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Lecture 4 slavery and the civil rights movement

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This is part one of the lecture on Ethnic Minorities in the US.
An introduction to African American history from slave trade to current issues.

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Lecture 4 slavery and the civil rights movement

  1. 1. ETHNIC MINRORITIES I AFRICAN AMERICANS
  2. 2. Slavery
  3. 3. Slave Trade
  4. 4.  Between 1525 and 1866 12.5 million Africans were shipped to the New World.  10.7 million survived the dreaded Middle Passage.  They disembarked in North America, the Caribbean and South America.  They were brought by English and French Traders. Slave Trade
  5. 5. Slave Trade
  6. 6.  Slaves were brought to work in lucrative crops such as tobacco  Most of them worked in the plantations of the south. Slavery
  7. 7.  According to the constitution, they were second-rate human beings  For representation purposes, a black slave was counted as 3/5th of a white man 1787 : The 3/5th Compromise
  8. 8. The American Civil War 1861 - 1865 Origins  The North was in favor of abolishing slavery  The South relied on slaves for most of its economy opposed abolition The War  The war lasted only 5 years, but caused about 600,000 deaths in both camps The Outcome  The war ended the debate over slavery that had divided North and South since the drafting of the Constitution in 1787
  9. 9. The 13th 14th and 15th Amendments  1865 - The 13th Amendment officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery to this day.  1868 - The 14th Amendment citizenship to African Americans.  1870 -The 15TH Amendment Right to vote.
  10. 10. The Civil Rights Movement
  11. 11. The Civil Rights Movement • The Movement Begins Nearly 100 years after the Civil War • The 1960s were called the civil rights decade • Anti-discrimination organizations:  - The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured people NAACP - - The National Urban League NUL  - The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee SNCC  The Nation of Islam - NOI
  12. 12.  The civil rights of African Americans were limited by state laws and discrimination.  In the early 1950s, segregation was legal.  An Alabama law said that African Americans had to sit at the back of the bus. Civil Rights
  13. 13.  In 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks refused to move to the back of a bus. She was arrested.  African Americans boycotted the buses until buses were desegregated. Black Residents Walking, Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955
  14. 14.  Martin Luther King Jr. helped lead the boycott. He believed in nonviolent protest.  He wanted people to fight back using peaceful actions.  In 1954, the Supreme Court ordered the desegregation of public schools.  In 1956, the Supreme Court said that segregation on buses was illegal. Civil Rights Victories
  15. 15. Civil Rights Victories  In 1960, African Americans held sit- ins in 54 cities.  They sat at lunch counters that only served food to white people. They would not leave until they were served.
  16. 16. Sit-ins organized by students
  17. 17. Sit-in Tactics  Dress in your Sunday best.  Be respectful to employees and police.  Do not resist arrest!  Do not fight back!  Remember, journalists are everywhere!
  18. 18.  MLK and other leaders organized a protest march in Washington, D.C., to show support for a bill to end segregation  The Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned segregation in schools, at work, and in public places.  Affirmative action: minorities favored in higher education and employment  Busing to promote desegregation Civil Rights Victories
  19. 19. MLK ASSASSINATION  In 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was shot by confirmed racist and small-time criminal named James Ray  Many at that time feared it would be the end of the strategy of nonviolence
  20. 20. SEPARATISTS  Along with non-violent protest the rise of separatist movements:  Nation of Islam & its leader(s) Louis Farrakhan & Malcolm X  Blamed for advocating black supremacy and described as a hate group.
  21. 21. Malcolm X & MLK  1st & last meeting between Malcolm X & MLK  1964
  22. 22. Not yet equal…  African-Americans high dropout rate  Glass ceiling: discrimination prevents them from the top positions  Hit twice as hard by unemployment  Inner cities: violence and crime widespread  Leading cause of death of young black male is murder (often by other black teenagers from rival gangs)  Half inmates of American prisons are black  Housing segregation leads to poor social integration

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