Transitions and Reappearing themes throughout Literature in Scandinavia<br />
Overview<br />Where Literature historically began<br />How Scandinavian countries have become dominant in Education/Literature both do to cultural bonds, European Influence and strive for economic dominance<br />How even though great advancement has been made historical and traditional cultural aspects still greatly influence literature<br />Look at three 20thCentury authors illustrating Viking themes in literature: Frans Gunnar Bengtsson, Sigrid Undset, Johannes V. Jensen<br />
History of Literature In Scandinavia<br />Sami and the Finn into orally depicted stories little is know of their earlier literature<br />Viking Age period 750-1250 Runic Inscriptions and Eddic Poems were a common source of Influence on society<br />Runic Inscriptions are seen greatly in the depiction of a memorial to the family members<br />As Christianization of the ‘Barbaric’ Pagans took place you see the widespread use of Latin<br />From this large scale spread of various written language<br />
The Newer FuþarkViking Age Runic Alphabet<br />
Runic Translation<br />stain sasiiassatraiftirsibakuþa sun fultarsinhansliþi sati at utausaiþ<br />‘This stone is placed in memory of Sibbe the Good, son of Foldar. And his followers placed on the island this (memorial) of death.'<br />
CIA ranking of Literacy Rates<br />Sweden + Denmark<br />Defined as “age 15 and over can read and write”<br />Male literacy rate is 99%<br />Female Literacy rate is 99%<br />99% of the total population is literate<br />Norway<br />Defined as “age 15 and over can read and write”<br />Male literacy rate is 100%<br />Female Literacy rate is 100%<br />100% of the total population is literate<br />
Nobel Prizes<br />Sweden<br />In the period of 1901-2009 Sweden has received 31 Nobel Prizes<br />7 of the 31 were in literature<br />Ranked # 7 overall in most Nobel Prizes per Country<br />Denmark<br />In the period of 1901-2009 Denmark has received 13 Nobel Prizes<br />3 of the 13 were in literature<br />Ranked # 11<br />Norway<br />In the period of 1901-2009 Norway has received 9 Nobel Prizes<br />3 of the 9 were in literature<br />Ranked #14 <br />
What HDI is<br />The HDI combines three dimensions<br />Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity<br />Knowledge and Education as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two thirds weighting) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one third weighting)<br />Standard of living, as measured by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity<br />
HDI Results for 2009<br />Norway<br />Ranked 1 in the Human Development Report 2009 – HDI Rankings<br />Sweden<br />Ranked 7 in the Human Development Report 2009 – HDI Rankings<br />Denmark<br />Ranked 16 in the Human Development Report 2009 – HDI Rankings<br />
Swedish, Danish and Norwegian Universities<br />Denmark<br />University of Copenhagen #48 Best Universities-- #51 in US News<br />University of Aarhus #81 Best Universities-- #63 US News<br />Sweden<br />Uppsala University ranked #63 Best Universities-- #75 in US News<br />Lund University ranked #88 Best Universities-- #67 in US News<br />Norway<br />University of Bergen<br />
National Library<br />Sweden, Norway, and Denmark all have national Libraries<br />These libraries hold very historical materials from throughout the centuries<br />Often like in the US national library many of the pieces are only to be analyzed and studied by technicians specially appointed by the government<br />
Frans Gunnar Bengtsson<br />Swedish writer born in Tossjo in 1864 and died in Vastergotland in 1954<br />He is known as a poet and novelist<br />He was highly influenced by Viking society, but he took a contemporary approach in his books, writing about the Fictional Viking age <br />Famous for The Long Ships Saga of the Viking Age<br />This book (known as "RødeOrm" in its original Swedish) is a great romp through theVikingworld, written in a sometimes humorous though always engaging saga style, combining intelligent humor and bold adventure in equal measures. Set in the height of Viking Age, it tells us how Red Orm is kidnapped by a band of marauding Vikings, then serves as a slave on a Moorish ship, becomes a mercenary among the Muslims, and finally ends up as a marauder in England <br />
Sigrid Undset<br />She was a Norwegian Novelist born in Kalundborg, Denmark (20 May 1882-10 June 1949)<br />Undset was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature in Literature in 1928<br />Sigrid is most well known for her work Kristin Lavransdatter<br />This book was a modernist trilogy about life in Scandinavia in the Middle Ages which portrays the life of woman from birth until death<br />She also published the novel Gunnar’s Daughter a Fictional novel relating to Old Norse society<br />This novel's central character is VigdisGunnarsdatter, who is raped and delivers an illegitimate child. Vigdis schemes and broods and plots for her revenge on Viga-Ljot, and, as in many Old Norse sagas, her desire for vengeance damages both Vigdis and those around her. <br />
Johannes V. Jensen<br />(January 20, 1873- November 25, 1950) He was born in Farso a village in North Jutland, Denmark<br />He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1944<br />His masterpiece was Kongens Fald(The Fall of the King)<br />This was a modern historical novel centered around King Christian II and his characteristically Danish hesitancy and failures to act<br />He also wrote a series of six novels Den langerejse(The Long Journey)<br />This is often considered his main work in prose, a daring and often impressive attempt to create a Darwinian alternative to the Biblical Genesis myth. In this work we see the development of mankind from the Ice Age to the times of Columbus, focusing on pioneering individuals including Viking age development and society<br />
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