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unit 4 sociology Social groups and Processes For Nursing Students

  1. 1. UNIT 4 SOCIAL GROUPS AND PROCESSES Mrs. Geetha S R M.Sc Nursing State Institute Of Health & Family Welfare Bengaluru
  2. 2. SYLLABUS • The meaning and classification of groups • Primary & Secondary group • In-group V/s. Out-group, class tribe, caste • Economic, Political, Religious, groups, Mob, Crowd, Public and Audience Interaction & Social Processes • Co-operation, Competition, Conflict • Accommodation, Assimilation & Isolation
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • Man’s life is a group life to a large extent. If a person lives in society, he typically is also a member of a number of groups which may themselves be considered as existing in a society. A group is a number of people involved in a pattern of association with one another. Typical groups are a clique of friends, a political party, and a sports club. • The key to the nature of human grouping is the notion of association. • Groups are created and maintained because they enable individual members to attain certain goals or interests which they hold in common. • Our social behaviour and personalities are shaped by the groups to which we belong. Throughout his life, individual is a member of various groups, some are chosen by him, others are assigned to him at birth.
  4. 4. Meaning of social groups • Social group is a collection of human beings who are brought into social relationship with one another with a common goal under a common set of codes. • It may be a pair, number of persons or even a collection of millions of people ex. Sports club, a political party, a family etc
  5. 5. Definition • According to Green, “A group is an aggregate of individuals which persist in time, which has one or more interests and activities in common and which is organised.” • According to Maclver and Page “Any collection of human beings who are brought into social relationship with one another • Ogburn and Nimkoff – “Whenever two or more individual come together and influence one another, they may be said to constitute a social group”.
  6. 6. Characteristics of social group 1. Mutual Awareness: The members of a social group must be mutually related to one another 2. One or more Common Interests: Groups are mostly formed for the fulfillment of certain interests. The individuals who form a group should possess one or more than one common interests and ideals. 3. Sense of Unity: Each social group requires sense of unity and a feeling of sympathy for the development of a feeling or sense of belongingness.
  7. 7. 4. We-feeling: A sense of we-feeling refers to the tendency on the part of the members to identify themselves with the group. We-feeling generates sympathy, loyalty and fosters cooperation among members. 5. Similarity of Behaviour: For the fulfillment of common interest, the members of a group behave in a similar way. Social group represents collective behaviour. 6. Group Norms: Each and every group has its own ideals and norms and the members are supposed to follow these. These norms may be in the form of customs, folk ways, mores, traditions, laws etc. They may be written or unwritten
  8. 8. Classification of Social Groups Simmel considered size as a criterion for classifying groups. • Small size group • Large size group Dwight Sanderson suggested a three fold classification of social groups by structure. • Involuntary group • Voluntary group • Delegate group
  9. 9. Cooley classified groups on the basis of kind of contacts. • Primary group • Secondary group F.H. Giddings classified group into • Genetic (involuntarily. Ex: family) • Congregate (voluntarily. Ex: union) Sumner made distinction between an in group and out groups The groups with which the individual identifies himself are his in-groups such as his family, tribe, college, occupation etc. All other groups to which he does not belong are his out-groups.
  10. 10. In-group • The groups with the individual indentifies himself are his in-group, his family or tribe or sex or college or occupation or religion. • Usually expressed in the contrast between “they” and “us”. • Every group they are communists; we are Hindu, they are Muslims; we are Brahmins, they are others not my people etc., Out-group • Its opposite of in-group
  11. 11. Sl. No IN-GROUP OUT - GROUP 1. The groups with which the individual identifies himself are his in-groups An outgroup is defined by an individual with reference to his in-group 2. Ex. his family or tribe or sex or college or occupation or religion Ex. Club members 3. Produces sense of belonging The relationship of an individual to his out-group is marked by detachment and sometimes even of hostility. 4. In-group attitudes contain some element of sympathy and a sense of attachment to the other members of the group Outgroup contains a sense of remoteness among the members 5. It embodies the collective pronoun ‘we’ It embodies the word “”They” or other” 6. The members of the in-group display cooperation, goodwill, mutual help and respect for one another’s rights Toward the members of out-group we feel a sense of indifference, avoidance, disgust, hostility, competition or outright conflict. 7. They possess a sense of solidarity, a feeling of brotherhood and readiness to sacrifice themselves for the sake of the group.
  12. 12. Cooley classified groups on the basis of kind of contacts. • Primary group • Secondary group
  13. 13. Sl. no Primary Group Secondary Group 1. Meaning: Groups which re characterized by face-to- face relations, mutual aid are primary group. Ex: family, friends etc., Groups which provide experience lacking in intimacy are secondary group. Ex: political parties, unions etc., 2. Nature of Social Relations: social relations are face- to- face, direct intimate, personal, non-partisan in character Social relations are indirect, impersonal, contractual, specialized, and more economic nature. 3. Size: primary groups are smaller in size. Secondary groups are relatively bigger in size. 4. Physical proximity: group are confined to a small geographic area. Groups are not characterized by physical area. . 5. Communication: its not only direct but also quick and effective. Members are spread over a vast area direct communication is difficult. 6. Group interest: interest of members are not specific but general. Interest of members are more specific 7. Nature of co-operation: co- operation is direct. Co-operation is mostly indirect 8. Group structure: its very informal. The group is not very much organized in the modern sense Group structure is formal. The organization of the group is carefully planned and worked out. 9. .Durability: groups are relatively durable. Groups may be temporary or permanent. 10. Effects on personality: the group has a long-lasting influence upon the personality. The impact of group on the personality of the members is rather limited. 11. Nature of group control: informal means of social control. Formal means of control.
  14. 14. CLASS Social class, also called class, a group of people within a society who possess the same socioeconomic status.
  15. 15. Sociologists generally posit three classes: upper, working (or lower), and middle. • The upper class in modern capitalist societies is often distinguished by the possession of largely inherited wealth. • The working class are those persons who hold low-paying, low-skilled, are characterised by lack of property and dependence on wages associated with low living standards. • The middle class may be said to include the middle and upper levels of clerical workers, supervisors and managers, and such self-employed workers as small-scale shopkeepers, businesspersons, and farmers.
  16. 16. TRIBE • ‘Tribe’ is defined as a social group bound together by kin and duly associated with a particular territory; members of the tribe share the social cohesion and associated with the family together with the sense of political autonomy of the nation. • W.H.R. Rivers defined a tribe as 'a social group of simple kind, the members of which speak a common dialect, have a single government, and act together for such common purposes as warfare’. • The tribes in India are also called as “adivasis” The tribal population accounts for 8.2% of the total population of the country.
  17. 17. Characteristics of a Tribal community 1. Common territory- Tribal people live in a definite geographical area. 2. Common name- Each and every tribe has their own names Ex- Todas,Khashi 3. Common Dialect- EachTribe has its own Dialect( Spoken language with no script) 4. Common culture – Tribal communities have their own distinct culture that differs from culture of civilized people.
  18. 18. 5. Common religion- Tribal communities have their own religion and members of a tribe worship a common ancestor. 6. Authority of the Chief – Each tribe has its own political set up. The tribal chief occupies an important place in the tribal organization. 7. Endogamy- Tribal people marry within their own tribal organization but they practice clan exogamy that is why they are endogamous in nature. 8. Blood relatives- The members of the tribe are related by blood because of practicing endogamy.
  19. 19. Problems of tribals in India Six Main Problems Faced by the Indian Tribes • Loss of Control over Natural Resources • Lack of Education • Displacement and Rehabilitation • Problems of Health and Nutrition • Gender Issues • Erosion of Identity
  20. 20. CLAN • A clan is the group of individuals who believe themselves to be the descendents of a common ancestor real or mythical ancestor. • Mazumdar – A Clan or sib is after the combination of few lineage and descent traced to a mythical ancestor. Clans are exogamous in nature. • A clan is constituted of all the relatives of either the patriarchal or matriarchal . The ancestor is considered to be the founder of the family. All the descendents are known by his name.
  21. 21. Features of Clan 1.It is an exogamous group. The members of a clan donot marry any member of their clan. 2.The members of a clan believe in one common ancestor real or mythical. 3.It is a unilateral group. It consists of all the families either on the mothers side or fathers side.
  22. 22. Functions of Clan • Clan is an important group. Its members possess a “we feeling”. • They consider themselves the descendents from a common ancestor. • The clan exercise great control over its members. • It helps in maintaining peace and order within the clan. • Head of the clan settles disputes among the members of a clan.
  23. 23. Difference between Tribe and Clan Tribe Clan Tribe lives on a definite geographical area Clan has no definite territory. Tribe has a common language Clan has no common language Tribe is an endogamous group Clan is an exogamous group Tribe has number of clans Clan is a part of tribe.
  24. 24. CASTE Caste, any of the ranked, hereditary, endogamous social groups, often linked with occupation, that together constitute traditional societies in South Asia, particularly among Hindus in India.
  25. 25. Varnas 1.The highest-ranked among the varnas, the Brahmans- priests and the masters and teachers of sacred knowledge (veda) 2. Kshatriya- warriors, responsible for the protection of the dominion (kshatra). 3. Vaishyas - agriculturists and merchants 4. Shudras, lowest-ranked varna. They were considered untouchables.provide menial services.
  26. 26. Religious groups Some of the major religious groups in India are as follows: 1. Hinduism 2. Islam 3. Christianity 4. Sikhism 5. Buddhism 6. Jainism
  27. 27. CROWD The crowd may be defined as a collection of individuals united temporarily and in close proximity to each other. Their objects may be diverse kinds. It is an unorganized manifestation. After the people collected in a garden for a picnic are called crowd. A crowd is quickly created and quickly dissolved
  28. 28. Definition of Crowd • MacIver it as a physically compact aggregation of human being brought into direct, temporary and un-organized contact with one another. • Kimball and Young a crowd is a gathering of a considerable number of persons around a center or point of common attraction. • Lundberg a crowd is a temporary collection of persons who react to a common focus of attention, and engage in spontaneous interaction.
  29. 29. Characteristics of Crowd • Anonymity -because its large and temporary. • Narrow attention -one or two things at one time. • Suggestibility -crowd are not open to conviction. • Credulity -easily believe others words. • Low mental level- ideas not deep and wide. • Emotional -crowd are highly emotional. • Irresponsibility- crowd sense very poor of it.
  30. 30. MOB • The crowd is always a transitory(not permanent) and unstable organization. Thus a group of students recreating by the seashore are an aggregate; if they hear a film actor they become a crowd. But if the actor makes insulting remarks to the country they may become unruly and turn into a mob. • Mob is a violent group it concern more emotional people, they are creating problem they dont maintain a peace . They have some struggle mind. Ex: Caste violence
  31. 31. PUBLIC • Public is a part of the people. • The public is merely a psychological group who think and feel about social issues. • They are diffused, and are found in far off places. • They are psychologically united due to some social issues.
  32. 32. Definition of Public • Kingsley Davis A dispersed group; it is a feeling and thinking group. • Schettler The public is a group of individuals who are united together by common interest or objectives. • Horton & Hunt A public is a scattered group of people who share an interest in a particular topic.
  33. 33. Characteristics of Public • Public is disposed(willing) group It is a psychological group. It thinks, feels, and experiences certain common things. • In public, all people do not have unanimous opinion. • The members of the public communicate each other through mass media. • Public is an organized group. • There is no personal contact in public
  34. 34. Differences between Crowd and Public Crowd Public The very constitution of a crowd necessitates the presence of its members in one particular area No such physical proximity is essential Crowd gives the impression of being collective and compact Public is obviously scattered. In a crowd the media of mutual exchange are direct and present on the spot While the unity of the public increases through such media as the newspapers, radio, press Crowd is more fickle A public is relatively constant or permanent In a crowd relations are established through the direct stimulation and excitation In a public the basis of these reaction is more indirect stimulation. An individual member of a crowd can be a member of only one crowd at any given period of time. There is no restrictions on the members of a public since his physical presence within the public is not required. The members of a crowd exhibit physical contiguity rather than mental unity or identity The members of the public evince(indicates) a mental unity.
  35. 35. AUDIENCE • Includes class rooms, pubic meetings, etc. • It is a group that sees, listens, and thinks. • They dont have any leader but the organizer control for all the participants or people. Ex: theatre, programme etc.
  36. 36. Definition of Audience V.V. Akolkar An audience is a temporary assembly whose members have gathered for a definite and similar purpose, each one come to the spot on account of his individual interest.
  37. 37. Classification of Audience • Information audience: seeking audience. e.g. class room, TV hall etc., • Conversational audience: discussion audience. • Recreational audience: we have cinema, sports etc., • Religious audience: religious worship, as in churches, temples and mosques. • Political audience: audience are addressed usually by political leaders.
  38. 38. Difference between Public and Audience Sl no Public Audience 1 Public is generally a group of people. Audience” refers to a crowd seeing or listening to any speech or performance. 2 It doesn’t define any particular group of people. It defines a particular group of people. 3 “Public” refers to all types of people and it means sharing something without any concealment(hiding). “Audience” refers to a crowd seeing or listening to any speech or performance.
  39. 39. Social Interaction and Social Processes • Man is a socio-cultural being and society is necessary for man. • They always live in various groups and associations. • As members of this group they act and behave in a certain manner. • This behaviour of individual is affected by the behaviour of others. • This behaviour we call as a social interaction. • This interaction is essential of social life. Without interaction there would be no social life.
  40. 40. DEFINITION • Dawson and Gettys Social interaction is the process where by man interpreted the minds of each other. • Ginsberg - Social processes means the various modes of interaction between individuals or groups including co-operation and conflict, social differentiation and integration, development, arrest and decay.
  41. 41. Social Interaction and Social Processes Social Interaction and Social Processes takes place in the forms of • Co-operation • Competition • Conflicts • Accommodation • Assimilation • Isolation.
  42. 42. CO-OPERATION Co-operation is an Integrating activity it generally means that working together in the pursuit of common interest. • Merril and Eldredge - Co-operation is a form of social interaction wherein two or more persons work together to gain a common interest. • Fairchild- Co-operation is the process by which individual or groups combine their effort in a more or less organized way for the attainment of common objective.
  43. 43. Types of Co-operation Five Types co-operation: • Direct Co-operation • Indirect Co-operation • Primary Co-operation • Secondary Co-operation • Tertiary Co-operation
  44. 44. COMPETITION • Competition is the most fundamental form of social struggle. • Struggle for existence and better life. It is one aspects of struggle which is universal not only in human society but also in the animal society. • Its a source of motivation conducive to progress.
  45. 45. Definition of Competition • Sutherland Competition is an impersonal, unconscious, continuous, struggle between individuals or group which because of their limited supply all may not have. • Biesanz Competition is the struggling between two or more persons for the same goal which is limited so that all cannot share it.
  46. 46. Characteristics of competition • Competition is impersonal(not influenced) struggle. • Competition is an unconscious activity. • Competition is universal
  47. 47. ADVANTAGES OF COMPETITION 1. Helps in assigning the individuals to proper places 2. Competition is a source of motivation for the individual. 3. It stimulates achievements by lifting the level of aspiration from lower level to higher level. 4. Competition brings about progress in society 5. It helps improvement in the quality of production and service 6. Healthy competition helps the full development of personality of the members of the society. 7. Competition encourages hardwork by people.
  48. 48. NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF COMPETITION 1.Competition may result in conflicts, tensions 2.Competition may lead to frustration, suicide and social disorganisations of various types.
  49. 49. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CO OPERATION AND COMPETITION Sl no Co Operation Competition 1 It is a form of social interaction where 2 or more persons work together to gain common end. It is a struggle between 2 or more persons for the same goal which is limited so that all cannot share it. 2 It requires qualities such as kindness,sympathy,concern for others, mutual understanding It requires qualities such as strong aspiration,self confidence,spirit of adventure and readiness to suffer and struggle. 3 Brings about satisfaction in people May lead to dissatisfaction,anxiety and uncertainities.
  50. 50. CONFLICT It is the anti-thesis of co-operation. It is a process of seeking to obtain rewards by eliminating or weakening the competitors. Definition of conflict Gillin and Gillin - Conflict is the social process in which individuals or groups seeks their ends by directly challenging the enemy by violence or threat of violence.
  51. 51. Characteristics & Causes of Conflicts Characteristics of conflict: • conscious action • it is a personal activity • lacking continuity • universal one
  52. 52. Causes of conflict • Individual differences • Cultural differences • Clash of interests • Social change
  53. 53. Types of Conflicts Gillin and Gillin mentioned five types of conflict • Personal conflict • Racial conflict • Class conflict • Political conflict • International conflict
  54. 54. WAYS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT Conflict can be resolved in 2 main ways- • 1. Accomodation • 2. Assimilation Accomodation refers to the adjustment of hostile individuals or groups. It is a temporary solution to the conflict. • It either suspends, stops or postpones the conflict for some time. • It may assume various forms such as coercion, compromise, arbitration and conciliation, toleration, rationalization, sublimation and conversion Assimilation is a process whereby individuals or groups once dissimilar becomes similar and identified in their interests and outlook. It is a permanent way of settling conflict
  55. 55. ACCOMMODATION • Accommodation is resolution of conflicts which generally means adjusting oneself to the new environment. • Adjustment may be to the physical or social environment. • Accommodation denotes acquired changes in the behaviour of individuals which enable them to adjust to their environment.
  56. 56. Definition of Accommodation • MacIver The term accommodation refers particularly to the process in which man attains a sense of harmony with his environment. • Ogburn and Nimkoff Accommodation is a term used by the sociologists to describe the adjustment of hostile (unfriendly) individuals or groups.
  57. 57. Characteristics of Accommodation • Accommodation is the natural result of conflict. • Accommodation is mainly an unconscious activity. • Accommodation is universal. • Accommodation is a continuous process. • Accommodation is a mixture of both love and hatred
  58. 58. ASSIMILATION • It is more permanent than accommodation. • It is a process by which persons and groups acquire the culture of the other group in which they come to live by adopting its attitudes and values . In short, its way of life.
  59. 59. Definition of Assimilation • Bogardus Assimilation is a process whereby attitudes of many persons are united, an thus develop into a united group. • Biesanz Assimilation is the social process whereby individuals or groups come to share the same sentiments and goals.
  60. 60. Characteristics of Assimilation • Its not confined to single field only its applied to different groups. • It is a slow and gradual process cannot take place all of suddenly. • It is an unconscious process we cannot see the real things. • It is a two way process its principle of give and take.
  61. 61. Factors Hindering Assimilation The following factors are weakening the process of assimilation: 1. Isolation 2. Racial difference 3. Cultural difference 4. Prejudice 5. Dominants and sub ordination.
  62. 62. Factors favouring Assimilation The following factors help the process of assimilation 1. Toleration 2. Intimate social relationship 3. Intercaste marriage 4. Cultural similarity 5. Education 6. Equal social and economic opportunity.
  63. 63. Acculturation • It is the process of adapting to a new culture • May involve learning the dominant language ,adopting new values and bahaviours • Acculturation refers to those processes whereby the culture of the society is modified as the result of contact with the culture of one or more other societies.
  64. 64. ISOLATION • If the communicative interaction or social contact is absent that condition can be called as isolation. • It occurs among individuals and groups. • Absolute isolation is impossible.
  65. 65. TYPES OF ISOLATION Spatial & organic • Spatial isolation is external. • Organic defects of individual such as deafness or blindness • Shyness- partial isolation • Privacy
  66. 66. Negative effects of social isolation Social isolation can lead to feelings of loneliness, fear of others, or negative self-esteem. Lack of consistent human contact can also cause conflict with the (peripheral) friends. The socially isolated person may occasionally talk to or cause problems with family members. Hearing loss and isolation  Inability to effectively communicate  Difficult to maintain interpersonal relationships
  67. 67. Health effects of social isolation • Social isolation is associated with increased risk in physical health conditions including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, elevated stress hormones, and weakened immune systems. • social isolation increases the risk of mental health issues like depression, anxiety and substance abuse, as well as chronic conditions like high blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes. It also raises the risk of dementia in older adults.
  68. 68. THANK YOU

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Lineage vamshavali, descendents- vamshastaru, exogamous outside group