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Communication Strategies
Communication Strategies <ul><li>Techniques of coping with difficulties in communicating in an imperfectly known second la...
Bialystok (1990) <ul><li>Problematicity </li></ul><ul><li>When a speaker perceives  that there is a problem  which may int...
<ul><li>Intentionality </li></ul><ul><li>The assumption that the speaker has control over the strategy that is selected an...
Faerch and Kasper (1983) <ul><li>Reduction Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement Strategies </li></ul>
Reduction Strategies <ul><li>Formal Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>The learner communicates by means of a reduced system </li...
Achievement Strategies <ul><li>Code-switching </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase </li></ul>
Tarone (1977) <ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal...
Avoidance <ul><li>Topic Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding reference to a  salient object for which  learner does not ha...
Paraphrase <ul><li>Approximation </li></ul><ul><li>The learner uses an item known to be incorrect but which shares some se...
<ul><li>Circumlocution  </li></ul><ul><li>The Learner describes the characteristics of the object </li></ul>
Conscious Transfer <ul><li>Literal Translation </li></ul><ul><li>‘ He invites me to drink’ in place of ‘They toast one ano...
<ul><li>Appeal for Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>The learner consults some  authority </li></ul><ul><li>Mime   </li></ul><u...
The child strategies for filling lexical gaps   <ul><li>Overgeneralization </li></ul><ul><li>The use of all-purpose terms ...
Corder (1978) <ul><li>Risk-avoiding </li></ul><ul><li>The development of the  strategies lead to a lack of  linguistic for...
The value of teaching CSs   <ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>There is benefit to the direct  teaching of specific strategi...
Kellerman (1991) <ul><li>‘ Teach the learners more  language and let the  strategies look after  themselves’ </li></ul>
 
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Communication Strategies

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Communication Strategies

  1. 1. Communication Strategies
  2. 2. Communication Strategies <ul><li>Techniques of coping with difficulties in communicating in an imperfectly known second language </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bialystok (1990) <ul><li>Problematicity </li></ul><ul><li>When a speaker perceives that there is a problem which may interrupt communication </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers who employ them are aware of having done so </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Intentionality </li></ul><ul><li>The assumption that the speaker has control over the strategy that is selected and that the choice is responsive to the perceived problem </li></ul>
  5. 5. Faerch and Kasper (1983) <ul><li>Reduction Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement Strategies </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reduction Strategies <ul><li>Formal Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>The learner communicates by means of a reduced system </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>The learner reduces his communicative goal in order to avoid a problem </li></ul>
  7. 7. Achievement Strategies <ul><li>Code-switching </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase </li></ul>
  8. 8. Tarone (1977) <ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal for Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Mime </li></ul>
  9. 9. Avoidance <ul><li>Topic Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding reference to a salient object for which learner does not have necessary vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Message Abandonment </li></ul><ul><li>The learner begins to refer to an object but gives up because it is too difficult </li></ul>
  10. 10. Paraphrase <ul><li>Approximation </li></ul><ul><li>The learner uses an item known to be incorrect but which shares some semantic features in common with the correct item </li></ul><ul><li>Word Coinage </li></ul><ul><li>The learner makes up a new item </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Circumlocution </li></ul><ul><li>The Learner describes the characteristics of the object </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conscious Transfer <ul><li>Literal Translation </li></ul><ul><li>‘ He invites me to drink’ in place of ‘They toast one another’ </li></ul><ul><li>Language Switch </li></ul><ul><li>‘ balon’ for ‘balloon’ </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Appeal for Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>The learner consults some authority </li></ul><ul><li>Mime </li></ul><ul><li>The learner uses a non- verbal device to refer to an object or event </li></ul>
  14. 14. The child strategies for filling lexical gaps <ul><li>Overgeneralization </li></ul><ul><li>The use of all-purpose terms </li></ul><ul><li>The process of word- creation </li></ul>
  15. 15. Corder (1978) <ul><li>Risk-avoiding </li></ul><ul><li>The development of the strategies lead to a lack of linguistic forward movement </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-taking </li></ul><ul><li>It is part of good language teaching to encourage resource expansion strategies and lead to language learning </li></ul>
  16. 16. The value of teaching CSs <ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>There is benefit to the direct teaching of specific strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate </li></ul><ul><li>What instruction can hope to achieve is to enhance the processing skills that are responsible for the effective use of strategies </li></ul>
  17. 17. Kellerman (1991) <ul><li>‘ Teach the learners more language and let the strategies look after themselves’ </li></ul>

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