• An Overview of China
• Facts about SDG-4
• China’s ICT initiatives to achieve SDG-4
• Other ICT initiatives to Achieve the SDG-4
• Research Trends In use of ICT for education
• SDG-4 implementation Challenges
• This presentation is about the role of information communication
technologies(ICT) in transforming peoples’ lives in developing
countries a case of China’s education sector.
• ICT is rapidly changing the world as we know it, and it has great
potential to change peoples’ lives especially for developing countries.
• (Bajpai, Biberman, & Ye, 2019) explain that the mobility, inclusiveness
and sustainability of developing countries’ societies depend on the
inherent power of ICT to be mobilized to challenge issues of
education disparities, healthy gaps, fulfilling the potential of
agriculture and other development priorities.
An Overview of China
• Location: East Asia, West Coast of the Pacific Ocean
• Area: about 9.6 Million Square Kilometers
• Administrative: Hierarchal in nature: 1 Central Government, 4
municipalities under Central Government, 23 Provinces, 5
autonomous regions, 2 Special Administrative regions and Beijing
• Population: about 1390 Million people, by the end of 2017
• Ethnic groups: 56 ethnic groups, the majority Han people with
• Economically Growth: from 367.9 billion yuan in 1978 to 82.71 trillion
yuan, by 2017 a rose from 1.8% in 1978 to 16% in 2017. and still
• Source from: (Wang, 2020)
Facts about SDG-4
• GOAL: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education
and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. It has a
number of objectives.
Source: (United Nations Educational & Organization, 2017)
China’s ICT initiatives to achieve SDG-4
• ICT has the ability to be a key catalyst in pursuing of all SDGs not only in
education (Wu, Guo, Huang, Liu, & Xiang, 2018).
• China has performed a number of initiative in achieving SDG-4. it all started
with reforming their policies in 1978 (Opening –up)
1. Establishment of ICT infrastructures across the country, from broadband
accessibility to intelligent campus. An example is China Education and
Research Network (CERNET).
2. Establishment of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC). The occurrence
of COVID-19 has made online classes a mandatory option to take. For
Example, till to date, China has not opened its doors for international
students, and thus they are required to attend online classes.
3. Establishment of intelligent classrooms and laboratories. Equipped with
4. Ensuring that affordable Internet is available from primary schools all the
way to universities.
China’s ICT initiatives to achieve SDG-4
5. Introduction of digital educational resources
• Paper textbook to electronic books
• By 2016 64,000 Data centers covered with digital resources
• The National Public Service Platform for Educational Resources
• Open Education Resource Platform eg. https://www.icourses.cn/home/
6. Special training performed to teachers to have basic IT application
ability(Marjanovic, Scepanovic, Zivlak, & Lalic, 2020) (Wang, 2020).
7. Inclusive training for rural areas through Distance Education
Project for rural schools (DEPRS) project 2003 (Clothey, 2015)
Other ICT initiatives to Achieve the SDG-4
• Research social networks e.g. Research Gate, establish the exchange
between researchers and scholars all over the world.
• Open Source products (e.g. Linux, Libre Office, Eclipse) initiatives
pose alternatives to expensive software suites hence minimize
inequalities in education.
Research Trends In use of ICT for education
• There are many studies on the use of new technologies in education,
1. Educational robots, educational data, artificial intelligence,
internet of things, learning analysis technology and blockchain
2. Broadband connectivity for quality education
3. Use of smartphones and tablets in provision of quality education.
Example, One Laptop per Child (OLPC) project.
4. Challenges of incorporating ICT in the education curriculums
5. Training remote and rural users on ICTs for economic activities,
education and government services
6. Design and deployment of cost effective solutions for ICT4D for
SDG-4 implementation Challenges
• In general, there exist some challenges in implementing SDG-4, which
also affect how ICT can be used, such as:
1. Integration, alignment and coordination of SDG-4 indicators with
individual country initiatives, policies, plans and national
2. Internal coordination and alignment between individual country
Ministries and departments.
3. Lack of an agreed methodology to measure several SDG-4 targets.
• China has managed to employ the benefits of very well, the same can
be achieved in Tanzania. The following are some of the things that
need to be address:
1. Good ICT network infrastructures needs to be created and
2. Proper use of existing facilities: The existing facilities such as
National ICT Broadband Backbone network must be used
effectively for the benefit of ICT to be realized.
3. Introduction of digital resources such as intelligent laboratories
and multi-media classes.
4. Introduction of online classes or a blended mode of education
5. To equip teachers with Information Technology application ability.
• Are the ICTs initiatives in Education contributed in achieving SGDs?
Yes, as it has been shown, ICT is a very important tool in achieving not
just quality education but in all other aspect of SDGs as such, all
stakeholders (countries, businesses, UN, and its organs and individuals)
should consider it very seriously.
• Marjanovic, U., Scepanovic, D., Zivlak, N., & Lalic, B. (2020). Report on ICT
in Education in the Republic of Serbia Comparative Analysis of ICT in
Education Between China and Central and Eastern European Countries
(pp. 325-340): Springer.
• Wang, Y. (2020). Report on ICT in Education in China Comparative Analysis
of ICT in Education Between China and Central and Eastern European
Countries (pp. 1-24): Springer.
• Bajpai, N., Biberman, J., & Ye, Y. Y. (2019). ICT for Education: Lessons from
• Wu, J., Guo, S., Huang, H., Liu, W., & Xiang, Y. (2018). Information and
communications technologies for sustainable development goals: state-
of-the-art, needs and perspectives. IEEE Communications Surveys &
Tutorials, 20(3), 2389-2406.
• United Nations Educational, S., & Organization, C. (2017). Education for
sustainable development goals: Learning objectives: UNESCO Paris,
• Clothey, R. A. (2015). ICT and indigenous education: Emerging
challenges and potential solutions Indigenous education (pp. 63-75):
• Zhan, Z., Fong, P. S., Mei, H., Chang, X., Liang, T., & Ma, Z. (2015).
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