4. Hyper loop concept was invented and designed in 1812 by
the British Mechanical Engineer George Wenger
The concept of hyper loop is now developed and designed by
the billionaire Elon Musk in 2012
While the term Hyper loop is in some countries a registered
trademark of the Space Exploration Technologies Corporation
(Space X) for the high speed transportation in partially
evacuated tubes, the Hyper loop concept has been explicitly
open-sourced by Musk and Space X, and others have been
encouraged to take the ideas and further develop them.
This system can achieve an average speed of 598 mph
(962 km/h), and a top speed of 760 mph (1,220 km/h).
5. Simply it have the same working principle of Air Hockey
The pods would accelerate to cruising speed gradually using a linear
electric motor and glide above their track using passive magnetic
levitation or air bearings.
It is levitated and propelled forward using powerful electromagnets.
This itself considerably reduces losses due to friction, as the train is
literally gliding over the track and is not in contact with the track
Hence there are no frictional losses allowing the train to move at high
velocities. The absence of air in the hyper loop will further increase the
efficiency by nearly eliminating losses due to air drag and make it
The capsules are supported on a cushion of air, featuring pressurized
air and aerodynamic lift.
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF HYPER LOOP
6. Residual air in the tube is captured, compressed, and forced
through holes in skis attached to the bottom of the capsule. The
gap between the skis and the tube during operation is between
0.5mm and 1.3mm
The air pressure in the tube is very low, a capsule traveling at
700mph will cause significant air pressure at the nose of the
vehicle, which must be considered in the design. Since the tube has
a larger cross-section than the capsule, some air flows around the
9. Hyper loop consists of a low pressure tube with
capsules that are transported at both low and
high speeds throughout the length of the tube.
Hyperloop conceptual diagram.
12. Sealed capsules carrying 28 passengers each that travel
along the interior of the tube.
The maximum width is 4.43 ft (1.35 m) and maximum
height is 6.11 ft (1.10 m). With rounded corners, this is
equivalent to a 15 ft2 (1.4 m2) frontal area, not
including any propulsion or suspension components.
13. The capsules are accelerated via a magnetic
linear accelerator affixed at various stations on
the low pressure tube with rotors contained in
Hyperloop passenger capsule subsystem notional locations (not to scale).
14. For travel at high speeds, the greatest power
requirement is normally to overcome air resistance.
Aerodynamic drag increases with the square of speed,
and thus the power requirement increases with the cube
For example, to travel twice as fast a vehicle must
overcome four times the aerodynamic resistance, and
input eight times the power.
15. Just as aircraft climb to high altitudes to travel through
less dense air, Hyperloop encloses the capsules in a
reduce pressure tube.
The pressure of air in Hyperloop is about 1/6 the
pressure of the atmosphere on Mars.
This is an operating pressure of 100 Pascal’s, which
reduces the drag force of the air by 1,000 times relative
to sea level conditions and would be equivalent to
flying above 150,000 feet altitude
16. The capsules are separated within the tube by
approximately 23 miles (37 km) on average during
The capsules are supported via air bearings that
operate using a compressed air reservoir and
23. Passengers may enter and exit Hyperloop at
stations located either at the ends of the tube, or
branches along the tube length.
24. The tube is made of steel. Two tubes will be welded
together in a side by side configuration to allow the
capsules to travel both directions.
Pylons are placed every 100 ft (30 m) to support the
Solar arrays will cover the top of the tubes in order to
provide power to the system.
The inner diameter of the tube is optimized to be 7 ft
4 in. (2.23 m) which is small enough to keep material
cost low while large enough to provide some
alleviation of choked air flow around the capsule.
The tube cross-sectional area is 42.2 ft2 (3.91 m2)
giving a capsule/tube area ratio of 36% or a
diameter ratio of 60%.
high-speed transport more generally, have historically
been impeded by the difficulties in managing friction
and air resistance, both of which become substantial
when vehicles approach high speeds.
28. Vactrain concept : tubes kept at a complete vacuum,
allowing for theoretical speeds of thousands of miles
The expected pressure inside the tube will be
maintained around 100pa (less pressure).
This low pressure minimizes the drag force on the
capsule while maintaining the relative ease of pumping
out the air from the tube.
29. Linear accelerators are construct
various along the length of the tube at
locations to accelerate the capsules.
Stators are located on the capsules
to transfer momentum to the capsules
via the linear accelerators.
39. In 1812 the British mechanical engineer and
inventor George Medhurst wrote a book detailing his idea of transporting passengers and
goods through air-tight tubes using air propulsion.
Atmospheric railways were built in Ireland and England, most notably the London and
Croydon Railway, the first stage opening in 1846.
The Crystal Palace pneumatic railway operated around 1864 and used large fans, some 22
feet (6.7 m) in diameter, that were powered by a steam engine. The tunnels are now lost but
the line operated successfully for over a year.
In the 1910s, vacuum trains were first described by rocket pioneer Robert Goddard. While
Hyper loop has significant innovations over early proposals for reduced pressure or vacuum-
tube transportation apparatus, the work of Goddard "appears to have the greatest overlap with
the Hyper loop."
Swiss metro was a proposal to run a maglev train in a low pressure environment.
Concessions were granted to Swiss metro in the early 2000s to connect the Swiss cities of St.
Gallen, Zurich, Basel and Geneva. Studies of commercial feasibility reached differing
conclusions and the vactrain was never built.
41. Hyperloop is a new idea of solar powered
transportation system with high speed of up to 800mph,
which is developed by US entrepreneur Elon Musk.
He proposed this transportation system to the route
from the Los Angeles region to the San Francisco Bay
Area. In this presentation, the possibilities and
construction of the system is explained with the details
of different components of the system.
The technical details of the Hyperloop in this
presentation are based on the design details released by
Elon musk on 12th august,2013. 41
42. ◦ Musk, Elon (August 12, 2013). "Hyperloop Alpha".SpaceX.
◦  M. A. M. Cheema, J. E. Fletcher, D. Xiao, and M. F. Rahman, “A direct
thrust control scheme for linear permanent magnet synchronous motor based
on online duty ratio control,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 31, no. 6, pp.
4416–4428, Jun. 2016.
◦  Z. Long, G. He, and S. Xue, “Study of EDS & EMS hybrid suspension
system with permanent-magnet Halbach array,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 47,
no. 12, pp. 4717–4724, Dec. 2011.
◦ “Hyperloop” ,Wikipedia
◦ Garber, Megan (July 13, 2012). "The Real iPod: Elon Musk's Wild
Idea for a 'Jetson Tunnel' from S.F. to L.A.". The Atlantic.
◦ "Beyond the hype of Hyperloop: An analysis of Elon Musk's proposed
transit system".Gizmag.com. August 22, 2013.
◦ Bilton, Nick. "Could the Hyperloop Really Cost $6 Billion? Critics Say No".
The New York Times.