Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

2 - History.pdf

Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Nächste SlideShare
OBE - NEW SLIDES.pptx
OBE - NEW SLIDES.pptx
Wird geladen in …3
×

Hier ansehen

1 von 13 Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Weitere von Praveen Kumar (20)

Anzeige

2 - History.pdf

  1. 1. The Impact of Materials on Progress
  2. 2. Revolution in Transportation Road Transport in the 18th and a major part of 19th century was mainly horse carriages. By 1890 we had Copper, Bronze, Iron, Steel , Aluminum and Rubber in addition to Wood. This paved the way for series of inventions leading to a paradigm shift in the road transport from horse carriages to motorized vehicles Karl Benz in Germany came up with a viable motor vehicle called ‘Velo’ in 1894 Ford Motors made the first assembly line for mass production of commercial vehicles The Ford T-model was the first successful and affordable commercial vehicle Materials had a very important role to play in this transformation from Velo or T to modern cars (see the next slide)
  3. 3. We have come of ages, developed new materials and technologies based on them The application of these materials has led to the modern day cars Automobile and Materials
  4. 4. From Cast iron blocks to more compact, lighter and powerful engine blocks – Material development has made it all possible Engine components are traditionally made from ferrous alloys. Emphasis on weight reduction for higher fuel efficiency has increased usage of aluminum for cylinder blocks, cylinder heads, and other engine components. Some engine covers and intake manifolds are made of magnesium. Titanium is also used in high-speed engines connecting rods to reduce reciprocating mass. Materials like synthetic rubber, variety of polymers, foams have provided new dimension and aesthetic look to automotive interiors Automobile and Materials Engine and Interior
  5. 5. Invention of Aeroplane From Wright Brothers’ invention in 1902 To today’s Aircraft Materials played a very important role in this case also Use of advanced materials - Stronger, lighter and better aerodynamic design, greater speed. Boeing 777, for example, used 75% aluminum whereas half of the materials used in the advanced version 787 is fiber reinforced composite. Total materials used by weight Boeing 787 Boeing 777 (Source: Boeing)
  6. 6. As the aircraft design improved, the load on the engine and hence, it’s operating temperature also increased. Need of materials that can sustain such harsh conditions. The advent of High-temperature materials (Ni base super alloys) has made it possible. (www.cmse.ed.ac.uk/AdvMat45/SuperEng.pdf) Impact of Materials
  7. 7. Waterways – Transport and Safety RMS Titanic, a classic example On it’s maiden voyage from Southampton, UK to New York city, RMS titanic sank in the North Atlantic on April 15, 1912 on colliding with an iceberg An analysis done on the hull steel years later provided the materials aspects of this tragedy. The hull of the ship was made of riveted steel plates The quality and the composition of the steel is crucial for the required properties and performance. Hull made of Riveted steel plates Rivet joint
  8. 8. Poor Steel quality, high S and P and low Mn:S ratio A metallurgical analysis done on the hull steel revealed a Mn:S ratio of 6.8:1 which was too low compared to a quality steel like ASTM A36 (Mn:S 15:1) Low Mn:S ratio cannot remove the sulfur from steel As a result sulphides form. The brittle sulfides reduces the impact properties At lower temperature metals and alloys loose their ductility and becomes brittle – Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) is the deciding factor Metallurgical aspects of failure
  9. 9. Formation of brittle sulphide inclusions due to Low Mn:S ratio High Ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) – The steel became very brittle at low temperature Impact property testing of the titanic steel exhibited brittle behavior. Brittle fracture on collision with ice berg in the chilling water temperature (-2 C at the time of collision). Breakage of ship and sinking Failure analysis
  10. 10. Modern cruise: As or more Luxurious as Titanic Use of advanced materials such as fiber reinforced composite (FRP), laminated composites, high-strength steels, non-ferrous alloys Better safety due to improved design and materials used therein combined with advanced navigation system The modern cruise ship
  11. 11. The Electronics Revolution Before invention of the Si chip Electro-mechanical computers were developed Harvard MarkI Electro-mechanical computer, 1940 – 5 tons, 8 x 51 feet and 500 miles of wire IBM Computer,1959, 33 feet long Invention of a metallurgical process, Zone refining, that can produce high purity Si led to the development of semiconductor chips. Development of smaller and smaller Si chips helped miniaturization that led to today’s computers Silicon – the heart of every electronic component
  12. 12. Communication and Entertainment Smaller and smaller microchips have brought the whole world on our palm top The advent of new electronic, optical and optoelectronic materials has given new dimension to entertainment
  13. 13. Katherine Felkins et al. The Royal Mail Ship Titanic: Did a Metallurgical Failure Cause a Night to Remember? JOM 50 (1) (1998) 12-18 Zygmont, Jeffrey Microchip: An Idea, Its Genesis, and The Revolution It Created (Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 2003). http://www.computersciencelab.com/ComputerHistory/Hist oryPt3.htm Further reading Key words: Role of Materials; Impact on progress; Transportation and Electronic revolution

×