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Gamication in Education and Business EBook

  1. 1. Torsten Reiners · Lincoln C. Wood Editors Gamification in Education and Business
  2. 2. Gamification in Education and Business
  3. 3. Torsten Reiners • Lincoln C. Wood Editors Gamification in Education and Business
  4. 4. ISBN 978-3-319-10207-8 ISBN 978-3-319-10208-5 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-10208-5 Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: 2014953389 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) Editors Torsten Reiners School of Information Systems Curtin University Bentley, WA, Australia Lincoln C. Wood Department of Business Information Systems Auckland University of Technology Auckland, New Zealand
  5. 5. v Preface We did not intend this book to be a manual or to provide a complete examination of all elements of gamification. Clearly, given the pace with which research has been developing in this nascent area, a comprehensive overview within the confines of publication schedules would be an ambitious and ultimately unachievable task. Instead, we have elected to focus our attention on two areas (namely, business and education) and provide an overview for the scientific and business community on the work that has been conducted as well as providing direction for further research. We included a small number of salient use cases for insight into practical use and application of gamification approaches. While the world appears to be drifting towards hyper-competitiveness, we hear of people feeling ‘trapped’ in many jobs from the high-powered through to the mun- dane. Facing the ‘electronic whip’, we can see that many people are yearning for greater meaning within their lives. In some cases, people just want to enjoy their jobs more. They want to move away from their regular work processes (e.g. efficien- cies and effectiveness in meeting corporate goals) towards something more mean- ingful and personal to them; something that will get them motivated, provide a sense of accomplishment, and which will help them to smile at work each day. Meanwhile, our educational philosophies have changed little over several thou- sand years. Students are still treated as minds to be shaped, despite the overwhelm- ing evidence that we should be encouraging them to seek and explore. What stops a student from learning? While towering geniuses often speak fondly of their love for learning, a love of learning is infrequently encouraged and we hear few students express a desire to spend more time learning. Gamification has been positioned as one approach, tool, or set of techniques which may change how various activities are undertaken so that those involved begin to experience more fun, enjoyment, and pleasure in their tasks. The term became popular in 2010 and dominates especially areas with human interaction and focus on the quality of the experience since then. And the hype is still progressing today as people continue to investigate how the appropriate theories can be implemented
  6. 6. vi and further developed. There are now many definitions of ‘gamification’; yet, some are concise (fun, play, passion) or too specific with strong reference to gaming mechanisms. Thus, we propose a simple, comprehensive definition unrestricted in its application, environment, or discipline: Gamification is a designed behaviour shift through playful experiences Saying that, we should not get between you and your exploration of this book and learning more about gamification and its value for education and business. Enjoy. And keep us informed about your thoughts about how you use gamification now and it will develop in the future. Bentley, WA, Australia Torsten Reiners Auckland, New Zealand Lincoln C. Wood Preface
  7. 7. vii This book would not have been possible without the input of many friends and col- leagues along the away. We have both been heavily influenced by our interactions with a variety of our students that have suffered through our incessant experiments and work to better engage, motivate, and teach our students. Furthermore, the on- going support from our institutions Curtin University (Perth, Australia) and Auckland University of Technology (Auckland, New Zealand) has been fundamen- tal in allowing us the freedom and flexibility to pursue these concepts and ideas within the scope of our teaching and research. This book is a major step forward on our pathway, but also opens up new exciting ideas and invaluable connections to be explored in the near future. Join us on our travel and follow our reports on facebook nDiVE Project or blog ndive-project.com. We further acknowledge the immense amount of work that the editorial team at Springer has provided. Without the help of Matthew Amboy, Christine Crigler, Mishra Manoranjan, and Rekha Udaiyar this book would not have been possible. Thanks for your support, trust, and patience. We thank the authors of the included manuscripts, the reviewers and all the colleagues who invested some of their precious time to help us. Finally and most importantly, we thank our long-suffering wives: Kirsten Reiners and Penny Wood. From the very first BBQ where the pair of us crept away to dis- cuss, debate, and argue about the ideas that led to our projects and this book, our wonderful wives have stood with us, helped, and supported us throughout the pro- cess. Without them, we would certainly be lost and unable to complete this project. Acknowledgements
  8. 8. viii Support for the production of this publication has been provided by the Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching (Grant: Development of an authentic training environment to support skill acquisition in logistics and supply chain man- agement, ID: ID12-2498). The views expressed in this publication do not necessar- ily reflect the views of the Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching. Acknowledgements
  9. 9. ix Book Overview We have experienced a great deal of enjoyment while working towards bringing this volume to print and we hope that this sense of pleasure has been shared by the con- tributors to the work. It has been a time-consuming and arduous task from the first dissemination of the call for chapters to the final selection of interesting chapters demonstrating the influence and impact of gamification within business and educa- tion. We received lots of feedback and proposals for chapters, of which we had to pick those of the highest quality but also best fit to tell a story of interest for the reader. The final selection came from a widely dispersed group of international authors—all experts with years of experience in research or practice—who discuss the current state-of-the-art in their areas of expertise and how they anticipate the development of gamification over the ensuing years. Before we send you off to immerse yourself in the book and enjoy your journey through the four parts (Theory, Education, Business, and Use Cases), you should get some insight into what you can expect. Warning: if you dislike spoilers, skip the chapter overviews presented after the maps showing the current location of the authors. Some plain facts of the book are: • 58 Proposals received • 41 Submitted chapters • 34 Chapters accepted (58.6 % acceptance rate) – 8 Theory-driven and empirical – 13 Education – 11 Business – 2 Use case focus • 66 Authors from 14 countries on 4 continents (see below) • 764 pages • 137 Figures, 99 in colour
  10. 10. x All chapters were double-blind peer reviewed. The difficult process of composing the book based on the proposals was completed by us [editors]; however, the review itself was only possible with the help of colleagues. Our very special thanks go to the anonymous reviewers and supporters that worked tirelessly to improve this publication. Thanks, you did an awesome job. Any errors, omissions, problems, or mistakes that remain have been made by us. Alexander SCHILL Dresden University of Technology Dresden, GER Stefanie HUBER • Konrad RÖPKE SAP Berlin, GER Ganit RICHTER • Daphne R. RABAN Sheizaf RAFAELI University of Haifa Haifa, ISR Philipp HERZIG • Michael AMELING Bernhard WOLF SAP Dresden, GER Andreas HEBBEL-SEEGER MHMK Hamburg Hamburg, GER Andreas MÖLLER • Luis ROALTER Stefan DIEWALD Technische Universität München Munich, GERSilvia SCHACHT • Alexander MÄDCHE University of Mannheim Mannheim, GER Tobias STOCKINGER • Marion KOELLE Patrick LINDEMANN • Matthias KRANZ University of Passau Passau, GER Christian GÜTL • Johanna PIRKER Graz University of Technology Graz, AUT Nico VEGT • Valentijn VISCH Huib DE RIDDER • Arnold VERMEEREN Delft University of Technology Delft, NED Kai ERENLI Vienna, AUT John DENHOLM • Ian DUNWELL Serious Gaming Institute Coventry, UK Roland DYER Philips Healthcare Grenoble, FRA Charles BUTLER The Norwegian School of Information Technology Oslo, NOR Frederico DANELLI Experience Designer Sesto San Giovanni, ITA Isabella KOTINI • Educational Counselors for Informatics Central Macedonia, GRE Regan GURUNG University of Wisconsin Greenbay, WI, USA Eric LANDRUM Boise State University Boise, ID, USA Kristina N. Bauer University of West Florida Pensacola, FL, USA Scott NICHOLSON Syracuse University Syracuse, NY, USA Sam RICHMAN Engagement Design Specialist New York, NY, USA Mike GORDON • Tomas E. HEINZEN William Paterson University Wayne, NJ, USA Dana DUNN William Paterson University Bethlehem, PA, USA Rachel C. CALLAN Richard N. LANDERS Micheal B. ARMSTRONG Old Dominion University Norfolk, VA, USA Nathaniel OSTASHEWSKI MOOC Lead, Academic Engagement Projects Developer Bonnyville, CAN Dough REID MacEwan University Edmonton, CAN Keith CONLEY • Caitlin DONALDSON Bunchball Redmont, CA, USA Jared CECHANOWICZ • Carl GUTWIN University of Saskatchewan Saskatchewan, CAN Briana BROWNELL Insightrix Research Saskatchewan, CAN Peter JAKL Pragmatic Solutions Westlake Village, CA, USA Christoper DEVERS Indiana Wesleyan University Marion, IN, USA Edward CHEN University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, MA, USA Book Overview
  11. 11. xi David GIBSON • Torsten REINERS Curtin University Perth, AUS David CRAVEN University of Queensland Brisbane, AUS Lincoln C. WOOD • Tony CLEAR Da ZHANG • Robert WELLINGTON Auckland University of Technology Auckland, NZ Sara DE FREITAS Murdoch University Perth, AUS Pinata WINOTO • Kean University-Wenzhou Wenzhou, CHI Neeli BASANTH Researcher and Consultant Mahabubnagar, IND Anantkumar MALIKAVEETIL Pune, Maharashtra, IND Part I provides a foundation on the question of ‘where gamification originates’ and this also provides some insight into the outstanding questions that have yet to be addressed. As a concept, gamification draws from multiple areas and (at present) from multiple theories borrowed from multiple disciplines, providing a medley of theoretical foundations for research in this area. Within this section the focus, even on the empirically grounded papers, is on presenting a strong theoretical foundation for their work. While many have criticised gamification as either simply being points-based (e.g. ‘pointsification’), or exploitationware (Bogost), the development of intrinsic motivation to create an experience that is meaningful for the participant has been a lauded objective of gamification. Scott Nicholson from Syracuse University (Canada), also being Director of the ‘Because Play Matters’ game lab, examines the role of play and fun in extending the reward-based gamification towards developing intrinsic motivation. The theoretically grounded framework presented direct atten- tion on long-term change in a way that helps participants create a more personal connection to the system. Ganit Richter, Daphne R. Raban, and Sheizaf Rafaeli from The Center for Internet Research and LINKS I-CORE Program, University of Haifa (Israel), take a Book Overview
  12. 12. xii closer look at the provision of feedback—one of the key elements that makes gamification work—and develop a framework to aid designers in providing adequate attention to this element. The work rests on understanding motivation from a game-design perspective, the use of rewards, and the concepts around game achievements. As with all scientific endeavours, whether or not we have made a difference is crucial. Therefore, the concepts of ‘measurement’ are important and it is this con- cept that Ronald Dyer, Grenoble Ecole de Management (France), discusses. The design of appropriate metrics is necessary, particularly given that we are still in the early stage of understanding gamification; Dyer presents elements of play, rubrics, pre- and post-assessments, and a performance assessment as aids in the develop- ment of a multidimensional measure of gamification approaches. Despite the hype around gamification, Federico Danelli, Gamification Consultant (Italy), presents a timely reminder that the cynical use of gamification in business (e.g. focused on Points-Badges-Leaderboards (PBL)) can easily gloss over the ele- ments of game-design within the system. Instead, play and fun should be built in. Danelli provides a review of concepts in these areas and demonstrates how to develop a balanced game-based initiative. Contemporary approaches to economics require a strong understanding of what motivates and influences human behaviour. Charles Butler, Norwegian School of Information Technology (Norway), uses applied behavioural economics to examine how concepts and mechanics from modern games can be applied to other areas to change user behaviours. Errors, pitfalls, and challenges in the implementation or use of these methods are discussed, which may aid future work in this area. Tobias Stockinger, Marion Koelle, Patrick Lindemann, and Matthias Kranz (University of Passau, Germany) and Stefan Diewald, Andreas Möller, and Luis Roalter (Technische Universität München, Germany) approach the design of mobile applications from the perspective of understanding human behaviour. They demon- strate how app design can be improved by understanding what influences decision making, working from the application of behavioural economics to the area of user experience. A foundation from psychological sciences is provided for gamification by Thomas E. Heinzen, Michael S. Gordon (William Paterson University, USA), R. Eric Landrum (Boise State University, USA), Regan A. R. Gurung (University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, USA), and Dana S. Dunn (Moravian College, USA), and Sam Richman (User Experience Strategist, USA). They examine how the principles of behaviourism and the language of games are connected to gamification as they examine the role of the different gamification mechanics. Challenges and pitfalls relating to gamification implementation are also presented as a caution to the unwary designer. Robert Wellington, Auckland University of Technology (New Zealand), approaches the subject of design from the theoretical foundations of Human– Computer Interaction (HCI). The role of Familiarity (based on context) and Enculturement (based on culture) are examined in the process of requirements Book Overview
  13. 13. xiii engineering. The design of artefacts in gamified environments must draw on a syncretic combination of these elements. Part II covers the application and value that gamification can bring within the edu- cational sector. We had originally conceived of a focus on university and high school education but have been delighted with the response from the wider community. Clearly, game-based approaches have experimented with by globally dispersed groups and over a wide range of distinct activities and different areas of education. We present a range of contributions that span a range of different teaching/educa- tional levels and also scientific methods from experiments to conceptual pieces and forward-looking chapters. Richard N. Landers, Rachel C. Callan, Michael B. Armstrong (Old Dominion University, USA), and Kristina N. Bauer (University of West Florida, USA) address the current lack of theory in gamified instructional design. They draw on theories from psychology including classic conditioning, expectancy-based theories, goal setting, and motivation through self-determination theory. While gamification is not entirely novel, the synthesis of existing approaches has yet to be conclusively proven to provide additional advantage and further work still needs to be conducted to improve theoretical foundations of gamification in education. Nathaniel Ostashewski (Curtin University, Australia) and Doug Reid (Grant MacEwan University, Canada) present an overview of the history on the most recent developments and frameworks for the use of one of the most foundational elements in gamification: badges. The included frameworks are used to demonstrate how readers can explore the possibilities of using badges to enrich their own teaching. Assessment remains one of the core learning activities, much hated by many students. Thomas E. Heinzen (William Paterson University, USA), R. Eric Landrum (Boise State University, USA), Regan A. R. Gurung (University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, USA), and Dana S. Dunn (Moravian College, USA) review contempo- rary education practices relating to assessment. This paves the way for demonstrat- ing how we can modify existing approaches to create game-based assessments that may be more beneficial for both institutions and students. Isabella Kotini and Sofia Tzelepi (Educational Counselors for Informatics in Central Macedonia, Greece) present a student-centred framework designed to strengthen intrinsic motivation for learning, working from a constructivist learning theory foundation. With a focus on teaching computational thinking and helping students to appreciate mathematical algorithms, they present several scenarios and explanations of the role of the activities to guide implementations. Similarly noting that contemporary approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Medicine (STEM) subjects are rooted in constructivism, Johanna Pirker (Institute for Information Systems and New Media (IICM), Graz University of Technology, Austria) and Christian Gütl (IICM, Graz University of Technology, Austria and Curtin University, Australia) examine the role of educational simula- tions. They present a model to help users adapt gamification techniques to this par- ticular use of simulations and present a case study and framework to help users implement these ideas in their own teaching. Book Overview
  14. 14. xiv Pinata Winoto and Tiffany Y. Tang (Kean University, USA) present a series of case studies of gamification in education. These range from individual behaviours and driving intrinsic motivation, through to understanding group behaviour, draw- ing on behavioural economics. The role of careful pedagogically designed and con- sideration is emphasised in order to fully benefit from the benefits of gamification to enhance desired group dynamics. Andreas Hebbel-Seeger (MHMK—University of Applied Sciences, Media and Communication, Germany) explores the transferability of skills between the real and digital environments. A number of cases and theoretical exploration of the topic are presented. Then, focusing on basketball skills, a study is presented to show transfer of skills developed in the real world can be transferred to skills in virtual worlds through an augmented reality (AR) basketball game. Lincoln C. Wood (Auckland University of Technology) and Torsten Reiners (Curtin University) report about their ongoing research on creating an immersive and authentic learning environment for students and worker. Their focus is on self- directed learning with automatically generated feedback as well as integrated gami- fication to engage the learner and achieve a higher learning retention. The increasing provision of a range of educational spaces is examined by Da Zhang and Tony Clear (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand), with a particular focus on virtual environments. The notions of ‘space’ and ‘place’ are explored, examining how gamified designs shape and influence people with result- ing behaviours often unanticipated. Promotion of productive behaviours in virtual environments can be more readily assured with the policies regarding virtual envi- ronments that are presented in this chapter. John Denholm, Ian Dunwell (Serious Game Institute, UK), and Sara de Freitas (Murdoch University, Australia) take a closer look at team-based education and assessment, one of the key challenges in management education. They use a team- based mixed reality game, which is a computer-assisted event with social interac- tions between participants. The development of the game is detailed along with the evaluation of effectiveness. While it was highly rated by most participants, interest- ing differences emerged in the evaluation with classes consisting of a single, inter- national ethnic group; here, ratings were lower, indicating strong relationships. Using a virtual world in education was once a significant undertaking, before businesses developed improved product offerings in this area. David Craven (PierSim Academic Programs, Australia) outlines the use of PierSim, focusing on the development of integrated action and reflection amongst learners in the virtual environment. This shift away from merely using badges appears to be considered fun by both genders and may even lead to greater engagement and satisfaction amongst female students. Therefore, Craven suggests that ‘learnification of games’ may supersede ‘gamification of learning’. David Gibson (Curtin University, Australia) and Peter Jakl (Pragmatic Solutions, USA) provide insight into the implications of game-based learning analytics. New approaches to collecting data mean that with the wealth of possible measurements that can be made to feed into improved learning, methods must be developed and used to make use of this resource. Thus, computer-assisted analysis and Book Overview
  15. 15. xv data-mining approaches will need to be employed, with the ability to evaluate patterns-over-time in learner capabilities and improvements. Together, such learning analytics represent a significant change in the way that assessment is measured and used in institutions. However, is this ‘gamification in education’ simply all hype? The section closes with a critical perspective, offered by Christopher J. Devers (Indiana Wesleyan University, USA) and Regan A. R. Gurung (University of Wisconsin, USA). The use of game elements and design in education is explored in relation to other, simi- lar technologies. This is discussed in the context of other technological changes in education, with particular emphasis on student learning. Finally, a framework is presented to help scholars move forward by planning and executing studies based on a stronger, evidence-based approach to the use of gamification in education. Part III represents a change of focus and places the spotlight on the use of gamifi- cation within business environments. The topics also cover educational aspects like improved learning outcome, motivation, and learning retention at the workplace; however extend into areas that are more related to businesses. This includes work- place psychology, frameworks to create the best experience for customer and employees, and motivation. Furthermore, some chapters address the manager to support the decision on how to implement gamification in the company including law, risks, side effects, and sustainability. Philipp Herzig, Michael Ameling (SAP AG, Germany), and Alexander Schill (TU Dresden, Germany) focus on the application of gamification principles to the workplace with the focus on increasing motivation and improving employee out- puts. The impact from an ERP gamification application is evaluated based on the theoretical foundations from organisational psychology, the job demand-resource model, psychological capital, and positive emotions. Improvements were identified in factors including ‘enjoyment’ and ‘flow’ along with ‘perceived ease of use’. Implementation of gamification principles would be made significantly easier if the concepts were standardized within an easy access software platform. Philipp Herzig, Michael Ameling, Bernhard Wolf (SAP AG, Germany), and Alexander Schill (TU Dresden, Germany) address this need by focusing their attention on the imple- mentation of information systems relating to gamification. They describe the soft- ware development process required to realise gamification implementations and analyse the specification for a gamification solution. Edward T. Chen (University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA) focuses on the use of gamification as an approach to improve work performance, going beyond cus- tomer engagement to also focus on the impact on employees. A range of small busi- ness cases are presented to demonstrate the range of potential applications across the enterprise. Basanth Kumar Neeli (Expert and Consultant, Gamification and Business Process Management, India) further examines the implications of gamification tar- geting employees. The case is made such that this is distinctly different to con- sumer- or market-focused gamification applications. An iterative framework is Book Overview
  16. 16. xvi presented to help implementation of enterprise gamification solutions, with further insight provided by some small case studies. Niko Vegt, Valentijn Visch, Huib de Ridder, and Arnold Vermeeren (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands) take aim at the teamwork and team-based performance in businesses. While many team activities can reach sub- optimal outcomes, as conflicts and group dynamics take over, gamified design prin- ciples may provide a method to ensure alignment of goals. A framework is presented to aid implementation with further illustrations provided by some cases. As we have seen in the past, legislation, regulation, and law have often been slow to adapt to changes and technologies. Kai Erenli (University of Applied Sciences Vienna, Austria) examines gamification and the related rules that are necessary for games—from the perspective of law. A number of gamified elements are examined in light of the legal implications of possible changes that gamification may involve. Some common risks and possible pitfalls are outlined, providing a basis for informed implementation and allowing those involved in implementation to be better posi- tioned to seek legal counsel where necessary. While much has been said of gamification, it has invariably been positive news. However, any tool used to influence people can often have unintended side effects and it is these consequences that are examined by Rachel C. Callan, Richard N. Landers (Old Dominion University, USA), and Kristina N. Bauer (University of West Florida, USA). Ten different business scenarios are presented with fairly innocuous gamification approaches applied. However, using drawing on psycho- logical science, the authors caution that various consequences may emerge creating additional harms in the workplace. Briana Brownell (Insightrix Research, Canada), Jared Cechanowicz, and Carl Gutwin (University of Saskatchewan, Canada) examine the role of improving engagement in survey research to improve engagement with this valuable research approach (in both industry-focused research and academic research) is clearly important. They show that gamification is not a silver bullet and the successful implementation likely rests on careful design throughout. In this case, those partici- pating in surveys have altruistic intentions, while the perceptions tied to gaming relate more strongly to entertainment. One of the difficulties with projects is that learning is often not carried from one project to another. Silvia Schacht and Alexander Maedche (University of Mannheim, Germany) address this problem by applying gaming mechanics to the project knowledge management systems that are supposed to capture and make these les- sons available for others. While their research was not framed as a cohesive gamifi- cation approach, they show that the gamification elements incorporated did influence users to participate in the system more fully. Stefanie Huber and Konrad Röpke (SAP AG, Germany) present their work in the use of gamification to influence organisations—in this case, helping companies become more sustainable by encouraging desired behaviours. Using an established framework to provide a guide to the development, a ride-sharing system was gami- fied, while accommodating a range of player personas amongst the intended partici- Book Overview
  17. 17. xvii pants. A range of mechanisms are built in to enable greater playfulness and fun in this activity. Stefan Diewald, Andreas Möller, Luis Roalter (Technische Universität München, Germany), Tobias Stockinger, Marion Koelle, Patrick Lindemann, and Matthias Kranz (Universität Passau, Germany) examine how gamification can help designers address the need for rapid learning and adaption to the user interfaces in new vehi- cles. Participants explore relevant interfaces and functions in both the vehicle and on mobile devices. Some of the difficulties in maintaining the flow of activities while introducing new information or evaluating outcomes are discussed, highlight- ing the inherent difficulties in application of gamification to some areas and result- ing in the presentation of guidelines for further use of gamification in the automotive sector. Part IV opens the door to applications and the use of gamification, presented with- out a strong scientific foundation. Through a series of use-cases, key elements of gamification are used in real situations to drive real results. Note that this part is containing chapter just on case studies; many of the previous chapters also contain smaller case studies. Anantkumar Malikaveetil (Gamification Expert and Consultant, India) applies gamification to one of the most crucial, but often neglected, processes for new employees—the on-boarding process. Working in the context of a software com- pany, a game-based training and on-boarding process was developed, modelled on the Amazing Race. Drawing from learning theories, the event was staged to make the process both more fun and effective. Keith Conley and Caitlin Donaldson (Bunchball, Inc., USA) show how the careful establishment of gamification principles are important, using one of the commonly applied software platforms for gamification: Bunchball. Using mea- surement and evaluation as a foundation for the chapter, readers are taken through deployment in a controlled fashion so that desired outcomes will be achieved by design and not by chance. There is a strong emphasis on the Measurement and Learning Plan to align the analytics to the strategy and ensure that desired results are achieved. Book Overview
  18. 18. xix 1 A RECIPE for Meaningful Gamification ............................................. 1 Scott Nicholson 2 Studying Gamification: The Effect of Rewards and Incentives on Motivation................................................................. 21 Ganit Richter, Daphne R. Raban, and Sheizaf Rafaeli 3 A Conceptual Framework for Gamification Measurement................ 47 Ronald Dyer 4 Implementing Game Design in Gamification....................................... 67 Federico Danelli 5 Applied Behavioral Economics: A Game Designer’s Perspective ............................................................................................... 81 Charles Butler 6 Towards Leveraging Behavioral Economics in Mobile Application Design.................................................................................. 105 Tobias Stockinger, Marion Koelle, Patrick Lindemann, Matthias Kranz, Stefan Diewald, Andreas Möller, and Luis Roalter 7 A Parallel Universe: Psychological Science in the Language of Game Design ....................................................................................... 133 Thomas E. Heinzen, Michael S. Gordon, R. Eric Landrum, Regan A.R. Gurung, Dana S. Dunn, and Sam Richman 8 Context to Culture for Gamification HCI Requirements: Familiarity and Enculturement ............................................................. 151 Robert Wellington Contents
  19. 19. xx 9 Psychological Theory and the Gamification of Learning.................... 165 Richard N. Landers, Kristina N. Bauer, Rachel C. Callan, and Michael B. Armstrong 10 A History and Frameworks of Digital Badges in Education............... 187 Nathaniel Ostashewski and Doug Reid 11 Game-Based Assessment: The Mash-Up We’ve Been Waiting For.............................................................................................. 201 Thomas E. Heinzen, R. Eric Landrum, Regan A.R. Gurung, and Dana S. Dunn 12 A Gamification-Based Framework for Developing Learning Activities of Computational Thinking................................................... 219 Isabella Kotini and Sofia Tzelepi 13 Educational Gamified Science Simulations.......................................... 253 Johanna Pirker and Christian Gütl 14 From Market Place to Collusion Detection: Case Studies of Gamification in Education................................................................. 277 Pinata Winoto and Tiffany Y. Tang 15 Physical Skills and Digital Gaming: The Relationship between Basketball and an Augmented Reality Adaption.................. 291 Andreas Hebbel-Seeger 16 Storytelling to Immersive Learners in an Authentic Virtual Training Environment ............................................................................ 315 Lincoln C. Wood and Torsten Reiners 17 Shaping Behaviours Through Space and Place in Gamified Virtual Learning Environments............................................................. 331 Da Zhang and Tony Clear 18 The Development and Assessment of a Team-Based Management Game................................................................................. 355 John Denholm, Ian Dunwell, and Sara de Freitas 19 Gamification in Virtual Worlds for Learning: A Case Study of PIERSiM for Business Education ..................................................... 385 David Craven 20 Theoretical Considerations for Game-Based e-Learning Analytics............................................................................... 403 David Gibson and Peter Jakl 21 Critical Perspective on Gamification in Education.............................. 417 Christopher J. Devers and Regan A.R. Gurung Contents
  20. 20. xxi 22 Implementing Gamification: Requirements and Gamification Platforms................................................................... 431 Philipp Herzig, Michael Ameling, Bernhard Wolf, and Alexander Schill 23 Workplace Psychology and Gamification: Theory and Application.......................................................................... 451 Philipp Herzig, Michael Ameling, and Alexander Schill 24 The Gamification as a Resourceful Tool to Improve Work Performance.................................................................................. 473 Edward T. Chen 25 Gamification in the Enterprise: Differences from Consumer Market, Implications, and a Method to Manage Them ...................... 489 Basanth Kumar Neeli 26 Designing Gamification to Guide Competitive and Cooperative Behavior in Teamwork .............................................. 513 Niko Vegt, Valentijn Visch, Huib de Ridder, and Arnold Vermeeren 27 Gamification and Law ............................................................................ 535 Kai Erenli 28 How to Avoid the Dark Side of Gamification: Ten Business Scenarios and Their Unintended Consequences.................................. 553 Rachel C. Callan, Kristina N. Bauer, and Richard N. Landers 29 Gamification of Survey Research: Empirical Results from Gamifying a Conjoint Experiment............................................... 569 Briana Brownell, Jared Cechanowicz, and Carl Gutwin 30 Project Knowledge Management While Simply Playing! Gaming Mechanics in Project Knowledge Management Systems...... 593 Silvia Schacht and Alexander Maedche 31 How Gamification Can Help Companies to Become More Sustainable: A Case Study on Ride Sharing......................................... 615 Stefanie Huber and Konrad Röpke 32 Gamification-supported Exploration and Practicing for Automotive User Interfaces and Vehicle Functions....................... 637 Stefan Diewald, Andreas Möller, Tobias Stockinger, Luis Roalter, Marion Koelle, Patrick Lindemann, and Matthias Kranz 33 Application of Game Thinking and Game Elements in New Joiner Induction and On-Boarding Process...................................................................................................... 663 Anantkumar Malikaveetil Contents
  21. 21. xxii 34 Gamification: The Measurement of Benefits........................................ 673 Keith Conley and Caitlin Donaldson Index................................................................................................................. 689 Contents
  22. 22. xxiii Torsten Reiners is Senior Lecturer in Logistics at the Curtin University, Australia. His research and teaching experiences are in the areas of operations research, but include instructional design, development of adaptive learning envi- ronments, distant collaboration, and mobile learning. His Ph.D. thesis is about adaptive learning material in the field of operations research. He participated in multiple projects to use 3D spaces for learning support; i.e., to improve the authenticity of learning in classes about production and simulation. He is project leader on a competitive grant from the Australian Office of Learning and Teaching (www.ndive- project.com) about developing a theoretical framework for authentic and immersive education with gamified elements. Lincoln C. Wood is a Senior Lecturer (opera- tions and supply chain management) at Auckland University of Technology (New Zealand) and an Adjunct Research Fellow at Curtin Business School (Australia). He received the Council of Supply Chain Management Professional’s (CSCMP) Young Researcher Award in 2009 in the USA and earned his Ph.D. at the University of Auckland (New Zealand). After developing a strong interest in effective supply chain educa- tion, Dr. Wood received the Outstanding Research Award at the International Higher About the Editors
  23. 23. xxiv Education Conference in 2010 and is now the Project co-Leader on a competitive grant from the Australian Office of Learning and Teaching (www.ndive-project. com). Dr. Wood has published in leading international journals including Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, The Service Industries Journal, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, and Habitat International. About the Editors
  24. 24. xxv Michael Ameling holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science and a diploma in Media Computer Science from Technische Universität Dresden. He has a strong background in software and systems engi- neering, mobile computing, and human–computer interaction. Michael joined SAP in 2006 where he was working in numerous research projects in the area of Internet of Things (IoT). In his current position he leads a team focused on mobile appli- cation development, IoT platform development, and gamification. Michael published multiple publications and holds numerous patents. About the Authors Michael B. Armstrong is a Ph.D. student and research assistant at Old Dominion University studying Industrial and Organizational Psychology. He graduated from Western Kentucky University in 2013 with a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology. Michael’s research interests focus upon the Internet and related technologies as they affect human capital. He is particularly interested in the effectiveness of gamification in workplace training, faking behavior in online selection mea- sures, selection to virtual teams, and the use of mobile devices in both training and education.
  25. 25. xxvi Kristina N. Bauer, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of West Florida. She earned her M.S. and Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology at Old Dominion University. She holds a B.S. in Psychology from the University of Pittsburgh and an M.A. in Human Resource Management from the George Washington University. Her primary research interests include self-regulated learning with an emphasis on technology-enabled instruc- tion and transfer of training. She also has a passion for research methods and statistics. Kristina has presented her work at several conferences, includ- ing the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, the Academy of Management, the American Psychological Association, and the Association for Psychological Science, and her work has been published in Military Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, Academy of Management Learning and Education, and The Psychologist-Manager Journal. In her free time, she enjoys yoga and trips to the beach. Briana Brownell is a marketing research industry innovator who frequently publishes on new research methodologies and trends in business strategy. With a combination of technical exper- tise and creativity, she endeavours to make multi- variate statistical analysis relevant and easily applicable for businesses. She is the Manager of Analytics at Insightrix Research Inc., a boutique research firm in Saskatoon, Canada. Charles Butler is currently an Assistant Professor and Director of the Game Design Bachelor Program at the Norwegian School of Information Technology in Oslo, Norway. He is also a co-founder of the independent game studio, Kreative Spill, and a former marketing manager and designer at MMO developer, Funcom. He received his Master of Interactive Technology in Digital Game Development from the Guildhall at Southern Methodist University and his Master of Business Administration from Tennessee State University. About the Authors
  26. 26. xxvii Rachel C. Callan, M.S. is a doctoral student at Old Dominion University who is working in Dr. Richard Landers’s Technology iN Training Laboratory. Her research interests focus on the use of technology in employee selection and training contexts, including how individual differences like experience and personality may have direct and indirect effects on outcomes. Her Master’s thesis investigated the effects of learner control on time and learning outcomes in web-based training. More recently she has turned her attention to the use of gamification in work settings and the use of social networking data in selection. Within these areas, she is equally interested in how these tech- nologies can improve human resource management processes and potential pitfalls of utilizing these technologies in the workplace. Jared Cechanowicz, M.Sc. is a researcher at the University of Saskatchewan under the supervision of Dr. Carl Gutwin. His broad interests in technol- ogy and entertainment have led his research into the areas of interaction design, simulation tools for game design, adaptive games, and the gamification of work. About the Authors
  27. 27. xxviii Edward T. Chen is Professor of Management Information Systems of Operations and Information Systems Department in the Manning School of Business at the University of Massachusetts Lowell. Dr. Chen has published over 60 refereed research articles in scholarly journals and reference books. Dr. Chen has served as vice president, board director, track chair, and session chair of many professional associations and conferences. Professor Chen has also served as journal editor, editorial reviewer, and ad hoc reviewer for various academic journals. Dr. Chen has received the Irwin Distinguished Paper Award at the Southwestern Federation of Administrative Disciplines conference and the Best Paper Award at the International Conference on Accounting and Information Technology. His main research interests are in the areas of Project Management, Knowledge Management, Software Development, and Green IT. Tony Clear is Associate Dean Research with the Faculty of Design and Creative Technologies at Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand. His research interests are in Collaborative Computing, Global Virtual Teams, Global Software Development, and Computer Science Education Research. Tony has been engaged in global virtual research collaborations over the last 15 years spanning the continents of Europe, Australia, Asia, and the United States. Among these has been a decade long action research project into collaboration with global virtual teams in educa- tional settings. In 2008 he was a guest researcher at Uppsala University, Sweden, and now supervises doc- toral research projects through AUT’s Software Engineering Research Lab. Tony holds positions as an Associate Editor and regular columnist for ACM Inroads magazine and Editorial Board member for the journal Computer Science Education. He is program co-chair for ACM’s Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education Conference 2014. About the Authors
  28. 28. xxix Keith Conley joined Bunchball in November of 2011 and has been instrumental in defining the value proposition and proving the business impact of gamification. He has served as Communications Strategist and Analytics Manager for Young & Rubicam and Universal McCann. These roles focused his efforts on generating attitudinal and behavioral measurement plans and subsequently delivering insightful optimization recommenda- tions and clearly demonstrating program efficacy. During his tenure, Keith guided Branding and Direct advertising initiatives for Microsoft, HP, Wells Fargo, The NCAA, Palm Inc., and others in nationwide and global advertising efforts. David Craven David has thirty-five years’ expe- rience within the educational and business consul- tancy sector. In this role, David has sought to develop a product that could enable people to develop their business skills. This quest arose from the observation that although students might read about business in textbooks and journal articles, they never really understood the practical funda- mentals of operating a business. In 2010, David assembled a team of developers drawn from graduates of the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Game Development Degree. David developed a 3-D business simulation on an OpenSim platform. The 3-D business simulation was prototyped within the Business Management program of the University of Queensland Foundation Year. The initial response from the business students and lecturers was overwhelmingly positive. The business simulation is currently being used within 15 Brisbane secondary schools, the Foundation Year program for the University of Queensland and as part of an interna- tional Youth Leadership program: Chrysalis. In 2011, the business simulation won the Queensland State Government Big Idea Award from over 600 applicants. PIERSim will be used in November, in conjunction with the G20, to showcase Brisbane to the world as an important hub for international education. About the Authors
  29. 29. xxx Federico Danelli Born near Milan (Italy) on June 5, 1982, Federico Danelli is a gamification consul- tant and entrepreneur, graduated in Epistemology with a thesis about epistemic and behavioural appli- cations of cognitive studies, and author of several indie rpg, a game about board management, an ongoing tabletop game, and a tool to framework a gamification experience. He previously worked as teacher, human resources assistant, editor, commu- nity and market research manager, game designer, writer, and actor. He is currently working on an essay about faults and problems of Social Roi calculation. John Denholm is in the final stages of his Ph.D. at the Serious Games Institute, Coventry, doing research into the value of educational games. He has an M.Sc. from Imperial College, London, and has held several senior positions in major UK companies, working on the development of strate- gic business models. He has lectured on Business, Project Management, and Finance at Birmingham City and Coventry Universities and supervises Master’s students at Warwick and Manchester Universities. He has a number of journal publica- tions on business simulation and games for train- ing in business management. About the Authors
  30. 30. xxxi Christopher J. Devers received a Ph.D. in cur- riculum and instruction from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign as well as an MS in educational administration and a BS in engineer- ing and technology education from Purdue University. He is an Assistant Professor in the School of Education and the Director of Research for the Center for Learning and Innovation at Indiana Wesleyan University (IWU). Broadly, Professor Devers’ research focuses on how and when technology promotes learning. Past research on the integration of technology has focused on the simple question of whether or not a particular technology increases learning. Instead of asking whether or not it works, Dr. Devers’ research asks “how and when does it work?” Specifically, his research explores the optimal components that impact learning and matching those to the right situations. Overall, the broader questions regarding how and when technology is effective are applied to Professor Devers’ lines of research—online education, online video learning, and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL). Currently, his research focuses on using self-explanation to improve online video learning. To learn more about his research, courses, and students visit: http://www.edprofessor.com. Stefan Diewald studied Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, majoring in Communication and Information Technology, at the Technische Universität München (Germany). He received his Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in September 2010 and his “Diplom-Ingenieur (Univ.)” in May 2011. In June 2011, he joined the Institute for Media Technology at the Technische Universität München as Ph.D. candidate where he is working as a member of the research and teaching staff in the Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group. Since March 2013, he is also part of the Embedded Systems Group of the Embedded Interactive Systems Laboratory (EISLab) at the University of Passau. His research interests are in the fields of automotive user interfaces and vehicle-to-x communication with the focus on increasing driver awareness. About the Authors
  31. 31. xxxii Caitlin Donaldson joined Bunchball in November of 2012. She brings with her close to 5 years of experience in data analysis. Since joining Bunchball, she has conducted analyses for such companies as NBC, MTV, Adobe, Mattel, Cisco, and Intercontinental Hotels Group. As a Data Analyst, she assists clients in setting goals to guide digital strategy as well as provides reports and data to monitor the progress toward those goals. Caitlin previously worked at ADM Associates, Inc. as a Program Analyst and the Center for Strategic Economic Research as a Research Analyst. Caitlin holds an M.A. in Economics from California State University, Sacramento. Dana S. Dunn earned his B.A. in psychology from Carnegie Mellon University and received his Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Virginia. Former chair of the Psychology Department at Moravian College, he is currently Assistant Dean for Special Projects and Professor of Psychology there. Author or editor of 19 books and over 150 journal articles, chapters, and book reviews, his scholarship examines teaching, learning, and liberal education, as well as the social psychology of disability. Dunn’s Psychology Today blog on teaching is called ‘Head of the Class’. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Association for Psychological Science (APS) and served as presi- dent of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology (APA Division 2) in 2010. In 2013, Dunn received the APF Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology.Heiscurrentlyeditor-in-chiefoftheOxfordBibliographies(OB):Psychology. Ian Dunwell obtained his Ph.D. in Computer Science in 2007. As a Research Fellow in Coventry University’s Serious Games Applied Research Group, Dr. Dunwell has recently completed the evaluation of the Department for Transport’s £2.5 m Code of Everand serious game for road safety. As a multiplayer online role-playing environment, this game sought to create communities among its players as a basis for social learning. As lead author of the proj- ect’s final evaluation report, he co-ordinated in-depth qual- itative and quantitative research to gain insight into the game’s 100,000 user base. His key research interests lie in the assessment and evaluation of game-based learning solutions and how best to feed this research into pragmatic and participatory design processes. About the Authors
  32. 32. xxxiii Ronald Dyer has held senior ICT Strategy posi- tions in Trinidad and the United States across the financial, education, and agriculture sectors where his work experience spans 20 years working with the likes of Citibank, Goldman Sachs, and The Inter-American Development Bank. He special- izes in the area of technology strategy, transforma- tion, and change for performance improvement at the organizational and individual level. Mr. Dyer is an affiliate lecturer at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago in the M.Sc. in Project Management Programme, Faculty of Engineering and Grenoble Ecole de Management’s B.Sc. in Management. He is a graduate of Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, and holds an M.B.A. from the University of Reading’s Graduate School of Business. He is a June 2014 candidate for the Doctorate in Business Administration at Grenoble Ecole de Management, France, with a focus on technology, innovation, and change. Kai Erenli studied law at the University of Graz. He wrote his doctoral thesis about the legal aspects of open-source licensing and has a deep insight into IT-Law. He is a member of the board of it-law at—the Austrian network for IT-lawyers and FNMA—the Forum for the usage of New Media for education. Kai spent much time in the multi- media business as he was the Art Director of advertising in Graz. Since 2011, he is the study director of the Bachelor Programme ‘Film, TV, and Media Production’ at the University of Applied Sciences bfi Vienna. Kai is also the Developer of the Location-based-Game ‘QuizeRo’. About the Authors
  33. 33. xxxiv Sara de Freitas is Associate Deputy Vice Chancellor (Teaching and Learning) at Curtin University where she has responsibility for Teaching and Learning across the university. Her portfolio includes running Curtin Teaching and Learning, including the Learning Engagement, Assessment and Quality and Learning Design Teams. Her responsibilities also include delivery and support of programs such as Transforming Learning across Curtin, Curtin online provision, UniReady pathways, Open Universities Australia, Work Integrated Learning, and Flexible Learning. Her previous role was Director of Research at Coventry University, UK, where she led the for- mation and development of the Serious Games Institute, a hybrid model of research, business, and study, the first institute of its kind. The Institute has attracted millions in research funding, a network of affiliated organizations in four continents, and on the business side of operations we supported successful commercial spinouts in the UK and Singapore. In her role at Birkbeck College, University of London, she helped to establish the well-known London Knowledge Lab, with its focus upon ICT and education. Over the period, she has also directed a company which provided consultancy support for UK Department of Education and the Joint Information Systems Committee. She has attracted significant funding from the British Council, UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, European Union, and European Regional Development Fund. Over her academic career, Sara has published extensively in the areas of higher education policy, pedagogy, and technology-enhanced learning. She has pub- lished seven books and over 100 journal articles, conference papers, and reports. She currently sits on over 100 program committees and advisory boards and has undertaken over 100 keynotes, presentations, and public lectures. Her most recent book, Education in Computer Generated Environments (2013), has just been pub- lished in hardback by Routledge in their Research in Education Series. With respect to awards she has gained a teaching award at Birkbeck College, was awarded Most Influential Woman in Technology 2009 and 2010 by the US Fast Company, is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, and is an Adjunct Professor at Malta University. About the Authors
  34. 34. xxxv David Gibson Associate Professor of Teaching and Learning and Director of Learning Engagement at Curtin University in Perth, Australia, works as a team thought leader, educa- tional researcher, learning scientist, professor, and innovator. With funding from National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Education, MacArthur Foundation, EDUCAUSE, and others, Gibson’s research focuses on complex systems analysis, design and improvement of cyberlearn- ing applications, games and simulations in educa- tion, and the use of technology to personalize learning via cognitive modeling, design, and implementation. He has published 8 books, 12 chapters, and over 60 articles and presentations on these topics. He is the creator of simSchool, a classroom flight simulator for preparing educators, and eFo- lio an online performance-based assessment system. Michael S. Gordon studied Cognitive Psychology and Perception at the University of California— Riverside, and completed a Postdoctoral Fellowship on sensory processing across the lifespan at the University of Toronto with the Centre for Research on Biological Communication Systems. He is cur- rently an Assistant Professor of Psychology at William Paterson University in New Jersey (USA) and the director of the Audiovisual Perception Laboratory. He is an active scholar with publications that explore audiovisual speech, motion, music, phe- nomenology, echolocation, and many related topics on the detection and use of sound. As an award- winning instructor, he has used game-based strategies to improve student motiva- tion and flipped classrooms to empower students in their learning. Regan A.R. Gurung is Ben J. and Joyce Rosenberg Professor of Human Development and Psychology at the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay. Dr. Gurung received a B.A. in psychology from Carleton College (MN) and a Masters and Ph.D. in social and personality psychology from the University of Washington (WA). He then spent three years at UCLA as a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research fellow. He has published articles in a variety of scholarly journals including Psychological Review and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and is the co- author/co-editor of 11 books. He is the newly appointed founding Editor of APA’s journal SoTL in Psychology (January 2014). About the Authors
  35. 35. xxxvi Christian Gütl holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Graz University of Technology (TUG) and has received the “venia legendi” for applied computer science in 2009. He is the chief scientist at the Institute of Information Systems and Computer Media at TUG in Graz, Austria, where he leads the Advanced Motivational Media Technologies Group. He is adjunct research professor at the School of Information Systems at Curtin University in Perth, Western Australia, and he is the founder and head of Gütl IT Research and Consulting. Christian has authored and coauthored in more than 160 peer- reviewed book chapters, journals, and conference proceedings publications. He is involved in numer- ous organizational and editorial boards as well as program committees. He is founding member of the global Immersive Learning Research Network (ILRN), managing edi- tor of J.UCS, coeditor of the International Journal of Knowledge and Learning (IJKL), advisory board member of the International Conference of Blended Learning (ICBL), initiator and chair of the CAF workshop series, and co-chair of the ViWo and e-Educa- tion Ecosystem workshop series. His research interests include information search and retrieval, e-education, e-assessment, adaptive media technologies, and virtual worlds for learning and knowledge transfer. He has established successful collaborations on these topics with European and overseas institutions. Given his knowledge and research interest, he is frequently invited as a visiting professor, such as to MIT and USyd. Carl Gutwin is Professor of Computer Science at the University of Saskatchewan and the co-director of the University of Saskatchewan’s Human– Computer Interaction (HCI) lab. He has published more than 150 papers in HCI and in 2012 was inducted into the ACM CHI Academy for his con- tributions to the HCI research community. His research covers a variety of topics including inter- face design and organisation, information visualisa- tion, modelling of human performance, and groupware usability. About the Authors
  36. 36. xxxvii Andreas Hebbel-Seeger studied Education, Sport, and German Language at the University of Hamburg. In the first instance, he worked postdoc- toral at the University of Hamburg, department of sport science. Later he covered a professorship for digital media at the University of Augsburg, Institute for Media and Educational Technology. Today he is a professor for media management at the Macromedia University of Applied Sciences and head of media school at Campus Hamburg. His focus in research and teaching is on the use of digi- tal media for teaching, learning, and marketing purposes. Thomas E. Heinzen I am a social psychologist and a fellow of the Eastern Psychological Association who works at the William Paterson State University of New Jersey. The researcher’s toolbox of methods has always interested me which partially explains why I have published articles and books based on experiments, quasi- experiments, surveys, archival data, focus groups, theoretical models, content analysis, historical comparisons, case studies, commentaries, a statis- tics textbook, and even a collection of natural poetry by people living in nursing homes. I have also consulted as an evaluation researcher for a New York State Commission on veterans, the Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy, the Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth, and several smaller organizations. The overall experience has been fun, which is prob- ably why I am now attracted to data-driven game-based approaches to solving social problems, especially those in higher education. Philipp Herzig holds a B.Sc. in Computer Science, an M.Sc. in Information Systems Research and is currently a Ph.D. candidate at Technische Universität Dresden and SAP. His research interests include software and systems engineering, mobile computing, data management systems, gamification, and psychology. Philipp is the author or co-author of multiple publications and holds numerous patents. About the Authors
  37. 37. xxxviii Stefanie Huber is a senior user experience designer at SAP Berlin. She has a love for explor- ative, innovative projects and coordinates the New Experiences and Technology Group (NxT) at SAP. Her background comes from psychology, human factors, and engineering, where she holds a Ph.D. from Technische Universität Berlin. Stefanie has worked for companies such as Siemens AG, Daimler AG, and Roland Berger Strategy Consultants and was a lecturer for interface design at several German universities. When she is not into trending user experience, she is probably at home baking cupcakes. Peter Jakl is founder and President of Pragmatic Solutions, a company that is dedicated to employing technology to advance learning analytics with a focus on game-based learning systems. Peter has leveraged his interest in providing depth of meaning from data by empowering businesses across all sec- tors to improve decision making. Peter is a technol- ogist with a diverse background in software and database design and leads a team of experienced and talented software engineers to advance learning. Marion Koelle studied Media Informatics at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich (Germany) where she received her “Master of Science” in June 2013. From October until December 2011, she was a visiting scholar at the UniversityofGlasgow(UK),Inference,Dynamics, and Interaction Group. In July 2013, she joined the Human–Computer Interaction Group at the University of Passau. About the Authors
  38. 38. xxxix Isabella Kotini holds a Diploma in Computer Engineering and Informatics from the University of Patras, Greece, in 1985 and a doctoral degree (Ph.D.) in System Analysis and Modeling with Hybrid Automata from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Greece, in 2003. She is an Educational Counselor for Informatics in the region of Central Macedonia, Greece. She has taught undergraduate courses mainly in the areas of database systems, com- puter graphics, information systems, computa- tion theory, formal languages, and automata in Greek Universities. Her research interests include the areas of system modelling and analysis, formal methods, computation theory and automata, web-based collaborative applications, computational think- ing, distance learning, collaborative learning and gamification. She has published more than 40 articles in refereed conference proceedings, chapters in books and journals. She is a member of the Greek Computer Society and the Technical Chamber of Greece. Matthias Kranz studied Computer Science at Technische Universität München. He then com- pleted his Ph.D. at Ludwig-Maximilians- Universität München (Germany). From 2009 to 2012, he was Assistant Professor for Distributed Multimodal Information Processing at Technische Universität München. From September 2012 to January 2013, he was Associate Professor for Pervasive and Mobile Computing at Luleå University of Technology. Since March 2013, he is full Professor and heading the Institute for Embedded Systems at Universität Passau, Germany. His research interests are Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp), Intelligent Environments (IE), pervasive and mobile computing (PMC), human– computer interaction (HCI), automotive user interfaces (AUI), multimodal informa- tion processing, and mobile learning. About the Authors
  39. 39. xl Richard N. Landers, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor of Industrial/Organizational Psychology at Old Dominion University. His research focuses on the use of technology in learning and assess- ment, especially as related to web-based learning, social media, gamification, 3D virtual worlds, and unproctored Internet-based testing in the contexts of both organizational science and higher educa- tion (http://rlanders.net). He has published in an assortment of interdisciplinary journals, including Journal of Applied Psychology, Computers in Human Behavior, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, and Social Science Computer Review. He serves as Guest Editor of the International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations and Associate Editor of Technology, Knowledge, and Learning. His work on social media and gamification in education has been featured in Forbes and the Chronicle of Higher Education, and he has been invited to speak on games and gamification by the Human Capital Institute, the Virginia Commonwealth University Center for Teaching Excellence, and the US National Research Council, among others. He is also author of SAGE textbook, A Step-by- Step Introduction to Statistics for Business. Finally, he maintains a science popular- ization blog spreading news about technology, business, and psychology at http:// neoacademic.com. About the Authors
  40. 40. xli R. Eric Landrum is a professor of psychology at Boise State University, receiving his Ph.D. in cog- nitive psychology from Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. His research interests center on the educational conditions that best facilitate student success as well as the use of SoTL strategies to advance the efforts of scientist- educators. He has over 300 professional presenta- tions at conferences and published over 20 books/ book chapters and 70 professional articles in scholarly, peer-reviewed journals. He has worked with over 275 undergraduate research assistants and taught over 12,500 students in 21 years at Boise State. During Summer 2008, he led an American Psychological Association working group at the National Conference for Undergraduate Education in Psychology studying the desired results of an under- graduate psychology education. Eric is the lead author of The Psychology Major: Career Options and Strategies for Success (5th ed., 2013), authored Undergraduate Writing in Psychology: Learning to Tell the Scientific Story (2nd ed., 2012) and Finding A Job With a Psychology Bachelor’s Degree: Expert Advice for Launching Your Career (2009). He coauthored The EasyGuide to APA Style (2nd ed., 2013) and You’ve Received Your Doctorate in Psychology—Now What? (2012), the lead editor for Teaching Ethically—Challenges and Opportunities (2012), and coeditor of Assessing Teaching and Learning in Psychology: Current and Future Perspectives (2013). With the launch of a new APA journal in 2015—Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology—he will serve as one of its inaugural coeditors. Eric served as Vice President for the Rocky Mountain region of Psi Chi (2009–2011). He is a member of the American Psychological Association, a fellow in APA’s Division Two (Society for the Teaching of Psychology or STP), served as STP secretary (2009–2011), and is serving as the 2014 STP President. Patrick Lindemann was born in Weiden in der Oberpfalz in 1987. He studied Media Informatics at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (Germany). He received his Master of Science in 2013 after completing his Master’s Thesis in coop- eration with the 1&1 Internet AG in Munich. In September 2013, he started as a Ph.D. candi- date at the Human–Computer Interaction Group of the Institute for Embedded Systems, University of Passau. There, he supports the research and teachingworkoftheHuman–ComputerInteraction Group. His research is focused on novel interfaces and methods of interaction for users with embed- ded systems in the car. About the Authors
  41. 41. xlii Alexander Maedche is a Professor and Chair in Information Systems IV at the Business School and Managing Director of the Institute for Enterprise Systems (InES) at the University of Mannheim. He earned his doctorate from the University of Karlsruhe and afterwards worked 3 years as head of a research group focusing on knowledge-based sys- tems. He has 6 years industry experience in large- scale information systems in positions as IT manager in the Bosch Group and vice president of product management in SAP AG. His research focuses on user-centred software development, effective use in information systems, as well as intelligent process-aware information systems. He has published more than 100 papers in journals and conferences, such as the IEEE Intelligent Systems, AI Magazine, Information and Software Technology, International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), and Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAISE). Anantkumar Malikaveetil is a techno-creative leader with over 14 years of experience in the learning technology products and services indus- try. The primary focus of his career has been on creating and growing technology teams for vari- ous multinational companies. Anant’s core domain expertise is in the learning technologies, setting up and growing off-shore development centers and leadership, and culture and management practices development. He is passionate about creating an environment where people have a sense of per- sonal commitment to their work and always strive to give their best to achieve success for the organi- zation and themselves. Anant is equally passionate about philately, numismatics, music, and social service. Anant is based in Pune where he lives with his wife and dearest friend Vidya and is a doting father to an adorable daughter Diya. About the Authors
  42. 42. xliii Andreas Möller studied Media Informatics and communication science at Ludwig-Maximilians Universität Munich (Germany). He graduated with the title “Diplom-Medieninformatiker (Univ.)” in 2010. In 2008, he was for six months at Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh (USA) as visiting scholar, where he worked at HCI Institute. In July 2010 he joined the Institute for Media Technology at the Technische Universität München as Ph.D. candidate where he is currently working as a member of the research and teaching staff. His research interests are in the field of mul- timodal interaction and user interfaces for mobile devices. Andreas is part of the Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group. Basanth Kumar Neeli has 13+ years of experi- ence in conceptualizing, implementing, and posi- tioning in the enterprise domain. Basanth started his career with Cordys, a provider of enterprise class BPMS, where he held a variety of positions from engineering to product management, includ- ing senior product manager with responsibility of BPM stack of components. Basanth has consulted with several clients, helping them with BPM ini- tiatives, worked with analysts including Gartner and Forrester on product briefings and the trends in the BPM space, and writes columns for BPM sites like BPTrends. Following his stint at Cordys, Basanth was engaged at Infosys Labs and actively involved in researching the topics around process-based compliance, dynamic pro- cesses, on-demand BPM, and Gamification. Currently Basanth has founded a com- pany, Sail Emsoft, offering services, frameworks, and consulting in the areas of BPM, employee/customer engagement with a focus on using BPM to engage employees and customers. Basanth holds a Master of Sciences (Mathematics) and Master of Technology (Computer Sciences). About the Authors
  43. 43. xliv Scott Nicholson is an Associate Professor at Syracuse University’s School of Information Studies and the Director of the Because Play Matters game lab. His areas of interest include meaningful gamification and the creation of trans- formative games for informal learning and train- ing. During the 2011–2012 academic year, he was a visiting professor at MIT in Comparative Media Studies and the GAMBIT game lab. Dr. Nicholson is the designer of two published board games— Going, Going, GONE! and Tulipmania 1637 and wrote the book Everyone Plays at the Library. His research blog is at http://becauseplaymatters.com. Nathaniel Ostashewski, B.Sc., B.Ed., M.Ed., Ed.D. is the Academic Engagement Projects Developer at Curtin Teaching and Learning, Curtin University. He has taught a complete range of subjects in K-12 including science, media, physical education, and language arts for 17 years before entering academia. Nathaniel has been also engaged in providing teacher professional learn- ing related to technology use in the classroom since 1996 for numerous teacher conferences and school divisions. In his role at Curtin University since 2012, Nathaniel has been supporting faculty in their use of learning technologies focusing on authentic student engagement through discussion and collaboration. Nathaniel also manages the Curtin MOOC portfolio as part of a strategic initiative in Curtin’s Centre for Teaching and Learning. His research track record has yielded over 60 refereed publications, numerous journal articles and book chapters describing technology-enhanced learning implementations such as 3D Printer use in education, tablets, and online and blended learning. About the Authors
  44. 44. xlv Johanna Pirker, M.Sc., B.Sc. is university assis- tant, software engineer, and researcher at the Institute of Information System and Computer Media at Graz University of Technology (TUG). She finished her Master’s Thesis during a research visit at the Center for Educational Computing InitiativesatMassachusettsInstituteofTechnology working on the integration of simulations and ani- mations of electromagnetic fields into collabora- tive virtual world environments. She is currently finishing her doctoral dissertation in computer sci- ence on motivational environments at TUG. She specialized in games and environments that engage users to learn, train, and work together through motivating tasks. She has long-lasting experience in game design and development as well as virtual world development. Her research interests include immersive environments, game research, gamification strategies, human–computer interaction, e-learning, computer science education, and information retrieval. She has authored and presented numerous publications in her field. Daphne R. Raban researches the information society and the information economy. Specifically, she studies the subjective value of information, information markets and business models, behav- ioural economics of information, information/ knowledge sharing, the interplay between social and economic incentives, and games and simula- tions. Daphne is a Senior Lecturer and Head of the Department of Information and Knowledge Management at the University of Haifa and a member of LINKS, the Israeli Center of Research Excellence on Learning in a Networked Society. She has published in refereed journals including JCMC, JASIST, EJIS, ICS, CHB, Internet Research, Simulation and Gaming and more. About the Authors
  45. 45. xlvi Sheizaf Rafaeli, Ph.D. is Founding Director of the Center for Internet Research and former Head of the Graduate School of Management (2005– 2012), University of Haifa, Israel. He is the founding editor of the Journal of Computer Mediated Communication (JCMC), serves as director and member of numerous edito- rial boards, the board of LINKS (the national CenterofExcellenceonLearningintheNetworked Society), and the Wikimedia Foundation board. His interests include Electronic Business, Information Studies, Computer Mediated Communication, Social Networks and their analysis, computer-mediated collaboration, and Online Games and Simulations. Rafaeli has studied and taught computers as media and the social implications of new communication technologies. He has taught numerous Information Systems’ courses and published in journals such as Behavior and Information Technology, Communication Research, Computers and the Social Sciences, and Computers and Human Behavior (CHB), The Journal of Communication, Information and Software Technology, Information Systems Research (ISR), Information Systems Journal (ISJ), The European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS), The International Journal of Electronic Business, The International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS), Computers and Education, The International Journal of Simulation and Process Modelling (IJSPM), The Journal of Broadcasting, and many others. He has been writing a personal weekly column in the leading Israeli dailies Calcalist, Haaretz, Globes, and YNet for the last 10 years. Sheizaf has served in research and teaching positions at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the Ohio State University, the Open University, Michigan State University, IBM, Stanford University, Technion, Israeli College of Management, IDC, University of Sydney, CIIM, and the University of Michigan. His personal homepage is here: http://rafaeli.net About the Authors
  46. 46. xlvii Doug Reid, B.A., B.Ed., M.A., Ph.D. is the Operational Coordinator of eLearning Design & Delivery at Grant MacEwan University. In the past Doug has worked as a K-12 teacher, a professor, an instructional designer, and educational coordi- nator. Doug has delved deeply into using mobile technology to support student learning. Most recently, he has continued his exploration into mobile technology use and nontraditional teach- ing and learning opportunities. Doug’s research track record has yielded over 80 refereed publica- tions. His interdisciplinary research contributions include Technologically Mediated Learning, Online Learning, Professional Development, Instructional Design, and Technology Implementation. Doug has taught Education, Research, Technology, and Management in Australia and Canada. Sam Richman is a New York City based engage- ment design consultant with a professional back- ground in game design, K12 curriculum development, photography, film, web develop- ment, and marketing. She received her bachelor’s degree from NYU, where she studied the collision of fantasy and reality as well as computer sci- ence. Her personal philosophy is that there is no reason every part of our lives can’t be a fun, impas- sioned, and immersive experience. About the Authors
  47. 47. xlviii Ganit Richter is a doctoral student at The Department of Information and Knowledge Management and The Internet Research Center, which is part of The Faculty of Management, University of Haifa. Ganit is also a member of LINKS, the Center of Excellence on Learning in the Networked Society, and a moderator in Executive Business Simulation workshops and courses. Ganit completed an MBA with distinction, M.A. in pure mathematics, and a B.A. in pure mathematics and art. Her research interest lies in the field of serious games and simulations, specifi- cally in topics such as serious games for crowds (in collaboration with IBM’s Social Computing group), gamification, motivations for information sharing, and the role of rewards and incentives. In her research she combines her background in pure mathematics with fields such as psychology and behavior. Huib de Ridder is full professor of Informational Ergonomics at Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering. He holds an M.Sc. in Psychology from the University of Amsterdam and a Ph.D. in Technical Sciences from Eindhoven University of Technology. From 1982 till 1998 he was affiliated with the Vision Group of the Institute for Perception Research (IPO), Eindhoven, The Netherlands, where his research on image quality metrics was supported by a personal fellowship from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). Since 1998 he is heading the Human Information Communication Design (HICD) group currently focusing on perceptual intelligence, persuasive experiences, and future interactions. He is (co-)auth