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Does Archaeology Disprove the Bible?

Does modern Archaeology lend criticism to the narrative laid out in the Old and New Testament?

Is there any good historical evidence that the Biblical characters even existed?

Watch and decide for yourself...

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Does Archaeology Disprove the Bible?

  1. 1. Archaeology Bible and the
  2. 2. Contents • Understanding Archaeology • Archaeologists and Historians • Ancient Writing • Reign of the Kings • Old Testament Archaeology • Dead Sea Scrolls • Reliability of the New Testament • New Testament Archaeology Click on Titles to View Sections
  3. 3. Understanding Archaeology
  4. 4. Definition of Archaeology T he term archaeology is a compound word from the Greek “Archaios” and “Logos,” meaning the “study of ancient things.” The Greeks, Romans, and Jews used Archaiologia :     Plato: describes the Lacedaemonians as archaeologists since they were fond of genealogies and foundations of cities Thucydides: used it to summarize the early history of Greece Denis of Halicarnassus: used it to describe history of Rome Josephus: employed the term to describe history of the Jews
  5. 5. Definition of Archaeology A rchaiologia was used in English for the first time:   Bishop Hall of Norwich used it to describe the Bible narratives (1607) “ Archaeology” used in early 19th century to describe the “digging up” of objects
  6. 6.    Definition of Archaeology John Currid: The study of objects used by past societies….The aim of archaeology is to discover, rescue, observe, and preserve buried fragments of antiquity and to use them to help reconstruct ancient life Roland De Vaux: Archaeology seeks, describes, and classifies these materials Stuart Piggott: Archaeology is the science of rubbish
  7. 7.   Definition of Archaeology D.J. Wiseman and Edwin Yamauchi: Archaeology is an auxiliary science of history, helping its study by revealing information Randall Price: Archaeology is understood as a branch of historical research that seeks to reveal the past by a systematic recovery of its surviving remains
  8. 8. Rise of Archaeology T he earliest systematic interest in archaeology is found in Nabonidus , the last king of Babylon (6th century BC). He sought out past inscriptions and material structural remains most likely to legitimize his claim to the Babylonian throne since he was not a blood heir. CC-Art.com Clay Cuneiform Cylinder of Nabonidus
  9. 9. I nitially, Rise of Archaeology archaeology was associated with grave robbing and treasure seekers. The images below depict a looted 2500 BC tomb at Bab-adh-Dhra cemetery (Sodom, Jordan) at the southeastern end of the Dead Sea. Tomb Entrance 2x2 ft Inside View of 10x6 ft Oblong Cave Tomb
  10. 10. Rise of Archaeology E ventually, excavations at the Bay of Naples (below), Italy, commenced in 1738, officially highlighting archaeology as a legitimate scientific discipline.
  11. 11. Rise of Archaeology M ajor excavations began at Pompeii , Italy, in 1748 to uncover the ash laden (20 ft) city destroyed by the volcanic eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in AD 79 . Work at this site continues to the present day. Charred Ruins with Mt. Vesuvius  Burnt Remains of Temple of Apollo Society of Antiquaries established in London
  12. 12.  Rise of Archaeology N apoleon’s army officer, Hieroglyphics Lt. Bouchard, discovers the trilingual black basalt Rosetta Stone in Egypt in 1799, which led to the publication of the Description de L’Egypte (1809-13)  Demotic A rchaeology rises in 19 th / 20th centuries with Paul Botta and Austen H. Layard’s excavations at Khorsabad, Nimrud, and Nineveh (Iraq) Greek Rosetta Stone (1700 lbs)
  13. 13. Archaeology as Biblical Proof A rchaeology as “Proof” of Historical Narrative:    Minimalist: very little evidence and certainty Maximalist: overwhelming evidence and certainty Moderate: sufficient evidence and certainty, without contradiction with the biblical narrative O bjective of Archaeological Research:    To clarify and illumine the Bible record To discover whether the events of Scripture are historical To build confidence (give assurance) in God’s revealed Scripture
  14. 14.  Objections to Archaeology History can’t be known (self defeating) (relies on one’s historical knowledge to say it can’t be known)  Worldview skews the data (self-defeating) (all employ a worldview to interpret data, including the objector. The real question is whether one’s worldview is true or not)  Fragmentary evidence (impractical) (All knowledge, including the objection, is based on less than exhaustive evidence, e.g. newscasters)  Archaeology is not science (Yes it is!) (Archaeology is origin science testing unrepeatable singularities much like crime scene investigation which uses forensic science)  History & faith have no connection (Yes it does!) (Can’t separate the historical nature of Christ’s death and resurrection from the spiritual forgiveness of sin. Cannot have one without the other, Jn 3:12)
  15. 15. Limitations of Archaeology     By its very nature archaeological evidence is fragmentary and is often disconnected Only a fraction of the evidence has survived, has been excavated, surveyed, examined, and published Although archaeology in its descriptive phase with concrete objects and employs exact measurements, we cannot claim it is an exact deals science Archaeology’s interpretive aspects involve too many judgments of probabilities to secure the certainty of chemical experiments. On the other hand, certain principles of excavation command general acceptance Scriptures ~Edwin Yamauchi The Stones and the
  16. 16.      Kinds of Remains Tel: Earthen debris mound of cities built on top of a previous city. Each layer containing remains of one period is known as a “stratum” Glacis: Sloping fortification running from bottom to top of defensive walls to slow intruders Artifacts: Portable objects made by man such as tools, arrowhead, Jewelry, knife, jar, etc Feature: Non-portable architectural structures such as fireplaces, walls, hearths, gates, and foundations Ecofacts: Used, but not made by humans such as bones, seeds, wood, etc  Ostraca: Pottery sherd with writing on it  Locus: Official area of investigation at an
  17. 17. Tel: Mound of Debris Layers Tel Numera, Jordan (Gomorrah)
  18. 18. Glacis: Sloping Fortification at Wall Lo Mu Iron Age Foundation of Outside City Wall d os Br e ick Su Gl rfa ac ce is Ro ck
  19. 19. Artifacts: Portable, Made and Used by Iron Age and Humans Herodian Oil Lamps with Jug
  20. 20. Feature: Non-portable Structures Iron Age Wall Structure, Jordan
  21. 21. Ecofacts: Used, Not Made by Humans Human Skeleton, Jordan
  22. 22. Ostraca: Pottery Sherd with Writing Proto-Canaanite Letters Discovered Tel es-Safi (Gath), Israel
  23. 23. Locus: Specific Area of Investigation Newly Surveyed Square at a Tel in Jordan
  24. 24. In Situ: The Natural Setting in Which an Artifact is Found Iron Age Storage Jar in Situ
  25. 25. Archaeologists and Historians
  26. 26. Edwin Yamauchi The Stones and the Scriptures, 36. “ Until the breakthrough of archaeological discoveries, the stories about the biblical patriarchs-Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob-were subject to considerable skepticism…. In the last thirty years, however, a steadily increasing flow of materials from Mesopotamia and SyriaPalestine-from Mari, from Nuzi, from Alalakh-has convinced all except a few holdovers, of the authenticity of the patriarchal narratives.”
  27. 27. Nelson Glueck Rivers in the Desert: A History of the Negev, 31 “ It may be stated categorically that no archaeological discovery has ever controverted a biblical reference. Scores of archaeological findings have been made which confirm in clear outline or exact detail historical statements in the Bible.”
  28. 28. Millar Burrows What Mean These Stones?, 176 “ The Bible is supported by archaeological evidence again and again. On the whole, there can be no question that the results of excavation have increased the respect of scholars as a collection of historical documents. The confirmation is both general and specific.”
  29. 29. William F. Albright The Archaeology of Palestine, 248 “ Archaeological discoveries of the past generation in Egypt, Syria, and Palestine have gone far to establish the uniqueness of early Christianity as an historical phenomenon.”
  30. 30. Ancient Writing
  31. 31. The Development of Writing T he earliest known writing, pictograms , came from Southern Iraq (Sumer) in the 4 th millennium BC. These simple pictures were written in vertical columns with a sharpened reed plant stalk pressed into soft wet clay. This period is known as the protoliterate age of logographic (pictures stand for words) writing, rather than phonographic writing (pictures stand for sounds) which would develop in the 3 rd millennium BC. 4 th millennium BC Pictograms
  32. 32. The Development of Writing P ictograms eventually led to the development of cuneiform (from Latin cuneus meaning “wedge”) wedge writing with nearly 300 pictorial signs . By the beginning of the 2 nd millennium BC it became the standard script in most Mesopotamian regions. Akkadian Cuneiform
  33. 33. The Development of Writing I mmediately after pictographic writing was developed in Sumer, Egyptian pictographic hieroglyphics (lit. “sacred engraving”) appeared using over 600 pictorial signs. These could be written vertically or horizontally. Eventually, other script forms of Egyptian writing would be developed such as hieratic and demotic . These writing forms would be replaced by the 1 st millennium BC by the more simple alphabetic signs which gave rise to Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek. Egyptian Hieroglyphics Egyptian Demotic
  34. 34. The Development of Writing • T he alphabet , which was developed sometime in the 2 nd millennium BC, would eventually replace pictograms, hieroglyphics, and cuneiform writing during the 1 st millennium BC • Aramaic would be received as the official script in Persia, and used in some surrounding territories by the 6 th century BC. • Aramaic became the basis of Hebrew and Arabic writing • By the 4 th century BC, Greek became the universal language Aramaic Hebrew Greek
  35. 35. Reign of the Kings
  36. 36. Kings of Judah and Israel Israel                     Jeroboam (930-909 BC) Nadab (909-908 BC) Baasha (908-886 BC) Elah  (886-885 BC) Zimri  (885 BC) Tibni (885-880 BC) Omri (885-874 BC)* Ahab (874-853 BC)* Ahaziah (853-852 BC) Joram (852-841 BC)* Jehu (841-814 BC)* Jehoahaz (814-798 BC) Joash (798-782 BC)* Jeroboam II (793-753 BC)* Zechariah (753 BC) Shallum (752 BC) Menahem (752-742 BC) Pekahiah (742-740 BC) Pekah (752-732 BC)* Hoshea (732-722 BC)* Saul David* Solomon* Judah Rehoboam (933-916 BC) Abijah (915-913 BC) Asa (912-872 BC) Jehoshaphat (874-850 BC) Jehoram (850-843 BC) Ahaziah (843 BC) Athaliah (843-837 BC) Joash (843-803 BC)* Amaziah (803-775 BC) Uzziah (787-735 BC)* Jotham (749-734 BC)* Ahaz (741-726 BC)* Hezekiah (726-697 BC)* Manasseh (697-642 BC)* Amon (641-640 BC) Josiah (639-608 BC) Jehoahaz (608 BC)* Jehoiakim (608-597 BC)* Jehoiachin (597 BC)* Zedekiah (597-586 BC) *Biblical kings confirmed by extra biblical history and/or archaeology
  37. 37. Kings of Assyria T hough Assyria had limited power from 1300-1000 BC, only the time period when Assyria had significant contact with Israel will be listed. The Assyrian Empire fell to Babylon at Nineveh in 612 BC. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tiglath-pileser III Victory Parade Tukulti-Ninurta II (890-884 BC) Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC) Shalmaneser III (858-824 BC) Shamsi-Adad V (823-811 BC) Adad-nirari III (810-783 BC) Shalmaneser IV (782-773 BC) Ashur-dan III (772-755 BC) Ashur-nirari V (754-745 BC) 2 Kings 13:5? Tiglath-pileser III (Pul) (744-727 BC) 2 Kings 15:19, 29*+ Shalmaneser V (727-722 BC) 2 Kings 17:3-6*+ Sargon II (722-705 BC) Isaiah 20:1*+ Sennacherib (704-681 BC) 2 Kings 18:13*+ Esarhaddon (680-669 BC)+ 2 Kings 19:37*+ Ashurbanipal/Osnapper (668-627 BC) Ezra 4:10*+ *Those named in the Bible who are mentioned in extra biblical history or archaeology +Mentioned in the Bible by name
  38. 38. Kings of Babylon T his list of kings is not exhaustive, it reflects the Neo- Babylonian Empire of the 11 th Dynasty. Babylon fell to the Persian Empire in 539 BC (Daniel 7:4). A full list of kings since the 8 th century BC can be found in Ptolemy’s Canon of Kings. • • • • • • • Nabopolassar (626-605 BC) Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 BC) Daniel 1:1*+ Evil-Merodach (562-560 BC) 2 Kings 25:27*+ Nergal-Shar-usur (560-556) Jeremiah 39:3*+ Labashi-Marduk (556 BC) Nabonidus (556-539 BC) Belshazzar (co-regent) Daniel 5:22*+ *Those named in the Bible who are mentioned in extra biblical history or archaeology +Mentioned by name in the Bible Ishtar Gate, Babylon (Iraq)
  39. 39. Kings of Persia T he Persian Empire fell in 330 BC to Alexander the Great’s much smaller Greek army (Daniel 7; 8:3, 20-21). • • • • • • • • • Achaemenes (700-675 BC) Cyrus I (640-600 BC) Cyrus II (559-530 BC)*+ Cambyses II (530-522 BC) Darius I (522-486 BC)*+ Xerxes I (486-465 BC)*+ Limestone Artaxerxes I (465-424 BC)*+ Darius II (424-404 BC) Darius III (336-330 BC) Wall Relief of Darius I and Xerxes (Persepolis, Iran) *Those named in the Bible who are mentioned in extra biblical history or archaeology +Mentioned by name in the Bible
  40. 40. Kings of Egypt A n exact listing of Egyptian kings is difficult, with the margin of error being up to 100 years. Only those kings associated with biblical events/figures beginning with Joseph with be listed. • Sesostris II (1880-1874 BC) (Joseph) • Sesostris III (1874-1855 BC) • Tuthmosis III (1479-1425 BC) (early exodus) • Amenhotep II (1427-1400 BC) • Ramesses II (1279-1213 BC) (late exodus) • Shoshenq I (945-924 BC) 1 Kings 14:25 *+ • Taharqa (690-664 BC) 2 Kings 19:9 *+ • Tantamani (664-656 BC) • Necho II (610-595 BC) 2 Kings 23:29-35 *+ • Hophra/Apries Jeremiah 44:30 *+ The historian Herodotus (5 th century BC): "So when Apries [Hophra] leading his foreign mercenaries…had reached the city of Memphis, they [Apries and Amasis] engaged in battle.“ ~ Histories , 2.161ff CC-Art.com Tablet from Abydos depicts *Those named in the Bible who are mentioned in extra biblical King Hophra/Apries offering history or archaeology. +Mentioned by name in the Bible libation to a god
  41. 41. Old Testament Archaeology
  42. 42. Evidence for the C ritical Exodusdenied the Israelite exodus from scholars have Egypt due to lack of direct historical evidence. However, there are several lines of evidence which make this event plausible: • Beni-Hasan Mural: A tomb dating to 1900 BC at the Egyptian necropolis at Beni-Hasan (near Cairo) portrays the migration Features : Weapons, clothing, colors, animals, • Similar of bearded Semites (Asiatics) with donkeys and colorful musical attire instruments, and migration direction (see photo below) CC-Art.com from Canaan to Egypt, similar in appearance to the Hebrews.
  43. 43. Evidence for the Exodus S everal other lines of evidence support the exodus: • Hebrew language used in the Bible to describe the exodus and Egyptian life was written by someone who had intimate knowledge of Egypt (i.e. Moses) • Ipuwer papyrus is a 13 th century BC copy of an earlier period which describes conditions in Egypt that resemble the biblical account of the plagues including river is blood, trees are destroyed, no light in the land, people everywhere burying the dead (Exodus 7-12 cf. Ipuwer 2:2, 6, 13; 4:14; 9:11) • Foreigners have been enslaved throughout Egypt’s history • Evidence of settlements and encampments in the Sinai and at
  44. 44. Jericho E xcavations at Jericho and the analysis of Canaanite pottery samples by archaeologist, Bryant Wood, have demonstratedfortified city in 15 th century BC (Joshua 2:5• Jericho was a that Jericho was conquered c. 1400 BC . 7,15) • The city was destroyed by fire (Joshua 6:24) • The fortification walls collapsed (Joshua 6:20) • The destruction was in the spring due to grain storage (Joshua 2:6, 3:15, 5:10) • The grain stored in the city was not consumed indicating a short siege (Joshua 6:15,20) • The grain was never used by the inhabitants or invaders (Joshua 6:17-18) Jericho Brick from Wall
  45. 45. Temptation Seal D iscovered in Sumer, this chlorite seal (drawing) shows two figures seated on thrones reaching towards the tree with a serpent behind each figure. Some view the seal as an ordinary banquet scene, others suggest it is depicting the Genesis temptation story with Adam and Eve. If it is, the temptation and fall was known almost 800 years prior to the writing of Genesis, implying the great significance and widespread knowledge of the temptation story.
  46. 46. Amarna Tablets 1400 BC D iscovered in 1887 by peasant woman in Egypt, the Amarna Tablets written in cuneiform describe the “Hapiru,” which many understand as a distinct reference to the Hebrews, as the early conquerors of Canaan . This shows that the Hapiru were well known in Mesopotamia by early 2nd millennium BC which is consistent with the Bible’s patriarchal narrative.
  47. 47. Lachish Letters D iscovered at Lachish (Tell ed-Duweir) in 1935, 18 hastily written letters dating to 587 BC describes the terrifying final days of Judah under King Zedekiah before its final overthrow by the Babylonians in 586 BC. These confirm the fulfillment of prophecies describing Judah’s Babylonian captivity and conquest (Jeremiah 25:8-9; 34:7; Daniel 9:2; 2 Chron 36:15This note was written by 21). a Jewish military officer to his superior: 'To my lord Ya'osh. May Yahweh cause my lord to hear the news of peace, even now, even now. Who is your servant but a dog that my lord should remember his servant?'
  48. 48. Babylonian Chronicles 600 BC D escribes Nebuchadnezzar’s first decade as king along with his political & military exploits, including his invasion of Israel in late 7th and early 6th cent B.C. (Isaiah 39). T hese activities correspond to prophecies and histories recorded in Jeremiah, 2 Chron 36, and 2 Kings 24, and confirm the historicity of the biblical figure “Nebuchadnezzar II” described in the book of Daniel.
  49. 49. Ishtar Gate A ccording to archaeologists, the Ishtar Gate was the eighth gate, located on the north side of the city, which lead to the inner city of Babylon (near Baghdad, Iraq). It was constructed by order of King Nebuchadnezzar II and to be dedicated to the godess Ishtar. The gate contained a dedication inscription which confirms Nebuchadnezzar’s title as king, Babylon as his place of reign (605562 BC), and his historical existence. It reads in part: “Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, faithful prince and appointed by the will of Marduk,… the firstborn son of Nabopolasser, 575 BC
  50. 50. Nebuchadnezzar Brick 6 century BC th I mmediately after defeating the Assyrians at Nineveh (612 BC) Nebuchadnezzar II began large scale building projects at Babylon. It is estimated that more than 14 million baked bricks such as this were made and stamped with cuneiform inscriptions identifying the biblical king and his engineering and architectural exploits which are also confirmed in the 6 th century BC Cylinder of Nebuchadnezzar II. 'Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, … eldest son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon'. “ Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for a royal dwelling by my mighty power and for the honor of my majesty” (Daniel 4:30)
  51. 51. Cylinder of Nabonidus T his mid 6 century BC cuneiform cylinder was discovered in the temple of Shamash at Sippar (Iraq). It tells of Babylonian King Nabonidus’ reconstruction of pagan temples and the discovery of ancient inscriptions of former kings. More importantly, however, it offers historical confirmation of Belshazzar , who was previously either considered legendary or the Bible was mistaken to identify him as “king” (Daniel 5:1) since he was absent from any official kings list. th • Confirms historical figure of Belshazzar (Daniel 5) • Belshazzar was Nabonidus’ son and co-regent (King, Daniel 5:1) • Explains why Daniel could higher than 3 rd ruler in the (Daniel 5:29) rise no kingdom
  52. 52. Cyrus the Great B elow is the 6 century BC tomb at Pasargadae (Iran) of the biblical figure “Cyrus” prophesied by Isaiah (45:1) 150 years before his birth. He would eventually bring liberation to the Jewish captives in Babylon before his death in 529 BC. According to 1 st century BC Greek historian, Strabo, Alexander the Great visited the tomb before his death. The tomb inscription reads: th “ Oh man, I am Cyrus, who founded the empire of the Persians and was king of Asia. Grudge me not therefore this monument."
  53. 53. Cyrus Cylinder P ersian clay cylinder (6 century BC) written in Babylonian cuneiform describes King Cyrus’s victory over Babylon and his permission of free worship. The cylinder declares that: th • Cyrus allowed the return of foreign gods to their own land •“ I The rebuilding of destroyed cities and side of the Tigris, the returned to sacred cities on the other religious buildings sanctuaries of which have been in45:1-13; Ezra 1:1-3; 6:1-5) (2 Chronicles 36:22-23; Isaiah ruins for a long time, the •images which to live therein and “first charterfor… The cylinder is considered the established of human rights. ” them permanent sanctuaries. I gathered all their inhabitants and returned them to habitations.” their
  54. 54. Cyrus the Great T his clay brick (6 century BC) was discovered in the biblical city of Ur and was written in Babylonian cuneiform (Ezra 6:14). The inscription reads: “Cyrus king of the world, king of Anshan… the great gods delivered all the lands into my hands and I made this land dwell in peace” th B iblical names recorded on other brick discoveries are: • • • • • Shalmaneser Sargon Sennacherib Esarhaddon Nebuchadnezzar
  55. 55. Behistun Inscription L ocated near the Zagros mountains (Iran), this 5 century BC L ocated near the Zagros mountains (Iran), this 5 th century BC trilingual relief (drawing) written in Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian, gives extra biblical reference to the Persian victory over Babylon and the rise of Darius I (522-486 BC) to power (Dan 5:31; 6:1; Neh 12:22; Ezra 4-6) which is consistent with the prophecies and persons mentioned in the book of Daniel. 1.1: I (am) Darius, the great king, the king of kings, the king in Persia, the king of countries, the son of Hystaspes, the grandson of Arsames, the Achaemenide…. 1.19: Says Darius the king: Afterwards I went to Babylon;… there this Nidintu-Bel who called himself Nebuchadrezzar … we engaged in battle;…the army of Nidintu-Bel I smote
  56. 56. T his 5 Darius I and Xerxes century BC wall relief at Persepolis (Iran) pictures biblical Persian King Darius I (Ezra 6:14-15) sitting on the throne and his son, Crown Prince Xerxes (Ahasherus, Esther 1:1) facing him with guards behind. th
  57. 57. Silver Bowlcentury Artaxerxes I of BC 5 th T his bowl served as part of the royal table dressing of the biblical figure Artaxerxes I (464-424 BC) mentioned in Ezra 78. The cuneiform inscription around the rim lists additional biblical figures such as Xerxes (Ahasuerus, Esther 1:1-19) and Darius the Great mentioned in the books of Ezra, Haggai and Zechariah. Rim inscription translates: 'Artaxerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of countries, son of Xerxes the king, of Xerxes (who was) son of Darius the king, the Achaemenian, in whose house this silver drinking-cup (was) made.' *Also discovered was the tomb of Artaxerxes I near Persepolis (Iran)
  58. 58. Winged Bull of Sargon II T his sculpture (known as an “Iamassu”), weighing over 15 tons was discovered by Paul Botta in 1843 at the palace gates of the biblical Assyrian king Sargon II (722-705 BC) in Khorsabad (Iraq). • Sargon was previously unmentioned in any text outside the Bible (Isaiah 20:1) • An inscription at the palace says Sargon captured Samaria his first year (Isaiah 20:6) • Between the legs are cuneiform inscriptions identifying Sargon’s title, ancestry and achievements
  59. 59. The Annals of Sennacherib A lso known as the “Taylor Prism,” this six-sided clay prism (701 BC) was unearthed by Geoffrey Taylor at Nineveh in 1830. • Records the campaigns of King Sennacherib (705-681 BC) against Judah and King Hezekiah at Jerusalem (Isaiah 19; 36-37; 2 Kings 18; 19; 20) • The annals tell, as does Isaiah 3637, of how Sennacherib enclosed Hezekiah in Jerusalem ‘like a caged bird.’ • Reveals how Sennacherib returned home after receiving tribute from
  60. 60. Hezekiah’s Wall D uring the Assyrian invasion in the 8 th century BC , 2 Chronicles 32:5 says King Hezekiah fortified the broken down areas of the city walls, building towers and adding strength to the existing structures. Excavators digging in the Jewish quarter have found: • Stones for the wall were taken from Jerusalem homes as described by Isaiah 22:9-10 • Wall was reinforced to over 20 feet thick and 27 feet high to withstand Sennacherib’s invasion force • An “outside wall” as described in 2 Chronicles 32:5 Top of the wall
  61. 61. Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III F ound by A.H. Layard in the palace of Nimrud, this 9 th century BC obelisk depicts the military victories of Assyrian King Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC). The panel below pictures Jehu (king of Israel) making an alliance, or paying tribute, by bowing to Shalmaneser (2 Kings 9-10). It reads: “ Jehu, son [not direct son] of Omri”
  62. 62. Code of Hammurabi T he law code of Babylonian King, Hammurabi, 18th century BC (sixth king of the first dynasty), found in 1901 at Susa (Iran) offers 282 laws on morality, commerce and religion . Some believed that Israel was to primitive to have advanced Mosaic law codes since it was assumed that writing was developed much later. However: • The discovery of the Hammurabi Code predates the Mosaic law by 300 years • Answers the objection as to whether writing or detailed moral laws were possible during Moses’ time • We now know the earliest form of writing (pictograms) appeared in Sumer (southern Iraq) dating from the 4 th millennium BC and law codes such as this were well establish at the time of the exodus
  63. 63. Annals of Tiglath-pileser III T he annals are an 8 century BC account which describes the Assyrian king’s military campaigns and mentions the kings of Judah which corresponds to the events recorded in 2 Kings 15:29; 16:7, 10; 1 Chronicles 5:6, 26; 2 Chronicles 28:20. T his stone relief at the king’s palace in Nimrud depicts Tiglath-pileser III in his carriage during a victory parade th
  64. 64. Ebla Tablets T hese 16,000+ clay tablets were discovered in Aleppo, Syria, at Tel-Mardikh in the late 1970’s by Italian archaeologist Paolo Mathiae . Epigrapher, Giovanni Pettinato has discovered: • Biblical cities such as Sodom, Zeboim, Admah, Hazor, Megiddo, Jerusalem, and Gaza • Names such as Nahor, Israel, Eber, Michael and Ishmael • Biblical words thought to have developed much later such as Tehom (the deep, Gen 1:2); Canaan Ebla Tablet 2300 BC
  65. 65. T his 7 Gilgamesh Epic century BC fragment of the Babylonian version of the flood was found in Meggido, Israel. It shows remarkable similarities to Genesis, and most likely reflects a much earlier record such as the 17 th century BC Atrahasis Epic: th • The god Ea warns Utnapishtim to build a square ship and: • A week long deluge ensues • Waters subside in one day • The gods are saddened and grant Utnapishtim divine immortality T here are over two dozen flood accounts worldwide by various people groups, which argues for historicity and makes the Genesis flood the most documented event in the Bible
  66. 66. Atrahasis Epic T he 17 century BC Atrahasis Epic is one of the most complete flood accounts coming from Mesopotamian sources. The Babylonian story parallels the biblical account (Genesis 6-9) at several points: th • Humans have displeased the gods • The gods give Atrahasis seven days warning before the flood • The gods instruct him how to survive the coming deluge • Atrahasis builds a boat and gathers animals and birds • All mankind is destroyed except Atrahasis, makes an offering to god • The offering is accepted and
  67. 67. Gath Inscription D iscovered in 2005 at Tel es-Safi (Gath), also known as the “Goliath Inscription,” this 9 th century BC ostraca is the earliest deciphered Philistine inscription ever found. It demonstrates that names similar to “Goliath” were being used around the time (and after) David slew Goliath in 1 Samuel 17. • Two names inscribed on the shard were written with Semitic letters ( TWLA and WLT ; read right to left) left • They are Philistine names etymologically equivalent to “Goliath” Proto-Canaanite Goliath Inscription • Because Semitic letters are used to identify IndoEuropean names related to Goliath, it suggests the reliability of the Philistine name “Goliath”
  68. 68. Hittite Seal Ring T hough previously unmentioned in extra biblical literature, scholars believed the Hittites (from the Indo-European region) were legendary people. However, in 1905 the Hittite library (10,000 tablets) was discovered by Hugo Winckler in Turkey . The tablets consist of law codes, legends, covenants and myths, giving scholars ample evidence for the belief that the Hittites were a real people as mentioned in Genesis 15:20 (1Kings 10:29; 23). This dome shaped Hittite stamp seal (1400-1200 BC) is with silver ring, decorated with Hittite hieroglyphic characters, a script which remains elusive to the epigrapher’s understanding to this day (Joshua 1:4).
  69. 69. House of God Inscription T his clay shard (7 th century BC) was used as a receipt for silver donated to Solomon’s temple . It is the earliest evidence outside the biblical text referencing the first temple as “Beth Yahw’h” or “House of God.”
  70. 70. Merneptah Stele Line 27: “Israel is laid waste; its seed is not” E gyptian hieroglyphic slab discovered in Pharaoh Merneptah’s funery temple in western Thebes. It contains Merneptah’s exploits and the earliest mention of “Israel” from any official documents outside the Bible. S ome have said Israel did not enter Canaan until the 9 th century BC, however, this stele recognizes Israel as a social entity in Canaan by 1209 BC , they must have entered the land by early 13 th century.
  71. 71. Mesha Stela O ften called the “Moabite Stone,” the 9 th century slab was found east of Dead Sea in 1868 at Dibon (Jordan) by F.A. Klein. It records: • Conflict between Moab’s King Mesha and King Omri of Israel, and Omri’s son (Ahab; 2 Kings 3), • Mesha’s successful liberation and rule of the land • Appears consistent with the political and military climate that existed in the 9 th century BC according to 2 Kings 1-3 • Biblical figures Mesha, Omri, Yahweh, and epigrapher, Andre’
  72. 72. Nuzi Tablets 1500-1400 BC E xcavated in Nuzi (Iraq), these cuneiform tablets (drawing) describe society, laws and customs, that parallel biblical patriarchs as late as 1 st mill B.C. It could explain why Abraham was reluctant to expel Hagar and Ishmael (Genesis 21:10-11) and how a man may adopt a slave (Eliezer), relative or free-born, to care for an elderly man (Abraham) and carry on his family name (Genesis 15:2, 24; 24).
  73. 73. Balaam Inscription F ound at Deir Alla (Jordan) in 1967, the 119 fragments (50 lines) of plaster in Aramaic text was written in black and red ink. Since the inscription was discovered in the rubble of a building most likely destroyed in the great earthquake of the 8 th century BC during the reign of King Uzziah, the text itself must be much older. In addition, the faded ink suggests an older date. The text opens in red ink (for emphasis) with: “ Warnings from the Book of Balaam the son of Beor. He was a seer of the gods.”
  74. 74. Madaba Map The Madaba Map is a mosaic floor map discovered in 1884 while Greek Orthodox Christians were removing debris from earlier church in Madaba, Jordan. It is the oldest mosaic map in the world describing the Holy Land (Israel, Jordan, Egypt and Syria), dating to about AD 560 , it describes the locations of significant cities and landmarks that are consistent with the biblical narrative . Its current location is the St. George Greek Orthodox Church in Madaba, Jordan.
  75. 75. Siloam Inscription D iscovered by youths in 1880, this 8 century BC Hebrew inscription tells of the dramatic construction of Hezekiah’s 1700 foot tunnel the Bible describes was designed to bring water into The city from the Gihon Spring. This event corresponds with what is recorded in 2 Kings 20:20; Isaiah 22:9ff; 36-39; 2 Chronicles 32:30-31 th
  76. 76. Tel Dan Stele 9 th -8 th century BC F or decades many Bible critics believed David was a mythological figure due to the lack of historical confirmation. However, this changed when this Aramaic inscription, which reads “house of David” (lit. bytdwd ), was discovered by Avraham Biran in 1993 by accident in the northern Israel territory known as Dan. Apparently, it is a victory stele for an Aramaean (Syrian) king (perhaps Hazael, D W D T B 1 Kings 19:15) boasting of his military campaigns overYIsrael. • First extra biblical mention to the Davidic line. Mesha Stele could contain a second Davidi inscription “ House of David” • Mentions biblical figures Joram, Ahab, Ahaz and Hadad (1 kings 15:20; 2 Kings 8:16)
  77. 77. Royal Steward Inscription I n 1870, Charles Clermont-Ganneau discovered a 7th century BC lintel tomb inscription near the Kidron Valley at Silwan (ancient Siloam), east of the old city of Jerusalem. Nahman Avigad recently deciphered the inscription which gives a partial name which reads “ [Shebna]yahu” who was the royal steward over the house of King Hezekiah . Isaiah prophesies against Shebna for hewing out a tomb and living above his means (Isaiah 22:15-25; 1 Kings 4:6; 16:9). Inscription reads: "This is [the sepulcher of . . . ] yahu who is over the house. There is no silver and no gold here but [his bones] and the bones of his amah with him. Cursed be the man who will open this!"
  78. 78. Uzziah Plaque D iscovered in 1931 by E.L. Sukenik on the Mt. of Olives, the stone tablet (AD 30-70) has an ancient Hebrew funery inscription identifying the biblical figure “Uzziah” (Azariah), king of Judah (2 Chronicles 26; Isaiah 6:1). Uzziah is officeto have his said by offering overstepped incense in the temple. As a result, Uzziah contracted leprosy and was isolated until the day he died (2 Chronicles 26:21-23). The plaque was copied from an earlier 8 th century BC inscription: “To this place were brought the bones of Uzziah, king of Judah, do not open!”
  79. 79. Hezir Family Tomb T he mausoleum on the left, located in the Kidron valley between the Mt. of Olives and temple mount, contains a Hebrew inscription identifying it as the tomb of the six sons of the Hezir family, who are Jewish priests . This verifies the existence of this priestly family mentioned in 1 Chronicles 24:15 (first temple period) and Nehemiah 10:20 (second temple period). Though debatable, the tomb on the right, by tradition is commonly associated with the biblical prophet Zechariah , or the father of John the Baptist .
  80. 80. 1 Beth Shan Samuel 31:10, 12, describes the fate of Israel’s King Saul, namely, that his death during his battle with the Philistines eventuated in the fastening of his deceased body to the walls of Beth Shan. Later, in New Testament times, the city was known as Sythopolis, one of the 10 cities of the Decapolis ( deca = 10; polis = city).
  81. 81. Gates of Dan O riginally, the northern city of Dan (Laish shown below) was a fortified Canaanite settlement until the tribe of Dan expelled its occupants as described in Judges 18; 20:1. Known as a center of idolatry under Jeroboam I (1 Kings 12:28-31) several pagan altars (below) have turned up. This mud brick gate dates to the time of the patriarchs (2 nd millennium BC).
  82. 82. Horned Altar E xcavations across Israel have turned up stone horned altars similar to the one below found at Beersheba. The Lord instructed Moses to make a horned altar on which to burn sacrificial animals (Exodus 27:1-2; 1 Kings 1:50). • God strictly prohibited the use of stone cut altars (Exodus 20:25), making it likely this particular altar was used for Pagan sacrifices
  83. 83. Jeroboam II Seal T his seal was unearthed during excavations at Meggido by G. Schumacher in the 20 th century . • It bares the names of King Jeroboam II (787747BC) (2 Kings 14:23-25), and his minister “Shema” • Hebrew inscribed seal reads “belonging to Shema, servant of Jeroboam.” • Other seals found for: • Uzziah • Hoshea • Hezekiah
  84. 84. Ahaz Bulla A bulla (singular) is a clay impression of a seal used to authenticate, like a signature, official documents sent to another. This late 8 th century BC bulla with three Hebrew lines reads: “ Belonging to Ahaz [son of] Jehotam, King of Judah.” “Jehotam” is the correct rendering of the biblical King Jotham. I n addition, on the left side of the photograph a fingerprint is discernable which could be that of King Ahaz (741-726 BC) Himself (2 Kings 16; Isaiah 7).
  85. 85. Hezekiah Bulla B elow is the 8 century BC bulla of King Ahaz’s son, King Hezekiah. The blackened clay piece, perhaps due to fire, is no more than .50 inches wide . It reads: “Belonging to Hezekiah, [son of] Ahaz, king of Judah.” This impression is only one of two royal seals known to date (cf. Ahaz). th
  86. 86. Ahab Ring T his bronze ring bares the Hebrew inscription which reads “Ahab, king of Israel.” Ahab is mention elsewhere in Assyrian records (Kurkh Monolith) as participating in the battle known as Qarqar against Assyrian king Shalmaneser III. The monolith describes Ahab’s troop strength as: “2,000 Chariots and 10,000 men of Ahab, king of Israel” (1 Kings 21:25).
  87. 87. Pedayahu Seal D ating from the 6 century BC , the Pedayahu Seal (drawing) depicts an ionic capital typical of the first temple architecture, bares the Hebrew inscription “ Belonging to Pedaiah son of the king.” Pedaiah is named in the Bible as one of the sons of Jehoiachin (Coniah) , king of Judah (1 Chronicles 3:18-19) th “ And the sons of Jeconiah were Assir, Shealtiel his son, and Malchiram, Pedaiah , Shenazzar, Jecamiah, Hoshama, and Nedebiah.”
  88. 88. Jezebel Seal W hile excavating in Samaria, Israel, the Oriental Institute of Chicago unearthed building structures and temples built to Asherah and Baal, which was commonly associated with Jezebel (1 Kings 18:19). Among these finds was an ornate seal which reads “JZBL” (Jezebel). T his seal appears to be consistent with 1 Kings 21:6-8 which reveals that Jezebel, wife of Ahab, was accustom to sealing documents for her husband (1 Kings 21:25).
  89. 89. Gemaryahu Bulla F ound in the city of David, Jerusalem, this 6 th century BC bulla impression is inscribed with two rows of Hebrew letters reading: “ Gemaryahu son of Shaphan,” referring to Jehoiakim’s scribe named “Gemariah, son of Shaphan” mentioned in Jeremiah 36:10-12, 25 who listened to Jeremiah’s letter that Baruch had penned and read aloud in the temple lso discovered during the temple mount dump excavations was the 7 th -6 th century BC bulla belonging to “Galyahu son of Immer.” Immer was a priest associated with the prophet Jeremiah (Jeremiah 20:1) A
  90. 90. Solomon Seal A two-sided seal bearing Hebrew letters that spell “ Shlomo” (Solomon) on one side and a dignified bearded man baring a scepter on the reverse which may be a depiction of King Solomon. The seals date from the 9 th to 7 th centuries BC.
  91. 91. Brekhyahu Bulla T his clay bulla was impressed by a Hebrew inscribed seal that read “Belonging to Barekyahu, son of Neriyahu, the scribe.” The late bulla specialist, Nahman Avigad of Hebrew University, identified this late 7 th century BC inscription as baring the name of Jeremiah’s scribe , Baruch , the son of Neriah, mentioned in Jeremiah 36:1-32. A lso discovered was the bulla of “Jerahmeel, son of the king,” who was sent by King Jehoiakim to arrest Jeremiah and Baruch (Jeremiah 36:26), and the bulla “Belonging to Yehuchal (Jehucal) ben Shelemiyahu ben Shovi” who was sent by King Zedekiah to ask Jeremiah for prayer (Jeremiah 37:3; 38:1).
  92. 92. Sarsechim Tablet D iscovered 595 BC in Sippar (Iraq) in the late 1800’s, this two inch cuneiform tablet was deciphered in 2007 at the British Museum by Assyriologist Michael Jursa of Vienna. It records King Nebuchadnezzar’s chief officer “Sarsechim” (i.e. Nabu Sharrussu-ukin) mentioned in Jeremiah 39:3 as being with the king during the invasion of Jerusalem in 586 BC. T he tablet describes Sarsechim giving gold to a Babylonian temple during the 10 th year of of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign (c. 595 BC).
  93. 93. Old Testament Figures Cited in Extra Biblical History and/or Archaeology King Manasseh King Evil-Merodach Ahab Ahasuerus (Xerxes I) Gedaliah King Menahem Ahaz Gemariah King Merodach-Balada Artaxerxes I King Hazael King Mesha Ashurbanipal King Hezekiah King Nebuchadnezzar Baalis Hezion Pharaoh Necho am Hilkiah King Nergal-Shar-usur ch (Scribe) Pharaoh Hophra King Omri Belshazzar King Hoshea King Pekah Ben Hadad I Jaazaniah King Tiglath-pileser III Ben Hadad II King Jehoahaz King Rezen Ben Hadad III King Jehoiachin King Sargon II Cyrus II King Jehu King Sennacherib Darius I Jerahmeel King Shalmaneser V David King Jeroboam II Shebna (royal steward) im Queen Jezebel Pharaoh Shishak ama King Jehoash Pharaoh Tirhakah Esarhaddon King Jotham King Uzziah and Yahweh *This list is not exhaustive, only major figures were represented
  94. 94. Dead Sea Scrolls
  95. 95. William F. Albright ” I repeat that in my opinion you have made the greatest manuscript discovery of modern times ─ certainly the greatest biblical manuscript find...What an incredible find!“ William F. Albright to John C. Trevor (March 1948)
  96. 96. Discovery of the Scrolls T he Dead Sea Scrolls are ancient manuscripts that were discovered in 1947 in 11 caves among the limestone cliffs of Qumran, overlooking the Dead Sea Caves of Qumran T he Scrolls were Dead Sea near Qumran discovered by a young Arab shepherd boy, Muhammad edh-Dhib, as he searched for his lost goat
  97. 97. Qumran
  98. 98. Qumran Excavations P ere Roland de Vaux, a Dominican monk, was the original archaeologist who conducted excavations at Qumran from 1951 through 1956. • He posited that a religious sect of Judiasm inhabited Qumran known as the Essenes • He discovered structural remains such as aqueducts, ritual purity Pere Roland de Vaux baths, dinning rooms, cisterns, meeting halls, scriptorium and evidence of earthquake damaged • From 1994 through 2006 Qumran continued to be excavated
  99. 99. Ruins of Qumran - 250 68 NORTH Wadi Qumran BC – AD Scroll Caves Cistern Storage Dinning Hall Pottery/ Kilns Pool Meeting Hall Ritual Bath Stables Store Rooms Cistern Scriptorium Enclosure Wall Kitchen Dead Sea POPULATION: 200 Massive Tower Aqueduct
  100. 100. Qumran Excavations T he narrow aqueducts on the right were used to channel water from the cliffs in the west to the Qumran community to fill there ten ritual baths and cisterns. Cistern Aqueduct View looking southeast from Qumran toward the Dead Sea
  101. 101. Qumran Excavations V iewing west from Qumran towards the cliffs which bring spring rain cascading down through the central mountain crevasse into the Qumran Wadi and aqueducts. Limestone Cliff Water Channel Scroll Cave 4 Wadi Qumran
  102. 102. Qumran Excavations T he steps into this ritual bath reveal earth shifting of approximately 6 to 12 inches that is consistent with a major earthquake which struck the area in about 31 BC .
  103. 103. Qumran Excavations A ccording to the Community Rule , the Essenes would share which a communal meal in this dinning hall (refectory) seated up to 300 men .
  104. 104. Qumran Excavations T he Qumran community constructed elaborate water systems to supply their numerous ritual baths ( miqvaot ) and plaster lined cisterns . The aqueduct channel which runs along the left side of the cistern was designed to cascade water into the reservoir. Plaster Lined Water Cistern Ritual Purification Bath
  105. 105. Acquisition of the Scrolls B edouin Shepherds delivered seven scrolls from cave 1 to Khalil Sahin (Kando) , a Christian Kando antiquities dealer in Bethlehem. • Soon after, E.L. Sukenik of Hebrew University acquired three of the scrolls • In 1949, the remaining four scrolls were sold to Mar Athanasius Samuel of the Syrian Jacobite Monastery
  106. 106. Acquisition of the Scrolls S amuel’s advertisement was brought to the attention of Yigael Yadin , E.L. Sukenik’s son. • Yadin, with the help of D.S. Gottesman, purchased the four scrolls for approximately $250,0000 Yadin • The four scrolls were returned to Israel and added to Sukenik’s three scrolls • Currently, the seven scrolls from cave 1 are housed in the Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum (Isaiah A and B, Habakkuk Commentary, Thanksgiving Scroll, Community Rule, War Rule, and the Genesis Apocryphon)
  107. 107. What Scrolls were O verall, 11 caves Found? yielded over 900 biblical and nonbiblical texts, composed of tens of thousands of manuscript fragments. * • Over 220 texts of the Hebrew Bible except the book of Esther Scriptorium: benches & inkwells found • The scrolls are written in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek dating from 250 BC to AD 68 • Of these texts, over 400 are apocryphal and pseudepigraphal literature *Manuscripts are hand written copies of texts in complete or fragment form
  108. 108. A Scrolls of Cave 1 complete book of Isaiah (A) was discovered, which now is the oldest complete manuscript of any book of the Bible. Also found were: • Incomplete book of Isaiah (B) • Habakkuk Commentary • Various non-biblical books such as the Thanksgiving Scroll and Manual of Discipline • Fragments of Genesis, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Judges, Samuel, Ezekiel, Psalms and Daniel 2:4 where the Hebrew language changes to Aramaic Portion of Isaiah A
  109. 109. Isaiah Scroll CC-Art.com I saiah (1QIsa A) was written in Hebrew on parchment (animal skin) dating to 125 BC and is approximately 26 feet long . The above scroll is open to 38:9-40:28 which may indicate that scribes believed the book was written by only one author
  110. 110. Scrolls of Cave 2 T hough cave 2 was not as productive, by 1952 it produced hundreds of fragments including: • Two of Exodus 23:38-39 • One of Leviticus • Four of Numbers • Two of Deuteronomy • One of Jeremiah, Job, Psalms • Two of Ruth 23:40-44 24:16-18 The above Fragments of Leviticus 2324 were purchased in 2005; originally found near the Dead Sea
  111. 111. Scrolls of Cave 3 T hough of no biblical significance, a unique discovery in cave 3 produced a Hebrew text in two rolls written on copper, known as the Copper Scroll (3Q15). • Text lists treasure the area 60+ sites of buried (gold, ingots) in of Judean desert • No treasure has been found • After the scroll was X-rayed to discover its content, it was opened by cutting the fragile material into strips Fragment of the Copper Scroll
  112. 112. Scrolls of Cave 4 C ave 4 was perhaps the most productive of all caves excavated, producing some 100 biblical books and containing more than 50,000 fragments . Among them was partial copies/fragments of: • Genesis • Daniel 7:28 to 8:1 (Aramaic changes to Hebrew) • Commentaries on Psalms, Isaiah and Nahum 40,000 fragments found beneath the floor of cave 4
  113. 113. Messianic estimony Tiscovered in cave 4 in 1952, D this 1 st century BC Hebrew manuscript (aka “Testimonia”) contains messianic passages from the Hebrew Bible, identifying Him as prophet, priest and king . In order they are: • Deuteronomy 5:28-29 (Prophet) • Deuteronomy 18:18-19 • Numbers 24:15-17 (King) • Deuteronomy 33:8-11 (Priest) • Joshua 6:26 4Q175
  114. 114. Scrolls of Cave 5-10 • C ave 5 had produced fragments of up to 50 biblical and non biblical texts • Cave 6 yielded fragments Genesis, Exodus, Daniel, Deuteronomy, Ecclesiastes Cave 5 in foreground • Cave 7 unearthed Greek fragments (7Q3-18) which may be the earliest portions of nine New Testament books (Mark 6:5253) according to Priest Jose O’Callahan of the University of Barcelona • Cave 8 contained fragments of Genesis and Psalms • Cave 9 and 10 was unproductive yielding only a single ostraca along with leather materials used for storing and
  115. 115. Scrolls of Cave 11 I n 1956, a partial copy of Leviticus and an Aramaic Targum of Job was found. Including: • Partial copy of Psalms (above), including 151 st Psalm • Scholars now posses nearly 40 canonical Psalms ranging from Psalm 90 to 150 • Two of the three non-biblical Temple Scrolls , the
  116. 116. Reliability: Copy Accuracy B efore discovering the Dead Sea Scrolls, scholars translated the English Old Testament from Hebrew manuscripts (Masoretic Text) that dated from 900 AD (Aleppo Codex) and later, 1300 years from the end of the Old Testament (400 BC). How accurate was the copying process during the 1300 Aleppo Codex year Sea Scrolls Dead interval? Masoretic Text Closed interval by 1000+ years 95% identical to Masoretic Text 125 BC 900 AD • 5% difference is due to spelling differences, word order and minor scribal error which effects no major doctrine
  117. 117. Reliability: Copy Accuracy T he Ketef Hinnom Silver Scroll was found by Gabriel Barkay in 1980 while excavating several 6 th century BC tombs overlooking the Valley of Hinnom (Jerusalem). • Only 4 inches long , originally was rolled up and to be worn as an amulet • Oldest passage containing YHWH • Oldest passage yet found (6 th century BC) • Contains priestly benediction of Numbers 6:24-26 . It reads: “ May Yahweh bless you and watch over you! May
  118. 118. 10 Rules of the Scribe • R itual cleansing/bathing before writing God’s name M ust ignore all conversation if writing God’s name • N o copying from memory, must have a manuscript • S crolls must have equal amounts of columns • L etters and columns are counted • P archment/Papyrus must be lined before starting • E ach column must extend downwards 48 to 60 • lines S cribe dressed in full Jewish attire • O ld/errant copies of Scripture are ritually •
  119. 119. Kinds of Scribal Errors O f the c. 400,000 variant* readings CC-Art.com in the Bible there are at least four categories of error reflected in transmission relating to human limitations such as eyes, ears, memory, and writing: • Fussion: Joining words together when they should be separated (now here - nowhere) • Dittography: Writing twice what should only be written once • Homeoteleuton : The eye skips to the same word on a different line, omitting passages • Transposition: The reversal of position of two letters or words (Jesus Christ - Christ Jesus or J se us - Jesus) •*Vast majority error: Confusing words that sounddo not effect any major Phonetic of variants are minor scribal error which do not the same but
  120. 120. Reliability: Historical Confirmation T housands of archaeological and historical finds have substantiated the OT narrative. • Assyrian King Sennacherib’s invasion of Lachish ( Lachish Reliefs at Nineveh) (2 Kings 18:14, 17) • The murder of Sennacherib by his two sons ( annals of his son Esarhaddon) (2 Kings 19:37) Karnak Inscription, Egypt • Judah’s King Jehoiachin’s taken captive to Babylon ( Babylonian Ration Documents) (2 Kings 24:15-16) • Karnak Inscription describes Pharaoh Shishak’s ( Shosenq I in Egyptian records) 10th century BC invasion of Israel, Judah (1 Kings 14:25-26; 2 Chronicles 12:2-9) and his victory over Solomon’s son, King Rehoboam
  121. 121. Reliability of the New Testament
  122. 122. Reliability of the New Testament W hen asking if the Bible is reliable, we are attempting to discover whether we can trust it when it speaks about 1) historical matters and if scribes 2) copied the text accurately . Three Tests are Employed: • Bibliographical Test (checks quantity, quality and dating of existing manuscript copies) • Internal Test (checks what the Bible says for itself) • External Test (checks archaeological and historical record for confirmation)
  123. 123. Bibliographical Test: Quantity G reat numbers of manuscripts enable scholars to have a more accurate reconstruction of the biblical text by cross-referencing: • There are 5700+ Greek partial and complete manuscripts of the New Testament • There are 19,000+ non-Greek manuscripts • Total of 25,000+ manuscripts in all languages • The NT has the most manuscript support of any book of ancient history
  124. 124. Bibliographical Test: Quality • Princeton New Testament scholar, Bruce Metzger , estimated the New Testament was copied at 99.5% accuracy • Textual scholars Westcott and Hort estimate the NT text is 98+% accurate to the original • Ancient manuscript authority, Sir Fredrick Kenyon: in “ The number of manuscripts of the New Testament, of early translations from it, and of quotations from it in the oldest writers of the Church, is so large that it is practically certain that the true reading of every doubtful passage is preserved some one or other of these ancient authorities. This can be said of no other ancient book in the world.”
  125. 125. Bibliographical Test: Early Dates • NT manuscripts have the least time interval between the original text and the first copies (30-300 yrs) of any piece of ancient literature • Nine fragments found with Dead Sea Scrolls could be part of six NT books dating between AD 30-68 (e.g. Mark 6:52-54) • Earliest complete copy of NT dates to AD 350 (i.e. Codex Sinaiticus and Vaticanus) • Earliest manuscript of a NT book John Rylands (Gospel of John) dates from Fragment AD 125 John 18:31-33, 37-38
  126. 126. Bibliographical Test: Early Dates D iscovered by Constantine Tischendorf in the 19 century at th St. Catherine’s Monastery on Mt. Sinai, Codex Sinaiticus (AD 350 35 (facsimile) contains the entire NT in Greek uncials and half the O CC-Art.com
  127. 127. Scripture Quotations from the Church Fathers T he numerous patristic quotations from the New Testament aid scholars in reconstructing the biblical text due to their quantity and early date: • 36,200+ quotes of the New Testament • There are enough quotes to offer Coptic Church Mural a reconstruction of nearly the entire New Testament • All New Testament books were cited , except 2 John
  128. 128. Bruce Metzger The Text of the New Testament, 86 “ I ndeed, so extensive are these citations [i.e. of the church fathers] that if all other sources for our knowledge of the text of the New Testament were destroyed, they would be sufficient alone for the reconstruction of practically the entire New Testament.”
  129. 129. F.F. Bruce The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? 16 “ P erhaps we can appreciate how wealthy the New Testament is in manuscript attestation if we compare the textual material for other ancient works”
  130. 130. New Testament Compared to other Ancient Literature Gap from Ms Author Literary Work Original Copies _________________________________________________________________________________________ Plato Dialogues 1,250 yrs 20 • Homer’s Illiad 500 yrs 643 • Herodotus The Histories 1,350 yrs 8 • Aristotle Assorted Works 1,400 yrs 5 • Thucydides Pelopennesian Wars 1,300 yrs 8 • Aristophanes Assorted Works 1,300 yrs 10 • Sophocles Assorted Works 1,400 yrs 193 • Julius Caesar The Gallic Wars 950 yrs 10 • Tacitus Annals 1,000 yrs 20 • Pliny (Ygr) History of Rome 750 yrs 7 • Suetonius The Twelve Caesars 900 yrs 8 •
  131. 131. Internal Test T he Bible contains unflattering statements about the followers of Christ which appear to be at odds with the general purpose of the book, indicating the writers were reporting historical truth. These counterproductive features include: • Testimony of women in an era when it is not valued • The apparent triumph of the enemies of Christ • The weakened and helpless appearance of the Messiah at crucifixion • The portrayal of the disciples as fearful of their enemies • The characterization of failure and denial (Peter) • The constant admission of the disciples’ slow understanding
  132. 132. Internal Test • There are eyewitnesses to the biblical accounts (John 19:35) • The Bible lacks the mythological tone usually associated with other Mesopotamian or gnostic literature (2 Peter 1:16) • Jesus performed miracles to substantiate His claims (Hebrews 2:3-4) • Jesus fulfilled over 300 Prophecies (Luke 24:27, 44) • Jesus said the Bible is reliable (Matthew 26:54), historical (Matthew 12:40; John 3:12), inerrant (John 17:17), and scientifically accurate (Matthew
  133. 133. • External Test T housands of archaeological discoveries have confirmed aspects of the Bible either explicitly or implicitly without contradiction • Over 30 people in the New Testament have been cited by nonChristian writers through historical documents and/or confirmed by archaeological research • Over 60 confirmed historical details in the Gospel of John listed in Craig Blomberg, The Historical Reliability of John’s Gospel Widow’s Mite Bronze Coin Mark 12:42; Luke21:2 • Over 80 confirmed historical details in the book of Acts that have been enumerated by Colin J. Hemer, The Book of Acts in the Setting of Hellenistic History , which in some cases have caused modern historians to revise their perspective
  134. 134. Joseph P. Free Archaeology and Bible History, 1 “ In addition to illuminating the Bible, archaeology has confirmed countless pages which have been rejected by critics as unhistorical or contradictory to known facts.”
  135. 135. New Testament Archaeology
  136. 136. Roman Emperors *Mentioned by name in the Bible and confirmed by extra biblical history or archaeology • Augustus (27 BC-AD14)* • Tiberius (14-37)* • Gaius (Caligula) (37-41) • Claudius (41-54)* • Nero (54-68) Birth of Christ (Luke 2:1) Life and death of Christ (Luke 3:1) Paul converted Jews Expelled from Rome (Acts 18:2), severe famine (11:28) Peter, Paul martyred, Rome bu • Vespasian (69-79) Temple destroyed by Titus (AD 70 • Titus (79-81) Pompeii destroyed by Mt. Vesuviu eruption, Colosseum comple • Domitian (81-96) John exiled to Patmos, persecutio • Hadrian (117-138) Builds defensive wall in England • Septimus Severus (193-211) Persecution of Christians • Diocletian (284-305) • • Constantine (306-337) Persecution of Christians Edict of Toleration/Milan and the Council of Nicea (AD 32
  137. 137. James Ossuary T he James Ossuary (drawing) is a 1 st century AD limestone bone box which contains a ancient Hebrew inscription baring th the names of James, Joseph, and Jesus . “ James, son of Joseph, brother of *Inscription on drawing not the actual lettering, used for illustrative purposes • Though no one doubts Jesus.” the authenticity of the box itself , scholars debated whether the inscription is authentic. have • If authentic, it becomes the earliest find directly related to Christ Himself • German professor and leading geomicrobiologist, Dr. Wolfgang Krumbein , has offered a scientific challenge to the Israeli Antiquities Authority decision to pronounce the inscription inauthentic (Matthew 13:55; Galatians 1:19)
  138. 138. Caiaphas Ossuary T his ornate 1 century AD limestone ossuary was discovered in 1990 south of Jerusalem. • It contained the bones of a man approximately 60 years old st • Bares an inscription which reads: “ Joseph, son of Caiaphas,” which most likely is the High Priest mentioned in the Gospels (Mt 26:57; Jn 18:13f) who brought Jesus to trial
  139. 139. Yehohanan Crucifixion I n 1968, excavators found an inscribed 1 st century AD limestone bone box (ossuary) in Jerusalem containing the bones of a male crucifixion victim named “Yehohanan ben Hagkol.” • The wrist and right heel bone still had the Roman seven inch crucifixion spikes nails in tact • Confirms the Romans practiced crucifixion in the 1 st century AD in Jerusalem and legitimizes the manner of Christ’s death as described in the Bible (Psalm
  140. 140. Kidron Valley T he east side of the temple mount, the Kidron (black) Valley, has distinguished itself for several reasons. • It has been considered a place of burial by Christians, Muslims and Jews, since before the Babylonian exile (2 Kings 23:6). • It is known as the Valley of Jehoshaphat, the traditional site prophesied by Joel (3:2, 12-21) to be the final place of God’s judgment of the nations. • It is the valley both David (2 Sam 15:23) and Jesus (Jn 18:1) crossed as they were being betrayed by their inner circle
  141. 141. Meggido Church D iscovered in 2005 at Meggido Prison by inmate Ramil Razilo, this 3 rd century AD church has become the oldest church in the Holy Land.   Christianity was established early in the common era The Greek mosaic floor (16x32 ft) inscription confirms Jesus was being worshipped as “God” in the early church rather than being a later development. It reads: Meggido Church Inscription “ The God-Loving Akeptous [name of the female worshipper] has offered this table to the God Jesus Christ as a Memorial.”  Apparently, the mosaic floor was financed by a Roman military officer named “Gaianus,” and laid by “Brutius.”
  142. 142. Jacobs Well L ocated in ancient Samaria within an unfinished Greek orthodox church is Jacob’s Well (Bir Ya’qub) identified by the Apostle John and the unnamed Samaritan woman (John 4:5, 6, 12; Genesis 33:18-19; 48:22). • Over 200 ft deep in 7 th century AD, today, c. 125 feet deep (John 4:11) • Still produces fresh cool water (“living water”) from an underground spring • Short distance from Mt. Gerazim and the ruins of the Samaritan temple
  143. 143. Prohibition of Temple Entrycontains a 1 century AD Greek warning to T his slab st Gentiles that certain areas of the temple were off limits with the possibility of violators being punished by death. This inscription helps one understand the tumultuous actions taken against the Apostle Paul in Acts 21:27-29. enter own “ No foreigner shall within the balustrade of the temple … and whosoever shall be caught shall be responsible for his death that will follow in consequence (of) his trespassing.”
  144. 144. Temple Mount EAST Altar Aerial view looking west R itmeyer’s proposed situation of the Holy of Holies and Dome of the Rock in relation to Herod’s Temple (John
  145. 145. Holy of Holies on Temple Mount Flat channel for foundation trench to Ritmeyer , ------------------------------- West wall of Holy of Holies Veil/Wooden Partition ------------------------------- -------------------------------------------- archaeologist A ccording Leen the leading H o ly P la c e researching the temple mount, the Holy of Holy of Holies Holies is situated beneath the Muslim Dome of the Rock (Mosque of Omar, 691 AD) upon the exposed rocky tip ( Sakhra ) of Mt. Moriah. This conclusion was based on -------------------------------------------the discovery of foundation Flat rectangular ORTH trenches, historical details location for the Ark (Josephus and Mishna Middot ), during first temple measurements, biblical data, period N
  146. 146. Place of Trumpeting T he Hebrew inscription (replica) was discovered in 1969 by Benjamin Mazar at the southwest corner of the temple mount. It is believed to be from one of the temple towers designating the area where the trumpets would be sounded to signal the beginning and end of the Sabbath (Josephus, Jewish War 4.58283). Some suggest that the inscription is a message to the temple builders designating where the stone slab should be placed (2 Chron 5; 13; 15; 20; 23; 29; Ps 81:3; Joel 2:15). It reads: “…[of]/to the place of trumpeting.”
  147. 147. Herod Inscription D uring renewed excavations in 1996 at Herod’s hilltop palace, Masada , Israel, archaeologist, Ehud Netzer, discovered a three line Latin inscription on a piece of pottery (19 BC) giving the full name, title and place of rule of Herod the Great (reigned 37-4 BC) (Mt 2:1-18). “ Herod, King of Judea” Date Wine Made Kind of Wine King Herod Herod’s Wine Jug (Amphora) 19 BC
  148. 148. Lithostratos L ocated under the modern streets of Jerusalem near the temple mount, the “Gabbatha” (i.e. place/seat of judgment) mentioned in John 19:13 and Matthew 27:27 is the location of Christ’s judgment by Pontius Pilate. It was found at the Roman military headquarters known as the Tower of Antonia.
  149. 149. Tomb of Lazarus O n the east side of the Mt. of Olives is the traditionally recognized tomb of Lazarus. It appears that by the 2 nd century AD the location had been identified as such. The church historian, Eusibius (4 th century), says that the city was renamed the “Place of Lazarus.” Currently, there is a mosque built over the site preventing access through the traditional entrance, an alternative entrance was created (Lk 19:28-29; Jn 11:1-17, 18, 28-44 )
  150. 150. Destruction of the Temple T his massive heap of hewn boulders lay beneath the southwest corner of the temple mount in Jerusalem upon a crushed and buckled 1 st century pedestrian pathway . The stones were tossed from the temple mount during the Roman invasion in 70 AD and serve as evidence of the total destruction wrought upon the second temple, just as Jesus had prophesied (Mt 24:1-2).
  151. 151. Jordan River T he Jordan river is identified in both Old and New Testaments as the river Joshua crossed into the land with the children of Israel (Joshua 3-4) and location of Jesus’ baptism by John (Mt 3:13). promised the
  152. 152. Tomb of Christ T here are two Jerusalem locations traditionally held to be the tomb of Christ, the Garden Tomb and the Edicule at the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Both sites were historically located outside the city walls and previously had churches built over them signifying the special nature of the locations (John 19:41). Church of Holy Sepulcher Garden Tomb
  153. 153. Pontius Pilate Inscription F ound by Antonio Frova at Caesarea Martima, this 1 st century AD slab inscription gives the name and title of the biblical figure Pontius Pilate who condemned Jesus to the cross (Matthew 27:2; Luke 3:1) It reads: …]sTiberievm …pon]tivsPilatvs …praef]ectvsIvda[ea]e “Tiberium Pontius Pilate Prefect of Judea”
  154. 154. Caesar Augustus C aesar Augustus (Gaius Octavius) is mentioned in the Bible as the reigning Roman Emperor (27 BC-AD 14) at the time of Christ’s Birth (Luke 2:1). Several lines of archaeological evidence have confirmed his title, date of reign and historical existence . • Numerous coins bearing his image with inscriptions • Priene Inscription declares the birthday celebration of Caesar Augustus • Roman/Greek historians write of Augustus: Suetonius, Tacitus, Velleius, Cicero, Dio Cassius and “ Divine Father Caesar Augustus” Plutarch
  155. 155. Sergius Paulus Inscription D iscovered near Paphos, Cyprus, the inscription contains the title and name of Sergius Paulus, one of Paul’s first converts to Christianity during his first missionary journey (Acts 13:6-12). A second inscription was found in Rome where Paulus returned after his term as proconsul expired.
  156. 156. T he 1 Gallio Inscription century AD inscription (drawing) by Claudius, found in Delphi, Greece, in 1908, describes the biblical figure “Gallio” (Acts 18:12-17) the “proconsul” of “Achaia” in office from 51-53 AD to whom the Apostle Paul was brought for judgment by the Jews while in Corinth. “Gallio” is highlighted below. st
  157. 157. Erastus Inscription U ncovered at Corinth, Greece, in 1929, this piece of pavement records the name of the biblical figure “Erastus” mentioned in Acts 19:22, Romans 16:23 and 2 Timothy 4:2. John McRay translates the inscription as “Erastus, curator of public buildings laid (this pavement) at his own expense.”
  158. 158. New Testament Figures Cited by Extra Biblical History and/or Archaeology Agrippa I Archelaus Agrippa II Great Ananias CC-Art.com Denarius of Tiberius Annas 1 st century AD King Aretas IV Mt 22:15 Bernice Ceasar Augustus Jesus Caiaphas Baptist Claudius (Galilean) Pontius Pilate Bronze Coin Drusilla AD 29-36 Erastus Herod Herod the Herod Philip I Herod Philip II Herodias Salome James and John the Judas Lysanias Pontius Pilate
  159. 159. Politarch Inscription S ome thought Luke was mistaken when he called the “rulers of the city” at Thessalonica “politarchs” (Acts 17:6). This criticism was due to the absence of any extra biblical Greek literature using the term. Recently, several politarch inscriptions were found in Thessalonica, Greece. • 19 of the 32 “politarch” inscriptions come from Thessalonica, with 3 of these dating to the 1 st century AD • Elsewhere in Acts, Luke correctly names officials as Praetors at Philippi (Acts 16:20)
  160. 160. Luke’s Precise Use of Vocabulary in the Book of Acts • C orrect language spoken at Lystra as Lycaonian (14:11) • Proper form of the name Troas (16:8) • Uses “politarchs” as proper designation of magistrates in Thessalonica (17:6) • Correct Athenian slang word for Paul as spermologos (17:18) CC-Art.com • Uses areopagites as the proper title for Grammateus at Ephesus a member of the Athenian court (17:34) • Proper title of grammateus for the chief executive magistrate (“clerk”) in Ephesus (19:35) • Uses correct Roman authorized title of honor neokoros (19:35) • Uses the plural anthupatoi which could be referring to two men functioning as proconsuls at this time (19:38) • Uses precise term bolisantes for taking soundings and records
  161. 161. Sir William Ramsay The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament, 222 “ L uke is a historian of the first rank; not merely are his statements of fact trustworthy . . . This author should be placed along with the very greatest of CC-Art.com historians.” Tyrannus Inscription at Ephesus: shows that the name mentioned in Acts 19:9,“Tyrannus,” was used in Ephesus during 1 st century
  162. 162. A.N. Sherwin-White Roman Law and Roman Society in the New Testament, 189 “ F or Acts the confirmation of historicity is overwhelming….But any attempt to reject its basic historicity even in matters of detail must now appear absurd. Roman historians have long taken it for granted.”
  163. 163. Corinth P aul ministered in Corinth for 18 months (Acts 18:11) and wrote at least two epistles to the church addressing various theological and moral issues. Below is the ancient city of Corinth and the temple of Apollo, which displays the oldest style of Doric columns in the world. Temple of Apollo
  164. 164. Bema Seat T he Corinthian bema seat was discovered in the early 20 th century. It served as the place from which the city officials spoke to its citizens, including the Apostle Paul who was brought before the proconsul, Gallio , in Acts 18:12-17. It also may have been used to award competing athletes of the Isthmian games. Paul uses the Greek term ( bema ) to describe the “judgment seat” of Christ where Christians will receive their heavenly rewards in 2 Corinthians 5:10.
  165. 165. Arch of Titus T he Arch of Titus (son of Vespasian) depicts the Roman victory associated with the destruction of the temple at Jerusalem in AD 70 and the carrying away the temple articles such as the Menorah, Table of Showbread, and Scroll of God’s Law . The relief offers a portrayal consistent with Christ’s prophetic words to His disciples concerning the temple’s coming destruction (Matthew 24:1-2; Mk 13:2).
  166. 166. Pool of Bethesda P rior to the pools discovery in 1888 near church of St. Anne in Jerusalem adjacent to the temple mount, there had been no extra biblical mention of the site . Subsequent excavations have found the “five porches” (colonnades) located a short distance from the “Sheep Gate” P ool was associated with the as described in John 5:2. pagan healing god Asclepius (John 5:3-4).
  167. 167. Pool of Siloam T he trapezoid pool (corners greater than 90 degrees), with three sets of five stairs, was discovered by accident in 2005 as city workers were digging in the vicinity revealing three series of five ancient steps on each level. Coins found at the site confirm this location as the 1 st century Pool of Siloam mentioned in John 9:7 as the place where Jesus healed the man born blind .
  168. 168. Macherus M acherus is the location of Herod’s 1 century AD hill top cas which overlooks the eastern ridge of Dead Sea (in Jordan) wher Herod Antipas imprisoned and put to death John the Baptist (Mt 14:1-12; Lk 9:9). Josephus wrote “…he [John] was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle,…and was there put to death” ( Antiquities of the Jews 8.5.2) 8.5.2 st
  169. 169. Capernaum (Jn 6:35, 59) elow are the ruins of Capernaum, Jesus’ headquarters during His Galilean ministry (Mk 1:2128; 3:1-6; Lk 4:31-37; Jn 6:59) and where He healed and taught many. B
  170. 170. Capernaum W ords scratched on the walls indicate early Christians believed this was Peter’s house which may have led to the early octagonal church built over the site (Mt 8:14; Mk 1:29; Lk 4:38) T his 4 century Synagogue was built over earlier 1 st century AD black basalt foundations. Most likely, this is where Jesus said “I am the bread of life” (Jn 6:35, 48, 59) th
  171. 171. Cities of the Decapolis T oday, nearly all the cities of the Decapolis ( deca = 10; polis = city) mentioned in the gospels (Mt 4:25; Mk 5:20; 7:31) have been identified through archaeological research. Pliny (1 st century) identified the cities as Gerasa (Jarash), Gadara (Umm Qais), Scythopolis (Beth Shan), Damascus, Dion, Hippos, Raphana, Pella, Philadelphia (Amman), and Abila. Hadrian’s Arch at Gerasa Temple of Hercules at Philadelphia
  172. 172. Areopagus T he Areopagus (Mar’s Hill) is a polished rocky outcropping just below the Acropolis in Athens, Greece, where Paul delivere his well-known sermon to the ethical court at the invitation of the Stoic and Epicurean philosophers (Acts 17:16-34). Paul spoke and said “for in Him we live and move and have our being” (Acts 16:28).
  173. 173. Caesarea by the Sea S ince the 1950’s, archaeologists have uncovered Herod’s harbor, market, streets, aqueducts, hippodrome and homes. This is the place where Pontius Pilate made his home, where the first gentile converts to Christianity (Acts 10) were made, Ancient Hippodrome for Events Amphitheatre going to Rome. and Paul’s imprisonment (Acts 23-26) before Still Used Today
  174. 174. Caesarea Philippi (Panias) T his site in Northern Israel is the location where Jesus asked His disciples “Who do men say that I, the Son of Man, am?” Peter’s infamous response was “You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God” (Mathew 16:13-20). It was also an dedicated to the worship of the god Pan (city named Panias ), Zeus, and Caesar, as well as the location of one of the largest water sources feeding the Jordan River .
  175. 175. Philippi T he Roman colony at Philippi, named after Philip of Macedon (father of Alexander the Great), was the site of several memorable events, including Paul’s first European converts to Christianity (Acts 16:11-15), his imprisonment with Silas (16:16-24), and the conversion of the jailor (16:25-34). The church there would eventually be the recipient of one of his prison epistles (Philippians) praising their generosity (4:10-20). Below is the amphitheater built by Philip and the city ruins
  176. 176. Ephesus P aul spent at least three years ministering at Ephesus (Acts 18:19-21; 19:1-41), an economic and religious hub during the 1st century AD, only to be abandoned later due to the excess harbor silting. The city is also well-known as the site where Paul’s traveling companions Gaius and Aristarchus (19:29) were brought into the 25,000 seat theater (below) as the rioting Ephesians were chanting “Great is Diana of the Ephesians” (19:27-28). The temple of Artemis (Diana) which has been discovered here is considered a wonder of the ancient world. Diana of Ephesus
  177. 177. Non-Christian Testimony to Christ E xtra biblical historians have offered a clear picture of the essential elements of Christ’s life which are consistent with the Gospel accounts: • Jesus lived during Tiberius Caesar • He lived a virtuous life • He was a wonder worker • He had a brother names James • He was acclaimed to be the Messiah Judas’ 30 Silver Tyre Shekels Matthew 27:3, 9 • He was crucified under Pontius Pilate • He was crucified on the eve of Passover • Darkness and Earthquake occurred when He died • His disciples believed He rose from the dead • His disciples were willing to die for their belief • Christianity spread rapidly as far as Rome • His disciples denied the Roman gods, worshipped Jesus as God
  178. 178. The End
  179. 179. Archaeology: the Intersection Between Faith and History I n recent times the debate over the historical reliability of the Bible has developed new importance and momentum in light of the thousands of archaeological discoveries related either directly or indirectly to the people, places, events, customs, and beliefs recorded in the Scriptures. As many historians agree, it can no longer be asserted that the Bible is a product of human invention or the mythological ramblings of men who had ulterior motives. Because of this, many modern scholars have revisited the archaeological and historical data. However, these discoveries often languish in the halls of academia never seeing the light of day, thus leaving the layperson unaware of the immense body of archaeological information at their disposal. C.S. Lewis once wrote “To be ignorant and simple now, not to be able to meet the enemies on their own ground, would be to throw down our weapons, and to betray our uneducated brethren who have, under God, no defense but us against the intellectual attacks of the heathen.” This book offers a bridge that spans from the classroom to the lay reader, with a view to both educating and equipping for participation in the reliability debate, which has for too long been relegated to journal articles and scholarly discussions. Moreover, this work is intended to fill the gap in knowledge that exists within the church of the historical events recorded in Scripture, and their vital relationship to Christian doctrine. In John 3:12, Jesus asks Nicodemus a question that reminds us of our need to close the gap between history and faith: “If I have told you earthly things and you do not believe, how will you believe if I told you heavenly things?” The time for compartmentalized thinking that separates history from faith is past, since it would align the church with the assumptions of negative higher criticism which sees no connection between the Jesus of history (who lived in the first-century) and the Christ of Faith worshipped as God in
  180. 180. Acknowledgements S pecial thanks to Sam Capshaw, Technology Administrator at Calvary Chapel Bible College, for his computer expertise and assistance in completing this project, Todd Bolen of BiblePlaces.com , H. Wayne House and Randall Price for their generous contribution of photographs. Also, gratitude to my talented sister and archaeological sketch artist, Lorene Rice, for using her unique gifts to enhance this work with her drawings of key artifacts.
  181. 181. Credits • Photograph on slides 12, 22, 31-34, 37-39, 46-47, 49, 52-54, 56, 59, 61-65, 67-71, 75-78, 83-86, 88-91, 98-99, 103-106, 108, 110-113, 115-117, 125, 138-139, 141-145, 153. © Zev Radovan BibleLandPictures.com • Photograph on slides 48, 50-51, 57, 92, 159. © The Trustees of the British Museum • Photograph on slide 73 courtesy of © Jordan Archaeological Museum (Amman). Photo by author. • Photographs on and slides 58, 66, 120, 127, 154. Copyright 2005 Daniel Speck FreeStockPhotos.com • Photograph on slides 44, 81-82, 176. © 2007 H. Wayne House. All Rights Reserved. • Photograph on slides 1, 9-11, 17-21, 23-24, 60, 74, 79-80, 96, 100-104, 133, 140, 145-146, 148-152, 157-158, 163-175, 177-178. © 2007 Joseph M. Holden. All Rights Reserved. • Photograph on slides 107, 114, 144. © Todd Bolen, BiblePlaces.com • Photograph on slide 147 © 2007 Randall Price. All Rights Reserved. • Photograph on slide 97 © Hans Auer/Fotolia.com • Photograph on slide 10 © Pierrette Guertin/Fotolia.com and CD Disc Image © Mary LaneFotolia.com • Drawings on slides 45, 55, 72, 87, 137, 156. © 2007 Lorene Rice and Joseph M. Holden. All Rights Reserved. • Chart on slide 154, 173 adapted from Norman L. Geisler and Frank Turek, I Don’t Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2004). • Chart on slide 127 adapted from H. Wayne House and Joseph M. Holden, Charts of Apologetics and Christian Evidences (Nashville, TN: Zondervan, 2006). • Photograph on slides 8, 42, 109, 119, 126, 158, 160-161, courtesy of CC- Art.com
  182. 182. Information Archaeology and the Bible: A Pictorial Guide to the Amazing Discoveries of the Biblical World © Joseph M. Holden 2007. All Rights Reserved. ISBN 978-1-4276-1913-6

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Does modern Archaeology lend criticism to the narrative laid out in the Old and New Testament? Is there any good historical evidence that the Biblical characters even existed? Watch and decide for yourself... For more resources or information go to: IntelligentFaith315.com or subscribe to "Intelligent Faith Radio" in the iTunes store.


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