In 1955, David K. Berlo, at the
age of 29, received his doctorate
degree in the study of
communication from the University
He functioned in the role of
educator, author, and communication
department chair at MSU for 14
years, from the department’s
inception in 1957 through 1971.
In 1960, David K. Berlo, wrote a
book entitled El Proceso de la
Comunicación or the process of
The Work focused on the purpose and objectives of
communication and addressed Berlo’s Model of
Communication which he developed from Claude
Shannon and Warron’s Weaver’s mathematical
In his book he stressed the importance of the
perception of the source in the “eye” of the receiver
and also the channel(s) by which the message is
In this book Berlo quoted Aristotle, saying that “the
prime goal of communication was persuasion an
attempt to sway other men to the speaker’s point of
His model includes verbal and Non-verbal
communications. It also considers the emotional
aspects of the message.
While the Aristotle model of communication puts the speaker in
the central position and suggests that the speaker is the one who
drives the entire communication.
David k. Berlo’s model of coomunication focus on four elements
namely: the source, the message, the channel, and receiver.
Berlo’s model of communication takes into account the emotional
aspect of the message. Berlo’s model of communication operates on
the SMCR model.
This model is an example of linear model of communication.
S – Source
The source (S) in other words also called the sender is the one from
whom the thought originates. He is the one who transfers the
information to the receiver after carefully putting his thoughts into
Factor’s affecting the source:
An individual must possess excellent communication skills
to make his communication effective and create an impact among
the listeners. The speaker must know where to take pauses, where
to repeat the sentences, how to speak a particular sentence, how to
pronounce a word and so on. The speaker must not go on and on.
He should also make a point to cross check with the recipients and
listen to their queries as well. An individual must take care of his
accent while communicating. A bad accent leads to a boring
The speaker attitude towards the audience, subject and
toward one-self . For e.g. for the student the attitude is to learn more
and for teachers wants to help teach.
The knowledge about the subject one is going to
communicate for e.g. whatever the teacher communicates in the
class about the subject so having knowledge in what you are
The social system includes the various aspects in the society
like values, beliefs, culture, religion and general understanding of
the society for e.g. classroom differs from country to country like
behaviors, how we communicate etc.
The total way of life of a people.
The Message (M) is the idea, opinion, emotion or information
conveyed by the speaker.
Factor’s affecting the Message:
The beginning to the end of a message comprises its
content for e.g. From beginning to end whatever the class teacher
speaks in the class is the content of the message.
It includes various things like language, gestures, body
language etc, so these are all the elements of the particular
message. Content is accompanied by some elements.
It refers to the packing of the message. The way in which
the message is conveyed or the way in which the message is
passed on or deliver it.
The structure of the message how it is arranged, the way you
structure the message into various parts.
Note: Message is the same but if the structure is not properly
arranged then the message will not get to the receiver.
The code of the message means how it is sent in what form it
could be e.g. language, body language, gestures, music and even
culture is a code. Through this you get/give the message or through
which the communication takes place or being reached.
Note: Only when the code is proper, the message will be clear,
improper use may lead to misinterpretation.
It is nothing but the five senses through this only we do. The
following are the five senses which we use
Factor’s affecting the Channel:
The use of ears to get the message for e.g. oral messages,
Visual channels for e.g. TV can be seen and the message
The sense of touch can be used as a channel to
communicate for e.g. we touch and buy food, hugging etc.
Smell also can be a channel to communicate for e.g.
perfumes, food, charred smell communicates something is
burning, we can find out about which food is being cooked etc.
The tongue also can be used to decipher e.g. Food can
be tasted and communication can happen.
The Receiver (R) is the one who receives understands, analyze
and interprets the message, Also known as the listener, audience or
According to the Berlo’s model of communication, communication
will take place properly if the receiver is on the same level with
the speaker. Hence the factors that influence the receiver and the
source are the same.
Factor’s affecting the Channel:
The receiver should possess good communication skills
to be able to understand the message delivered by the source.
The receiver should have the right attitude towards the
source, the message and towards himself or herself to be able to
grasp the message in positive way.
The receiver must know something about the subject.
The receiver should be of the same social system as the
The receiver must have the same cultural background with
It is a linear model of communication. So it does not give credits
to the feedback.
Needs people to be on the same level for communication to
occur but not true in real life.
It does not mention communication interference or “noise”.
It does not include the barriers of the Communication.