• All the content, topics, learning experiences, and
organizing threads comprising the educational
plan. (Tyler in Ornstein, 2004).
• It does not only refers to the cognitive content but
also affective and psychomotor.
• Broad, limited, simple, general are the words used
to describe the scope.
• Decision making of the teacher is needed.
Scope of the Curriculum can be divided into
• Each Chunk is guided by the general curriculum
objectives or goals.
• Division of the content may use deductive
• Arrangement of scope is inductive.
• Content Outline of the Curriculum may follow
• A particular order in which related events, movements,
or things follow each other.
• Vertical relationship among the elements to provide
continuous and cumulative learning
• Contents and experiences are arrange in hierarchical
manner where the basis can either be logic of the
subject matter or on the developmental patterns of
growth of the cognitive, affective and psychomotor
4 Principles for Sequence:
(Smith, Stanley and Shore, 1957)
• Simple to Complex Learning – content & experiences are
organized from simple to complex, concrete to abstract,
easy to difficult.
• Prerequisite Learning- there are fundamental things to be
• Whole to Part Learning – overview before the specific
content or topics. Related to gestalt principle.
• Chronological learning – the order of events is made as a
basis of sequencing the content and experiences.
Five Major Principles for Organizing Content in Units:
(Posner and Rudnitsky, 1994)
• A. Space – spatial relations will be the basis
for the sequence.
• B. Time – from the earliest to the most
• C. Physical Attributes – the physical
characteristics of the phenomena such as
age, shape, size, brightness & others.
• how ideas are related together in logical
• A. Class relations – group or set of things
that share common practices.
• B. Propositional relations – a statement that
• How people learn.
• A. Empirical Prerequisites – based on empirical
studies where the prerequisite is required
before learning the next level
• B. Familiarity – prior learning is important in
• C. Difficulty – easy content is taken ahead than
the difficult one
• D. Interest – use interesting contents and
experiences to boost their appetite in learning
• Vertical repetition and recurring appearances of
the content provide continuity in the
curriculum. This process enables the learner to
strengthen the permanency of learning and
development of skills.
• Gerome Bruner calls this “spiral curriculum”.
For learners to develop the ideas, these have to
be developed and redeveloped in a spiral
fashion in increasing depth and breadth as the
• “Spiral Curriculum” – content is organized
according to the interrelationship between the
structure of the basic ideas of a major
discipline. (Gerome Bruner)
• “Everything is integrated and interconnected.
Life is a series of emerging themes.” This is the
essence of integration in the curriculum design.
Organization is drawn from the world themes
from real life concerns.
• Subject matter content or disciplined content
lines are erased and isolation is eliminated.
• Can be done either vertically or horizontally.
• In vertical articulation, contents are arranged
from level to level or grade to grade so that the
content in a lower level is connected to the
• Horizontal articulation happens at the same
time like social studies in grade six is related to
science in grade six.
• Equitable assignment of content, time,
experiences and other elements to establish
balance is needed in curriculum design. Too
much or too little of these elements maybe
disastrous to the curriculum. Keeping the
curriculum “in balance” requires continuous
fine tuning and review for its effectiveness
Guidelines in Curriculum Design
• Curriculum design committee should involve
teachers, parents, administrators and even students.
• School’s vision, mission, goals and objectives should
be reviewed and used as a bases for curriculum
• The needs and the interests of the learners, in
particular, and the society, in general, should be
• Alternative curriculum design should
consider advantages and disadvantages in
terms of cost, scheduling, class size, facilities
and persona; required.
• The curriculum design should take into
account cognitive, affective, psychomotor,
concepts and outcomes.