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Chapter 3 ppt.pptx

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  2. Group No:-3 Group Members NAME ROLL Shuvo Roy 1831004 Shahriar Hasan Antor 1831024 Maria Sultana Munni 1831026 Afroza Khatun Sathy 1831047 Nushrat Jahan Lima 1831049 Dept. of Environmental Science and Geography Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh 2
  3. CONTENTS  Materials  Segregation  Municipal Solid Waste  Reduce  Reuse  Recycling MSW  Production Process  Recycling Process  Global facts  Environmental Aspects 3
  4. Materials Waste Materials means any toxic or hazardous materials or substances; solid wastes, including asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, buried contaminants, chemicals, flammable or explosive materials; radioactive materials; petroleum wastes and spills or releases of petroleum products; and any other chemical, pollutant, contaminant, substance or waste that is regulated by any governmental entity under any Environmental Law. 4
  5. Segregation Waste segregation basically means keeping wet and dry wastes separately, so that dry can be recycled and wet waste can be composted. Why should we segregate waste? When we segregate waste, there is reduction of waste that gets landfilled and occupies space, air and water pollution rates are considerably lowered. Segregating waste also makes it easier to apply different processes - composting, recycling and incineration can be applied to different kinds of waste. 5
  6.  Why should we segregate waste? 6 Figure: Waste segregation Here are some steps to manage and segregate waste: 1. Keep separate containers for dry and wet waste in the kitchen. 2. Keep two bags for dry waste collection- paper and plastic, for the rest of the household waste.
  7.  Why should we segregate waste? 3. Keep plastic from the kitchen clean and dry and drop into the dry waste bin. Keep glass/plastic containers rinsed of food matter. 4. Send wet waste out of your home daily. Store and send dry waste out of the home, once a week. 5. Keep a paper bag for throwing the sanitary waste. Waste segregation should be based on:  The type of waste  The most appropriate treatment and disposal 7
  8. improving the process of effective waste segregation: - recovery from waste of secondary raw materials that may be recycled and produce new products on their basis, - ecologically safe removal and neutralization of harmful, toxic waste, - environmental protection and reclamation of a devastated environment, eg in garbage dumps, mine waste dumps and industrial waste dumps, - biological treatment of water, including rivers, lakes and reduction of garbage and waste discharged into the seas and oceans, 8  How to improve waste segregation system?
  9.  How to improve waste segregation system? - development of renewable energy sources and energy based on safe incineration of waste that will not be subject to secondary recycling, - production of biocompost from food waste for use in the process of soil fertilization, - application of technological advances, auto-tinting and robotization of the waste segregation process etc 9
  10. Municipal Solid Waste Solid wastes are generally classified into 3 general categories: 1. Municipal Solid Waste 2. Industrial solid waste 3. Hazardous solid Waste Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)—more commonly known as trash or garbage consists of everyday items we use and then throw away, such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, newspapers, appliances, paint, and batteries. This comes from our homes, schools, hospitals, and businesses. 10
  11. Municipal Solid Waste 11 Figure: Municipal Solid Waste
  12. Municipal Solid Waste According to Al-Maaded, the ‘3Rs’ model provides the basis for a comprehensive management strategy of municipal solid waste. The ‘3Rs’ model is considered as state-of-the-art philosophy of waste management. The first R is (reduce) The second R is (reuse) The third R is (recycle) 12
  13. REDUCE The first R (reduce) involves prevention and reduction of waste. To reduce waste means to minimize amount of waste generated. Waste reduction could be achieved through legislation, product design, local programmes to keep recyclables and compostables from the waste. Also, separation of waste at source achieves the same goal of waste reduction; intensified by public awareness and education 13 Figure: Reduce of waste
  14. REDUCE Several Ways to Reduce Waste:  Reusable bags and containers.  Reuse water bottles, coffee mugs, and plates too.  Skip on individually wrapped items  Start composting in the kitchen and yard.  Pay your bills online.  Go paperless in the kitchen too.  Recycle more.  Say no to disposable water bottles and coffee cups.  Reduce food waste.  Stop wasting energy.  Stop wasting food.  Stop wasting plastic.  Use a reusable bottle/cup for beverages on-the-go.  Use reusable grocery bags, and not just for groceries.  Purchase wisely and recycle.  Avoid single-use food and drink containers and utensils.  Buy secondhand items and donate used goods  Take Care of Packaging. 14
  15. REDUCE Importance of reduce of waste: • Prevents pollution • Saves energy • Reduces green house gas emissions that contribute to global climate change • Helps sustain the environment for future generations • Saves money • Reduces the amount of waste that will need to be recycled • Financial and Social Impact • Conserving Landfill Space • Conserving Resources • A safer future • Preserving a clean & healthy environment • Extending product lifespan 15
  16. REUSE The second R (reuse) involves secondary and subsequent uses of waste materials either in part or whole. Reuse of waste is exemplified by trade in second-hand goods: cloths, electronics, automobiles, furniture and other merchandise. Reuse is preferable when compared to recycling, as recycling requires much more energy and resources than reuse. Reuse prevents objects or materials from becoming waste, and thus helps to reduce damage to the environment caused by pollution 16 Figure:
  17. REUSE Several ways to reuse waste: • One way to reduce is to reuse. • Instead of using plastic bags, bring reusable bags . • Shop responsibly. • Buy second hand item. • Harnessing the Harmful Gas. • Reclaiming the Waste • Start recycling Go paper less 17 Figure: Reuse
  18. REUSE Importance of reuse of waste: • Saves or delays purchasing and disposal costs. • conserves resources • reduces the waste stream • Causes less pollution • Saving Money: Reusing items saves you money. • Landfills: Another advantage of reusing items is that it reduces the amount of material sent to the landfill. • Raw Materials: reusing items reduces the number of those items that suppliers need to make. . • Energy saving 18
  19. REUSE Importance of reuse of waste: • CO2 emission reduction • Environmental benefits • Economic benefits • Community benefits • Saving natural resources • Prevention of environmental pollution 19
  20. RECYCLING The third R (recycle) depends on waste materials which cannot be reused directly but can be converted to new product or raw material through the processes of transformation. Energy is recovered through recycling through: pyrolysis (combustion of waste in the absence of oxygen to create gases, liquids and solid compounds), incineration (combustion in the presence of oxygen to produce oxidized compounds), anaerobic digestion, gasification and pelletization as well as composting (biological and chemical degradation of organic waste in either large centralized, small enterprise, backyard or household basis) 20
  21. RECYCLING In recent times, the recycling of MSW has drawn attention as the process can add value through resources from the recovered waste materials and facilitates the process of circular economy. However, during the unprecedented coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, the risk of infection with the highly contagious virus has proven detrimental to the continuation of MSW as a valuable resource. The volume of waste, especially household waste, is higher; face masks, PPE (personal protective equipment), and hazardous materials such as batteries and empty chlorine bottles are examples of extra waste that have arisen during the pandemic. Various countries have set up initiatives for MSW management, including safety measurements for employees in the MSW management sector. 21
  23. RECYCLING Benefits of recycling include:  Reducing and water pollutants;  Saving energy; greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change;  Preventing releases of air  Supplying valuable raw materials to industry;  Protects Ecosystems and Wildlife  Stimulating the development of greener technologies;  Conserving resources for our children's future; and  Reducing the need for new landfills and combustors. 23
  24. RECYCLING The benefits of recycling are innumerable. In the United States alone the recycling effort is responsible for almost 1.1 million jobs. And that number is expected to rise since initiatives are in place to assist others in getting behind the recycling movement. Participating in the green movement will save 15 trees from being destroyed if we recycle only 1 ton of paper. 24 Figure: 10 E-waste recycling
  25. Production Process Waste production encompasses activities in which materials are identified as no longer being of value (in their present form) and are either thrown away or gathered together for disposal. Waste production is, at present, an activity that is not very controllable. In the future, however, more control is likely to be exercised over the generation of wastes. The agitated race of human society towards modern urban life around the world generates tremendous amount of municipal solid waste (MSW), because the generation rate is mounting even faster than the rate of urbanization. 25
  26. Production Process 26 Figure: Production Process of MSW
  27. Recycling Process Recycling includes the following four steps: Step 1: Collection There are several methods for collecting recyclables, including: • Curbside collection • Drop-off recycling centers, retail locations, or collection events • Deposit / refund programs Step 2: Processing After collection, recyclables are sent to a Material Recovery Facility (MRF) to be sorted, cleaned, and processed into materials that can be used in manufacturing. 27
  28. Recycling Process Step 3: Manufacturing More and more of today's products are being manufactured with recycled content. Common household items that contain recycled materials include: Aluminum cans Car bumpers Carpeting Cereal boxes Comic books Egg cartons Glass containers Laundry detergent bottles Motor oil Nails Newspapers Paper towels Steel products Trash bags Recycled materials are also used in new ways such as recovered glass in asphalt to pave roads or recovered plastic in carpeting and park benches. 28
  29. Recycling Process Step 4: Purchasing Recycled-Content Products We’re not really recycling unless we are buying recycled, i.e., “closing the loop.” A recycled product is a product made in whole or in part from material recovered from the waste stream. Recycled-content products are comparable in price and quality to products made from virgin materials. Buying recycled content products creates long-term markets for recyclable materials. 29 Figure: Plastic Recycling
  30. Recycling Process 30 Figure: Paper recycling process Figure: Glass recycling process
  31. Global Facts Several global facts of MSW are: Worldwide, over 2 billion tons of MSW are generated each year. Global waste is expected to increase to 3.4 billion tons by 2050. Over 90% of waste is mismanaged in low-income countries. In some low-income countries, including sub-Saharan Africa, waste volume is likely to triple by 2050. China accounts for 15.55% of all global municipal solid waste generation. The US generates the most municipal solid waste in the world. Waste management accounts for up to 50% of municipal budgets. Local governments spent $13 million on waste management in 2019. 22% of cities in the United States and Canada already implement smart waste management programs. 31
  32. Global Facts Several global facts of MSW are: Organics such as paper make up 66% of the municipal solid waste stream. 13% of the world’s municipal solid waste is recycled. 93.9 million tons of MSW get recycled or composted each year. The average American throws away 1,200 pounds of compostable garbage every year. 7% of the US waste industry doesn’t offer recycling services.  By 2050, there will be more plastic than fish in the world’s oceans.  There are approximately 200 billion pounds of food waste per year in America. Landfill disposal fees averaged $55 per ton in 2019, up 5% from 2018. Medical waste has increased by 40% since the start of Covid-19. 32
  33. Global Facts 33 Figure: Global facts of MSW
  34. Environmental Aspects Poor waste management contributes to climate change and air pollution, and directly affects many ecosystems and species. Landfills, considered the last resort in the waste hierarchy, release methane, a very powerful greenhouse gas linked to climate change. Methane is formed by microorganisms present in landfills from biodegradable waste, such as food, paper and garden waste. Depending on the way they are built, landfills might also contaminate soil and water. After waste is collected, it is transported and treated. The transport process releases carbon dioxide the most prevalent greenhouse gas and air pollutants, including particulate matter, into the atmosphere. Part of the waste might be incinerated or recycled. Energy from waste can be used to produce heat or electricity, which might then replace the energy produced using coal or other fuels. Energy recovery of waste can thus help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 34
  35. Environmental Aspects Waste affects ecosystems and our health. Some ecosystems, like the marine and coastal ones, can be severely affected by poor management of waste, or by littering. Marine litter is a growing concern, and not only for aesthetic reasons: entanglement and ingestion constitute severe threats to many marine species Directly or indirectly, waste affects our health and well-being in many ways:  methane gases contribute to climate change,  air pollutants are released into the atmosphere,  freshwater sources are contaminated,  crops are grown in contaminated soil and fish ingest toxic chemicals etc. 35
  36. Environmental Aspects Most adverse environmental impacts from municipal solid waste are rooted in inadequate or incomplete collection and recovery of recyclable or reusable waste. These impacts are also due to inappropriate sitting, design, operation or maintenance of dumps and landfills. During the rainy season, part of the dump was submerged in water, threatening the health and water supply of the surrounding area. Waste breaks down in landfills to form methane and cause the changes in climate, destruction of ozone layer. Littering, due to waste pollution, illegal dumping, leaching is a process by which municipal solid waste enter soil and ground water and contaminating them. 36
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