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Urban Roads

Urban Roads

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Urban Roads

  1. 1. Urban Roads Town Planning
  2. 2. Urban Roads • ‘A man is known by the company he keeps’. In a similar manner, a city or a town is admired by its road system. • A well arranged layout of a town is spoiled, if it does not contain a well – designed road pattern connecting the various parts of the town. The town planner should therefore give careful considerations to the design provisions of street in the town.
  3. 3. Urban Roads
  4. 4. Urban Roads • The urban road play an important role in the development of town or city and as such, they attract many evils such as heavy traffic congestion, ribbon development, etc. • If properly attended to by the town planner. It is very difficult, if not impossible, to alter the existing road system at a later stage except at very high cost.
  5. 5. Urban Roads
  6. 6. Urban Roads • The parks, playgrounds, green open spaces and gardens are the lungs of the town and the roads or streets plan is considered as the foundation of the town plan. • The efficiency of an urban area is greatly influenced by the urban infrastructure of roads together with public services.
  7. 7. Urban Roads
  8. 8. Objects of Urban Road The main object of Urban roads are as follows: • To facilitate Communication of men and materials between the various centres of the town. • To provide air and light to the properties situated on their edges; • To provide space for laying the public utility services like water mains; drainage pipe, electric cables, telephone lines. Etc.
  9. 9. To facilitate Communication
  10. 10. To Provide Air And Light To The Properties
  11. 11. To Provide Space For Laying The Public Utility Services
  12. 12. Requirements of a Good City Road Following are the ideals which are to be kept in while designing a good city road; • It should accommodate amenities such as shady avenues, Parking places, enough lighting etc. • It should be cheap and Durable. • It should be resting on unyielding soil. • It should have good alignment and visibility.
  13. 13. Requirements of a Good City Road
  14. 14. Requirements of a Good City Road
  15. 15. Requirements of a Good City Road
  16. 16. Requirements of a Good City Road • It should possess easy gradients and smooth curves. • It should possess well designed junctions. • It should remain in dry conditions. • It should avoid traffic congestions • Its wearing surface should be impervious • Its width of camber should be proper
  17. 17. Easy Gradients And Smooth Curves
  18. 18. Should Avoid Traffic Congestions
  19. 19. Width Of Camber Should Be Proper
  20. 20. Factors to be Considered • Following are the factors which are to be considered by a town planner while designing a town road. 1) Destination • The points or centre or areas which are being linked up by the road are to be studied with respect to their capacity of attracting traffic. 2) Importance of Road • The Overall Importance of Road with respect to the surrounding roads is to be ascertained and accordingly, the facilities and dimensions are to be determined.
  21. 21. Destination
  22. 22. Importance of Road
  23. 23. Factors to be Considered 3) Nature of Traffic • The probable traffic to be carried by road is studied with respect to its intensity, peak period, types of vehicles, parking facilities. 4) Use of Road • The probable use to which the road is to be put up for maximum period during the day is to be properly estimated.
  24. 24. Use of Road
  25. 25. Classification of Urban Roads • The Urban Roads are classified into the following five categories; • Expressways • Arterial Roads • Sub-Arterial Roads • Local Roads • Streets • Pathways Each of the above category of road well be explained below
  26. 26. Expressways • The purpose of expressways is to cater for mobility of large volume of motor traffic at high speed. • Divided highway with high standards of geometrics • Full or partial control of Access • Provided with Grade Separation Intersection • Vehicle parking, loading and unloading of products and passengers and pedestrian traffic are not allowed on these kinds of highways
  27. 27. Expressways
  28. 28. Arterial Roads • The roads that connects the town to a state highway or a national highway is termed as arterial road. It passes within the city limits and carries great masses of traffic between different parts of the town. • The arterial road include ring roads, by-pass roads, etc, and they allow free movement of fast traffic at higher speeds. • These roads are also kept clean of all obstruction such as frontage of building, parking places, loading and unloading areas,
  29. 29. Arterial Roads
  30. 30. Arterial Roads • The arterial road should serve the following three purpose • The movement and safety of through traffic i.e. traffic moving beyond its point of origin • There is some economy in construction in the sense that only arterial routes are designed to carry heavy traffic and other types of roads. • The through traffic is not allowed to pass through residential areas. Hence, the discomfort and danger to the residents of such area is minimized.
  31. 31. Arterial Roads
  32. 32. Sub Arterial Roads • These roads are also known as the major roads or secondary roads. They are contained within city limits and they connect important town centres. • These roads serve slow moving traffic over short distances . The intersection on these roads are provided with suitable traffic signals.
  33. 33. Sub Arterial Roads
  34. 34. Sub Arterial Roads
  35. 35. Local Roads Local Roads • These roads are also known as minor roads. They collect Traffic from various parts of the town and lead it to another minor or major road. These roads give access to abutting properties and importance is given to the non vehicular traffic on the roads. • The local roads are not allowed to touch or to come in contact with the arterial roads and the two are separated by a bridge and one goes over the another
  36. 36. Local Roads
  37. 37. Streets Streets • A road which serves the need of an internal portions of a local area is known as street. The portion to be served may either by residential, Commercial, or Industrial. • The design of street is made after considering the purpose and use of the portion to be served by the street and special attention is paid to the social, commercial and other requirements of the local community.
  38. 38. Streets
  39. 39. Pathway Pathway • These are also known as the pedestrian ways and they are in the form of accesses leading to individual shops or premises. The vehicular traffic is no allowed to move on the pathway
  40. 40. Pathway
  41. 41. Types of Street System The street systems are classified as • Rectangular Street System • Rectangular with superimposed diagonals street system • Concentric Street System • Radial Street System • Combined of Radial or Rectangular Street System • Irregular medieval street system • Topographical Street System • Combination of Rectangular and irregular Street System
  42. 42. Rectangular Street System • In this pattern, the streets are usually of equal width and they cross at right angles. It is also known as Grid- Iron, or chequer- Board Pattern. This pattern is suitable for flat country without any predominant natural feature. The example of this system are Philadelphia and Jaipur.
  43. 43. Rectangular Street System
  44. 44. Rectangular Street System
  45. 45. Advantages Of This Pattern • If series of parallel lines are provided it results in increase of traffic capacity. • It grants comfort and convenience due to its regularity. • The intersection is simple in nature. • It results in economic construction. • The wastage of land can be minimized as there is no irregular portion to be left out.
  46. 46. Disadvantages • As there are many intersections, there are more chances of Road Accidents. • If this pattern is applied on uneven topography, it leads to great inconvenience and discomfort. • It is to mathematical and monotonous because the roads are straight and there is no variety.
  47. 47. Rectangular Street System
  48. 48. Rectangular With Superimposed Diagonal Street System • This arrangement is an improvement on Grid Iron Pattern. The diagonal Street Provides direct communication between distant parts of the street. • The point where diagonals meet are utilized for park, garden, memorial etc, However, a dangerous intersection is formed at the crossing point of diagonal street and rectangular street.
  49. 49. Rectangular With Superimposed Diagonal Street System
  50. 50. The Features Of This System Are : • The Circle, squares, and other open spaces at junction of street and avenues are profitable utilized as sites for gorgeous statues, monuments and fountains. • The public building are provided with enough open spaces all around them. • The streets are very wide and are well planted with trees.
  51. 51. Concentric Street System • In this system the ring roads or circumferential roads are connected with radial roads. • This patter is also known as Spider’s Web System. • The concentric ring is developed mainly due to removal of encircling walls and fortification. However if the radial roads are not well developed the central part they will overload at the central part of the town.
  52. 52. Concentric Street System
  53. 53. Concentric Street System
  54. 54. Radial Street System • In this pattern, the ring roads spring from the central civic centre like the spokes of a wheel. • Such an arrangement increases the significance and importance of civic centre which may be in the form of palace, market, public office buildings, historical monument, beauty spots, etc.
  55. 55. Radial Street System
  56. 56. Combination Of Radial And Rectangular Street System • In this arrangement, the radial streets are blended or mixed with rectangular streets such a combination can be used with great success especially where topographical features are favorable.
  57. 57. Combination Of Radial And Rectangular Street System
  58. 58. Combination Of Radial And Rectangular Street System
  59. 59. Irregular Mediaeval Street System • Some of the old Cities of middle ages developed in an irregular ways without any definite plan of the street system, possess this type of System. • The growth of town or city is unmethodical and illogical. The mediaeval street patterns naturally does not efficiently serve the modern traffic and such towns are referred as mediaeval towns.
  60. 60. Irregular Mediaeval Street System
  61. 61. Topographical Street System • In this arrangement, the advantage is taken of the natural topography feature of the town such as river, lake, sea view, hillock, etc. • This system is also known as the organic Street Pattern as it resembles the plan on microscopic slide showing the cell structure of vegetable or animal tissues. • The street system is absolutely unplanned, The street pattern, however becomes pleasing and attractive only if it is conformity with topography of the area and natural surrounding.
  62. 62. Topographical Street System
  63. 63. Topographical Street System
  64. 64. Combination of Rectangular and Irregular Street Systems. • In this arrangement a combination of rectangular pattern and irregular street is made. The rectangular layout indicates the recent development and the irregular pattern indicates earlier growth of town. When it is difficult or too costly to improve the existing irregular street system, a combination is formed the outstanding example of this system is Edinburgh (U.K)
  65. 65. Combination of Rectangular and Irregular Street Systems.
  66. 66. Thorough And Bypass Roads • When a through road or a main road passes through the congested portion of the town, there is sharp reduction in the speed of vehicles and the smooth flow of traffic or through road is seriously obstructed. To maintain easy flow of traffic on through roads and to give convenience and comfort to the users of such roads
  67. 67. Thorough And Bypass Roads • These by-pass roads are also known as the loop roads and they avoid the traffic on through roads to avoid congested area of the town, at suitable points along the main road, the vehicles are diverted by the bypass roads from one side come on the through road on the other sides after passing the congested or habitated areas of the town. • The provision of a by-pass road results in the reduction in traffic through the congested areas of a town, chances of accidents are minimized.
  68. 68. Thorough And Bypass Roads
  69. 69. Thorough And Bypass Roads
  70. 70. Outer and Inner Ring Roads • The Object of an Outer Ring Road is to divert from the town all the through traffic which has no business in the town • It is a type of bypass road for traffic approaching the town from all the directions. All classes of wheeled traffic will be admitted on the outer ring road and the pedestrians should be maintained clean of all existing development and it should be so designed so as to compensate for a longer route by unbroken passage and high speed.
  71. 71. Outer and Inner Ring Roads
  72. 72. Outer and Inner Ring Roads
  73. 73. Expressways • The term expressway is used to indicate an arterial road on which fast urban traffic is allowed to move speedily and safely, It allows through traffic with full or partial control and generally with grade separation at intersections. The design of these expressways include easy gradients and smooth curves. • The provision of expressway around big cities relieves to a certain extent the traffic congestion and they provide easy flow of traffic. • The expressway do not form the part of the regular street system. The only prohibitive part of expressway is the tremendous cost and hence, it is adopted for big metropolitan cities
  74. 74. Expressways
  75. 75. Freeways • The mere widening of an arterial road will not often relieve crowding due to traffic. This creates the need for constructing special routes that will serve only fast moving traffic and will not be subjected to interferences from vehicles going to and from the building fronting the arterial roads. • The freeway is the latest answer for satisfying the demand of special routes which provide an express route for both the types of vehicles, passengers as well as commercial. • A freeway is thus defined as high class arterial road having controlled access or in other words, it is an expressway with full control of access
  76. 76. Freeways
  77. 77. Freeways
  78. 78. The Essential Features Of Express way Access from adjacent properties: • In case of a freeway, the access from adjacent properties is totally denied and it results into no need for parking. Design and Construction • It is designed in such a way that it can carry maximum volume of traffic with the highest degree of safety.
  79. 79. The Essential Features Of Express way
  80. 80. The Essential Features Of Express way Entrance and exits; • To give connection to the street systems, of the town, the entrance and exits on the freeway should be provided at infrequent intervals. Location: • In general, the freeway would pass around rather than through a city • Traffic Control: The key of effective traffic control on freeway lies in getting early information and proper analysis of the same. It is thus seen that the freeways have got the ability to carry high volume of traffic at relatively high speed.
  81. 81. The Essential Features Of Express way
  82. 82. Precincts • The word precincts was originally used for enclosed space surrounding a church, but now it is used in the town planning to indicate an artificial enclosed space formed by the arterial roads and sub arterial roads. It is the quite area of the building in which traffic is not allowed.
  83. 83. Precincts
  84. 84. Precincts • The features of precinct are • All the road within a precinct are strictly local roads • Each precinct is planned and is developed as a distinct unit of residence. • The building within a precinct do not face towards arterial and sub arterial road. • The connection between the road system of the precinct and sub arterial road are few. • It diverts noise and bustle of the traffic.
  85. 85. Precincts
  86. 86. Road Aesthetics • To keep the road beautiful and pleasing the following principles are observed: • Sincere efforts should be made to present decent and pleasing views along the route followed by the road. • The curves along the road should be smooth and easily negotiable. • The footpath should be provided with concrete and stone kerb. • The ornamental lighting with proper space should be installed along the road.
  87. 87. Road Aesthetics
  88. 88. Road Aesthetics
  89. 89. Road Aesthetics • The road should be provided with side drains to dispose of rain water. • The road should be maintained neat and clean. • The traffic Islands should be given some artistic touch by providing statue, fountain, monument. • The tree grown along the road side should be properly maintained. • Wherever, possible road arboriculture should be encouraged.
  90. 90. Road Aesthetics
  91. 91. References • Fundamentals of Town Planning : G.K. Hiraskar • Town Planning : Rangwala • Internet Websites
  92. 92. Thanks…
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