

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Direct destructionUnsustainable harvestLand Based sourcesSolid wasteClimate change
  • Dead zones have now been reported from more than 400 systems,affecting a total area of more than 245,000 square kilometersIn the northern Gulf ofMexico, tightly coupledwith freshwater discharge from the MississippiRiver. During yearswith low river flow, the area of hypoxia shrinks to<5000 km2, only to increase to >15,000 km2when river flow is high.http://thewatchers.adorraeli.com/2011/03/07/billions-of-dead-fish/
  • “The world’s marine fisheries increased markedly from 16.8 million tonnes in 1950 to a peak of 86.4 million tonnes in 1996…” have been plateaued since 1996 at about 80 million tonnes. These numbers are based on national reporting. They are beset with problems - Ignore IUU, Largely ignore artisanal fishingErrors, poor identification and deceptionWhile most fishers tend to under-report their catches, Watson and Pauly – China under the communist system promotion depended on increasing productivity year on year. Estimated that they were doubling the estimated catch from 5 million to 10 million tonnes per year.
  • Even this apparently gloomy description is in many ways too optimistic. Apparently stable catches against a background of constantly increasing fishing effort (or fishing power)Power Sail – Steam – Diesel Vessel size, range and speedRefridgerationSatellites – real-time SSTSonarSpottersNew gear technology:Longlines – typical set is 100km long. Trawling now – regularly to depths of 2000m.
  • Brave new world
  • “A protected area is a clearly defined geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values.”
  • The conservationists Nirvana (maybe the fisherman’s too, but he has a day job)
  • GBRMPA
  • Leigh – Cape Rodney-Okakari Point (Goat is.) http://www.protectplanetocean.org/collections/successandlessons/casestudy/leigh/caseStudy.htmlOne of the longest-running marine reserves – established in 1975, closed to all fishing – 5km of coast and 800m offshoreNearly 9 times as many snapper, 4 times as many lobsters. These have had ecosystem wide effects
  • In 2006, a group of three smallMPAs (less than 1km2) were implemented along the Norwegian Skagerrak coastGear restrictions – hook and line only - complete protection to lobster and partial protection to fish. As might be expected, and as has already been dramatically illustrated in the UK’s Lundy Marine Reserve Lobsters increased in both abundance and size. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) had increased by 245 per cent in Skagerrak (and a fivefold increase in Lundy), with a 13% increase in size. Perhaps more exciting thought was the response of cod – still fishable by hook and line. Partial protection led to increase in population density and a mean increase of body size of 5 cm.
  • Poor designPoor implementationLack of consensus/community supportA Royal Navy patrol ship has issued a record on-the-spot fine to fishermen using undersized nets after sailors boarded a Dutch fishing vessel in the North Sea https://www.gov.uk/government/news/royal-navy-issues-record-fine-for-illegal-fishing
  • Recognising both the potential value of what MPAs can do, harrangued perhaps by public sick of polluted waters and endangered species, and NGOs saddened by the loss of nature, governments have set targets.2012 – miserable miss2020 – 10%
  • Have talked about some of the extraordinary benefits to biodiversity – from Lundy, to Norway, to New ZealandLester et al 09 shwo 446% increase in biomass of fish through increases in both size and abundance. This has huge implications on fecundityAlso show increases in diversity.Habitat structureResilienceChagos seems to outrank the whole lot with a new study suggesting that fish biomass in this vast “marine wilderness may be SIX times that of even the other marine reserves of the region.Sweatman, H. 2008. No-take reserves protect coral reefs from predatory starfish. 18:R598-599.Mumby, P. J., and A. R. Harborne. 2010. Marine reserves enhance the recovery of corals on Caribbean reefs. PLoS ONE 5:e8657.Selig, E. R., and J. F. Bruno. 2010. A global analysis of the effectiveness of marine protected areas in preventing coral loss. PLoS ONE 5:7.Tetreault, I., and R. F. Ambrose. 2007. Temperate marine reserves enhance targeted but not untargeted fishes in multiple no-take mpas. Ecological Applications 17:2251-2267.
  • They are also achieving benefits for fisheries, both within and beyond their boundaries. This is Callum’s subject so I won’t steal too much thunder, but benefits CAN accrue both within “fishable” MPAs and in the surroundings of closed areas.A survey of MPAs in Southern Europe showed mean value of commercial fishing at 710,000Eur per year for commercial fishing (but possibly no greater than value outside MPAs, while recreational fishing and diving were bringing in a further 640,000 (Roncin et al, 2008). This local income generation is 2.3 times the running cost including enforcement and monitoring.
  • Also mention 8.3 million km2...almost double the area of the EUCoral reefs at 27%, mangroves at 25%
  • Large remote MPAs =Chagos,Papahanaukuakoa, South Orkneys, new Australian sites – great stuff, but these were already “protected”High seas MPAs – South Orkney and OSPAR - an exciting and important developmentInternational MPAs – well its got to be a good thing when laggard nations such as those across Europe are being “forced” to do something, but like so much coming out of Europe, there is simply no pointSo the last observation, which we almost left out of our paper, because in terms of spatial coverage they are still miniscule - LMMAs
  • 10% is a pathetic target and most conservation observers would see it as a way-point rather than an end-point (reminder that definitions do not exclude fishing). Seems to be a bit of a race to get there through the designation of massive remote MPAs in places that weren’t so threatened. But that will miss the fine print.
  • Seismic shift in rate of designationIn Nov Australia added 2.3 million km2Cooks >1 million New Caledonia 1.4mill Pitcairn is also looking to add a vast areaHitting the target10% is not a massivetarget and most conservation observers would see it as a way-point rather than an end-point (reminder that definitions do not exclude fishing). So it seems we will get there, largely through the designation of massive remote MPAs in places that weren’t so threatened. But that will miss the fine print.
  • Conserving ecosystem servicesMPAs are a management tool not only to help biodiversity but also to enhance or at least conserve ecosystem services – that means fishing, coastal protection, recreation, health, genetic variety, water quality, coastal defence.Embedded in the latest targets. MPAs can, and should, serve people as well as nature.There’s a challenge here which, thus far, we haven’t risen to meet. But I think we can and we are just now starting to think, with others, how we might start to map ES and then start to prioritise conservation around these ALONGSIDE biodiversity prioritisation.In many ways it’s a no-brainer. We KNOW MPAs provide real benefits to people at local scales. That’s been one of our great justifications for years. But more than that, if we can get MPAs to “pay their way” then we might be able to shift the challenges of implementation to new communities.
  • Its pretty clear from the maps and stats that so far the great focus of conservation effort has been to put MPAs in remote places – these are important for biodiversity, that’s for sure, and they are also easy gains, but we may be missing trick.
  • About the HABITATBivalve molluscs from the family Ostreidae. Several species are highly edible and have been sought after for millennia by humans. Found in both subtidal and lower intertidal areas.Filter feeders and distinct preference for nutrient rich areas such as estuaries, can cope with slightly lower salinities than seawater. Preference to settle on hard substrate. any area where oysters are found in sufficient quantities to form a functional habitat, offering a physical structure of value to other sessile and mobile species. This may include oysters interspersed with extensive soft bottom or SAV, formations on other physical structures (e.g., hard-bottom, engineered structures, mangrove roots), depleted oyster bottom with extensive shell rubble (cultch), as well as large physical structures built up by oysters and other shellfish, with high relief.
  • About the HABITATBivalve molluscs from the family Ostreidae. Several species are highly edible and have been sought after for millennia by humans. Found in both subtidal and lower intertidal areas.Filter feeders and distinct preference for nutrient rich areas such as estuaries, can cope with slightly lower salinities than seawater. Preference to settle on hard substrate. any area where oysters are found in sufficient quantities to form a functional habitat, offering a physical structure of value to other sessile and mobile species. This may include oysters interspersed with extensive soft bottom or SAV, formations on other physical structures (e.g., hard-bottom, engineered structures, mangrove roots), depleted oyster bottom with extensive shell rubble (cultch), as well as large physical structures built up by oysters and other shellfish, with high relief.
  • A lot of fisheries success stories now are coming out of changing management regimes, moving towards “rights based management” where fishers are given some degree of ownership of the resources they fish. This may be through quotas or exclusive access or some combination.Rights based managementVanuatu
  • In 2005, TNC partnered with regulatory agencies and trawl fishermen in Central Coast communities to create a program aimed at developing new and sustainable approaches to the Central Coast groundfish fishery in California. 
  • limitations to Marine Reserves is how they are designed - both in terms of size and location. Too small, they may not be able to generate sufficient biomass to have that spillover effectToo large and the opportunity costs will be larger than long-term benefits.Perverse outcomes EVEN for biodiversity:Because rarely buy-back of vessels or alternative livelihoods investment just lead to a shifting of effortCan be compounded by ecosystem effectsCan also give impression of protection
  • I don’t want to be naïve. Even if we can get a win-win, we’ll never get a win-win-win-winWe need to stop having this binary vision of the seas, as a place for fishing or for conservation.First-off, fishing isn’t a monolithic institution and of course the fishers know that better than anyone. Trawlers spoil the catch from line fishers. Commercial harvests cut the recreational harvests. Local fishers are wiped out by outsiders. Sailors get in the way, what about surfers, divers? And aggregate miners? oil and gas industry? Wind-farms and other renewables? Tourism story
  • Sometimes massive gains in one sector may outweigh the losses or opportunity costs in anotherA survey of MPAs in Southern Europe showed mean value of commercial fishing at 710,000Eur per year for commercial fishing (but possibly no greater than value outside MPAs, while recreational fishing and diving were bringing in a further 640,000 (Roncin et al, 2008). This local income generation is 2.3 times the running cost including enforcement and monitoring.Viana et al (2011) Socio-economic value and community benefits from shark-diving tourism in Palau: A sustainable use of reef shark populationsshark diving is a major contributor to the economy of Palau, generating US$18 million per year and accounting for approximately 8% of the gross domestic product of the country. Annually, shark diving was responsible for the disbursement of US$1.2 million in salaries to the local community, and generated US$1.5 million in taxes to the government. If the population of approximately 100 sharks that interact with tourists at popular dive sites was harvested by fishers, their economic value would be at most US$10 800, a fraction of the worth of these animals as a non-consumptive resource
  •  North Norfolk seal trips – 4 companies taking a mean of £2000 a day (based on 10 trips per day (>12 boats, not always all operating, but sometimes 2 or even three trips per day), assuming boats operating with 15 ad and 10 children per boat). Giving each seal a value of £100s to £1000s per year.
  • So we are really thinking about how to get the full suite of ES into the right places for them to be able to influence multiple sectors where decisions over the use of marine space are made – that might be engineers, planners, public, community, political. At all levels they need more detail, and honesty, than they are currently getting and that means improving the available information on any and all ES – how much, where, when and with the language of certainty or risk, and with some concept of future projectionsmarine spatial planning and its implementationOf course some already have a considerable influence – on MSP
  • In the US both the perceptions and concerns have touched both public and government minds and imaginationMassive efforts at restorationThis is 100s of volunteers putting out reef structures in Alabama, primarily to restore coastal protection services

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