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Topic 1
                                   Computer System
                      (Introduction to Basic Computer Knowledge)
                                      En. Mohd. Azral bin Fauzi



1.0   Introduction to Computer Application

      A computer is Electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory.
      The computer:
              Input- Accepts data such as raw facts, figures, and symbol
              Process- Processes data into information (Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful)
              Output- Produces and stores results
      Two part of computer:
              Hardware- Parts of the computer that you can touch which consist of built material.
              Software- Parts of the computer that you can’t touch which is computer program.




                                         The Information Processing Cycle



1.1   The evolution of computer

      FIRST GENERATION (1940-1956)
      Computer was huge, slow, expensive and often unreliable. In 1946, Presper Eckert and Willian
      Mauchly build the ENIAC. It use vacuum tube.

      SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963)
      Transistor was created. Transistor is a small device use to transfer electronic signals across a resister.

      THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971)
      Silicone chips were manufactured in 1961. Then came the Integrated circuit (IC) technology which
      had reduced the size and cost of computers.

      FOURTH GENERATION (1971- PRESENT)
      The growth of the computer industry such as Apple Macintosh, IBM, DELL & ACER.

      FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT & BEYOND)
      The technology are advance and still being develop. The inventions have grown rapidly including
      many other computer devices such as silicone chips, processor, robotics, virtual reality intelligent
      systems & programs which translate languages



1.2   Computer Data

      Computer data is in what is called binary format. This means that it is always a 0 or a 1. It only has
      these two states and must be in one of them.

      There are several fundamental data units which include:

                        Bit - A data unit which must be in one of the two binary states described above. It is
                        the smallest data unit that exists.
Byte - 8 bits of data which has a possible value from 0 to 255.
                          Word - Two bytes or 16 bits of data with a possible unsigned value from 0 to 16535.




1.3     Computer Hardware

        Every computer consists of the following basic hardware:

        1.  Computer Case - Where all of the components are stored.
        2.  CPU - It is basically the brain of your computer. The CPU is a used to process everything from
            basic to complex functions in a computer.
        3. RAM - RAM is memory that attaches to the motherboard. RAM is hardware used to temporarily
            store and access data.
        4. Motherboard - A Motherboard is the most important component in a computer system. All of the
            other hardware in a computer system connects to the motherboard.
        5. Power Supply - A Power Supply is the sends power to all of the other hardware so they can
            operate.
        6. Hard Drive - A Hard Drive is used for permanently storing files and programs.
        7. Disk Drives - Disk Drives can be a floppy drive, CD drive, DVD drive or other possible file storage
            devices that are used in a computer.
        8. Video Card - A Video Card is the part of a computer system that converts binary code from the
            CPU so you can view it on a monitor.
        9. Monitor - The part of a computer that allows you to see what the computer is processing.
        10. Keyboard - A keyboard allows a computer user to enter text commands into a computer system.
        11. Mouse - A mouse allows a computer user to use a point and click interface to enter commands.


1.3.1   Input Hardware

        An input hardware is used to receive data and instruction from users. In other word, an input device
        is the messenger from user to the machine (computer) to process the data. Examples of input
        hardware are barcode reader, digital camera, gamepad, joystick, keyboard, microphone, MIDI
        keyboard, Mouse (pointing device), Scanner, Webcam and touch screen.

1.3.2   Output Hardware

        An output hardware that conveys information to a user or we can call it the device that send the
        information that has been processed by the computer so that the user (us) can view the information.
        Examples of output hardware are monitor, printer, projector, speaker and video card.

1.4     Computer Software

        The term software describes the programs that control the operations of the computer and its
        devices. Software is divided into two categories: a) System Software and b) Application Software.

        a)   System Software (Operating System)




        The operating system is the core software component of your computer. It performs many functions
        and is, in very basic terms, an interface between your computer and the outside world. In the section
about hardware, a computer is described as consisting of several component parts including your
        monitor, keyboard, mouse, and other parts. The operating system provides an interface to these parts
        using what is referred to as "drivers". This is why sometimes when you install a new printer or other
        piece of hardware, your system will ask you to install more software called a driver.

        The operating system of a computer performs basic tasks such as: recognizing information from the
        keyboard and mouse, sending information to the monitor, storing of information to the hard drive,
        and controlling device peripherals as printers and flatbed scanners. Common Operating Systems:
        Windows XP Professional, Windows XP Home, Windows 2000, Windows ME, Windows CE, Linux and Mac
        OS


        b)   Application Software

        Applications are programs that are installed on computers to give users the ability to do specific
        tasks. For example, Microsoft Word® is a program that gives the user the ability to write documents.
        Some program packages come in a set with multiple programs included to provide multiple
        capabilities such as the Microsoft Office® suite of programs. This suite of programs also includes
        Microsoft Outlook® which is used to send and receive e-mail. It also includes other programs with
        more capabilities.




        To distinguish between System software and Application software:

        System software would include the bios, operating system, and utilities (computing functions).
        Application software would include converters, drivers, tasks, etc...(Hardware and user specific
        functions).


1.5     Basic of computer network

        A network is a group of things that are connected together. In a computer network, the things that
        are connected are computers, of course. A computer network can be as small as two computers but
        there is no maximum size, and many networks have hundreds or thousands of computers.

        There are three main reasons for connecting computers in a network:

             1.   Share information. This can be messages such as e-mail, or it can be files that are stored on
                  one computer and used by someone at a different computer.
             2.   Share resources. A printer that can be accessed from different computer systems is a shared
                  resource. So is an Internet connection used by more than one computer.
             3.   Centralized control. In most offices, the management determines what the computers may
                  be used for and what kind of resources and support they need. This is much easier to deal
                  with if the computers are connected.

1.5.1   Types of Networks

        Just as there is no limit to the number of systems in a network, there is also no limit to the
        geographical size of a network. As a practical matter though, there are some structural differences
        between a networks of computers all in the same room

        The most common network includes computers that are close together, usually in the same building
        or office. This is called a Local Area Network, abbreviated LAN.
When the computers being connected are far apart, typically in different cities, it is called a WAN or
        Wide Area Network. Accessing a network through a phone line and modem is called a dial-up
        connection. Connection between big metropolitan cities is called Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

1.5.2   Differences between Stand Alone Computer and Network Computer

        Stand-alone computer - is one which does not communicate with any other computer. All its
        applications and resources are available on the same computer.

        Network computer - is one which communicates with other computers. It can share resources like disk
        drives, printers and files

1.5.3   Advantages of Computer Networks

        The advantages of computer networks: File Sharing, Resource Sharing, Increased Storage Capacity,
        and Increased Cost Efficiency

        The disadvantages of Computer Networks: Security Issues, Rapid Spread of Computer Viruses,
        Expensive Set Up, and Dependency on the Main File Server

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Bab1

  • 1. Topic 1 Computer System (Introduction to Basic Computer Knowledge) En. Mohd. Azral bin Fauzi 1.0 Introduction to Computer Application A computer is Electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory. The computer: Input- Accepts data such as raw facts, figures, and symbol Process- Processes data into information (Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful) Output- Produces and stores results Two part of computer: Hardware- Parts of the computer that you can touch which consist of built material. Software- Parts of the computer that you can’t touch which is computer program. The Information Processing Cycle 1.1 The evolution of computer FIRST GENERATION (1940-1956) Computer was huge, slow, expensive and often unreliable. In 1946, Presper Eckert and Willian Mauchly build the ENIAC. It use vacuum tube. SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963) Transistor was created. Transistor is a small device use to transfer electronic signals across a resister. THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971) Silicone chips were manufactured in 1961. Then came the Integrated circuit (IC) technology which had reduced the size and cost of computers. FOURTH GENERATION (1971- PRESENT) The growth of the computer industry such as Apple Macintosh, IBM, DELL & ACER. FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT & BEYOND) The technology are advance and still being develop. The inventions have grown rapidly including many other computer devices such as silicone chips, processor, robotics, virtual reality intelligent systems & programs which translate languages 1.2 Computer Data Computer data is in what is called binary format. This means that it is always a 0 or a 1. It only has these two states and must be in one of them. There are several fundamental data units which include: Bit - A data unit which must be in one of the two binary states described above. It is the smallest data unit that exists.
  • 2. Byte - 8 bits of data which has a possible value from 0 to 255. Word - Two bytes or 16 bits of data with a possible unsigned value from 0 to 16535. 1.3 Computer Hardware Every computer consists of the following basic hardware: 1. Computer Case - Where all of the components are stored. 2. CPU - It is basically the brain of your computer. The CPU is a used to process everything from basic to complex functions in a computer. 3. RAM - RAM is memory that attaches to the motherboard. RAM is hardware used to temporarily store and access data. 4. Motherboard - A Motherboard is the most important component in a computer system. All of the other hardware in a computer system connects to the motherboard. 5. Power Supply - A Power Supply is the sends power to all of the other hardware so they can operate. 6. Hard Drive - A Hard Drive is used for permanently storing files and programs. 7. Disk Drives - Disk Drives can be a floppy drive, CD drive, DVD drive or other possible file storage devices that are used in a computer. 8. Video Card - A Video Card is the part of a computer system that converts binary code from the CPU so you can view it on a monitor. 9. Monitor - The part of a computer that allows you to see what the computer is processing. 10. Keyboard - A keyboard allows a computer user to enter text commands into a computer system. 11. Mouse - A mouse allows a computer user to use a point and click interface to enter commands. 1.3.1 Input Hardware An input hardware is used to receive data and instruction from users. In other word, an input device is the messenger from user to the machine (computer) to process the data. Examples of input hardware are barcode reader, digital camera, gamepad, joystick, keyboard, microphone, MIDI keyboard, Mouse (pointing device), Scanner, Webcam and touch screen. 1.3.2 Output Hardware An output hardware that conveys information to a user or we can call it the device that send the information that has been processed by the computer so that the user (us) can view the information. Examples of output hardware are monitor, printer, projector, speaker and video card. 1.4 Computer Software The term software describes the programs that control the operations of the computer and its devices. Software is divided into two categories: a) System Software and b) Application Software. a) System Software (Operating System) The operating system is the core software component of your computer. It performs many functions and is, in very basic terms, an interface between your computer and the outside world. In the section
  • 3. about hardware, a computer is described as consisting of several component parts including your monitor, keyboard, mouse, and other parts. The operating system provides an interface to these parts using what is referred to as "drivers". This is why sometimes when you install a new printer or other piece of hardware, your system will ask you to install more software called a driver. The operating system of a computer performs basic tasks such as: recognizing information from the keyboard and mouse, sending information to the monitor, storing of information to the hard drive, and controlling device peripherals as printers and flatbed scanners. Common Operating Systems: Windows XP Professional, Windows XP Home, Windows 2000, Windows ME, Windows CE, Linux and Mac OS b) Application Software Applications are programs that are installed on computers to give users the ability to do specific tasks. For example, Microsoft Word® is a program that gives the user the ability to write documents. Some program packages come in a set with multiple programs included to provide multiple capabilities such as the Microsoft Office® suite of programs. This suite of programs also includes Microsoft Outlook® which is used to send and receive e-mail. It also includes other programs with more capabilities. To distinguish between System software and Application software: System software would include the bios, operating system, and utilities (computing functions). Application software would include converters, drivers, tasks, etc...(Hardware and user specific functions). 1.5 Basic of computer network A network is a group of things that are connected together. In a computer network, the things that are connected are computers, of course. A computer network can be as small as two computers but there is no maximum size, and many networks have hundreds or thousands of computers. There are three main reasons for connecting computers in a network: 1. Share information. This can be messages such as e-mail, or it can be files that are stored on one computer and used by someone at a different computer. 2. Share resources. A printer that can be accessed from different computer systems is a shared resource. So is an Internet connection used by more than one computer. 3. Centralized control. In most offices, the management determines what the computers may be used for and what kind of resources and support they need. This is much easier to deal with if the computers are connected. 1.5.1 Types of Networks Just as there is no limit to the number of systems in a network, there is also no limit to the geographical size of a network. As a practical matter though, there are some structural differences between a networks of computers all in the same room The most common network includes computers that are close together, usually in the same building or office. This is called a Local Area Network, abbreviated LAN.
  • 4. When the computers being connected are far apart, typically in different cities, it is called a WAN or Wide Area Network. Accessing a network through a phone line and modem is called a dial-up connection. Connection between big metropolitan cities is called Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 1.5.2 Differences between Stand Alone Computer and Network Computer Stand-alone computer - is one which does not communicate with any other computer. All its applications and resources are available on the same computer. Network computer - is one which communicates with other computers. It can share resources like disk drives, printers and files 1.5.3 Advantages of Computer Networks The advantages of computer networks: File Sharing, Resource Sharing, Increased Storage Capacity, and Increased Cost Efficiency The disadvantages of Computer Networks: Security Issues, Rapid Spread of Computer Viruses, Expensive Set Up, and Dependency on the Main File Server