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Goat feeding powerpoint pks

Scientific Feeding Management of Goat

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Goat feeding powerpoint pks

  1. 1. Feeding management of Goats P.K. Singh Assistant Professor Department of Animal Nutrition Bihar Veterinary College, Patna
  2. 2. Successful goat production • Nutrition • Reproduction • Health • Marketing Facilities
  3. 3. Importance of Nutrition • Balanced Nutrition •Maintenance •Health •Production •Reproduction • Many health, reproductive and production problems can be prevented with good nutrition.
  4. 4. Poor nutrition results in: –Poor productivity –Poor conception rates –Lower birth weight of kid –Poor weaning weights –Difficult births –Higher feed bills –More infectious disease due to decreased immune system protection
  5. 5. Nutrition.. Is the Highest Cost Associated with Production!
  6. 6. Feeding systems of goats 1. Tethering 2. Extensive system of feeding 3. Semi-Intensive system of feeding 4. Intensive system of feeding
  7. 7. Tethering • When grazing facilities are limited and one or two goats are to be kept then tehering is practiced. • Animal is tied with a rope of 3-5 m length which permits the goats to browse over a limited area. • Change the location whenever necessary so that goats may get sufficient grass to meet the requirement. • Provide a temporary or portable shelter closeby within reach of animals so that it may turn to it in case of extreme weather. • Tethering utilize grasses properly and is easy to rear goats at low resources.
  8. 8. Extensive system/Range system of goat rearing • Small farmers and landless labourere take theig goats and sheep together walking long distances in search of food and water. • Goats find opportunity to browse for about 8-9 hrs/day, which take care of maintenance but rate of growth slows down.
  9. 9. Advantages of Extensive system: • Easy and convenient method • Use of low resources • Less expensive in rearing of goats • Capital and labour expenses are low • Increases fertility of soil by way of manure and urine dropped by animals. • Helps in control of weeds by animals
  10. 10. Limitation of Extensive system • Natural potential of range lands is low due to extreme weather and less nutritious soil. • Fluctuation in availability of feeds from region to region and season to season • Poor nutritional availability to animals restricts productivity
  11. 11. Grazing management • Graze to desired stubble height • Allow adequate rest periods for grass re growth • Don’t regraze pastures until key species has reached the desired height
  12. 12. Roughage for goats Pasture and browse: • Pasture and browse are the primary and most economical source of nutrients for goats. • In extensive rearing system, pasture and/or browse need to meet all their nutritional requirements. • Pasture are high in energy and protein when it is in a vegetative state. However, it has a high moisture content, and it is difficult for a high- producing doe or fast-growing kid to eat enough grass to meet its nutrient requirements. • As pasture plants mature, palatability and digestibility decline.
  13. 13. Browsing
  14. 14. • Goats are natural browsers and have the unique ability to select plants when they are at their most nutritious state. • Browse (leaves & twigs) and forbs (weeds) contain higher levels of protein & phosphorous during growing season than ordinary pasture. -Provide Weed control • Some browse is unpalatable -High lignin, silica, essential oils, etc. • Goats which browse have less problems with internal parasites Browsing:
  15. 15. Semi intensive system • Combination of intensive and extensive system. • Grazing 4-6 hours and then kept in stalls where they offered roughage and concentrate mixture depending upon their availability. • Performance of goats depend upon quality and quantity of feeds made available through limited browsing and supplementary feeds. • Level of nutrition is better then goats find in extensive system.
  16. 16. Intensive system Keeping goats in stalls and feeding them cultivated fodders (fresh and conserved) and concentrates to meet their requirement. • Goats get optimum nutrition • Performance of goats is good (growth, milk yieldI • Doe mature at early age • Parasitic infestation is low • Reproductive performance is better • Twinning percentage is high • Milk yield is high • Dressing percentage is high • Labour and capital cost is more • Benefits of exercise are less • Detection of heat by teaser is difficult
  17. 17. • Maximize conception rate • Minimize embryo & fetal mortality • Birth of viable kids • Rapid growth • Heavy milk production • Minimize feeding costs Goals for the Scientific Goat Nutrition
  18. 18. Animal Productivity Maintenance and activity level Stage of Pregnancy Kidding rate Stage of lactation Growth or weight gain Meat, Dairy, Fiber Factors affecting the Nutrient Requirements of Goats
  19. 19. Goat Nutrition  Kid Nutrition  Colostrum feeding 3 days  milk feeding upto 60 days (weaning)  Starter ration 15-90 days  Grower ration 90 days onward  Doe Nutrition  Buck Nutrition
  20. 20. Feeding schedule of Kid Age (Days) Milk/colostrum (ml) Creep Feed (g) Green Forage (g) 1-3 350, 3 feeding (Colostrum) - - 4-14 350, 3 feeding - - 15-30 350, 3 feeding A little A little 31-60 400, 2 feeding 100-150 Free choice 61-90 200, 2 feeding 200-250 Free choice
  21. 21. Creep feeding Start kids on creep feed at 15 days of age: Advantages: – Encourages early consumption of solid food – provides supplemental nutrients for rapid gain – promotes early weaning – Contains a coccidiastat – Maintains a 2:1 Ca to P ratio – Keep fresh water available in smaller containers that kids can reach at all times!
  22. 22. Creep ration (16-18%DCP, 70-80% TDN) Ingredients (%) % % Maize 40 60 Wheat Bran 17 7 GNC 20 20 Fish meal - 10 Dal chunni 20 - Mineral Mixture 2 2 Common Salt 1 1 Aurofac 150 g 150g DCP (%), TDN (%) 18,75 18,80
  23. 23. Grower ration (12-14%DCP, 60-65% TDN) Ingredients (%) % % Maize 50 30 Wheat Bran 30 30 GNC 10 - Dal chunni - 30 Molasses 7 7 Mineral Mixture 2 2 Common Salt 1 1 DCP (%), TDN (%) 15,60 15,65 Low quality roughage should be supplemented with grower ration @ 350-400 g daily
  24. 24. Finisher ration • At 6 months of age 20-25 kg body weight is good for slaughter purposes. • Dressing percentage 45-50% • 5-6% DCP and 60% TDN is satisfactory • According to market demand feeding regime can be regulated • For fatty carcass cereal based energy rich feeds are required to be fed. • Roughage ~20-25% of DM for fatty finish and 30-40% for lean carcass production.
  25. 25. Doe Nutrition Feed accordingly to stage of production •Dry •Breeding •Early Gestation •Late gestation •Lactation
  26. 26. Feeding of Dry Goats Period between weaning & breeding  Regain weight lost during lactation  Lowest nutrient requirements  Need dry matter 2% of body weight  Need minerals - salt, Ca, P  Good quality pasture should meet most requirement needs  On pasture pt browsing no supplementary feeding is required  6-8 hours of browsing will take care of nutritional needs
  27. 27. Feeding of Breeding Goat Flushing: Feed breeding age goats extra ration (25% of maintenance) 2 - 3 weeks before & after introduction of bucks • Increase ovulation rate • Improves fertility • Increases conception • Increase Multiple births Dependent on quantity and quality of available forage and condition of does
  28. 28. Early Gestation.. • Gestation: 150 days • First 100 days ~Similar to dry feeding • Very little fetal growth • Take advantage of forage • Monitor body condition score
  29. 29. Late Gestation.. • Last 50 days • Most critical time – 70% of fetal growth – Poor nutrition costs production • Low birth weights • Low mothering ability • Low milk production, ketosis – Utilize pasture & supplement feeding • Need 4 - 4.5% of body weight • 5-6% DCP and 60% TDN • On good pasture 200 g concentrate mixture is optimum
  30. 30. Lactation.. • Doe nutrition ~ key to early kid growth • Lactation peaks at 2 - 4 weeks • Feed at 4 - 5% body weight
  31. 31. Buck Nutrition • Utilize pasture when available • Monitor body condition 3-4 weeks prior to breeding • Feed intake 3-3.5% of body weight • 4-6%DCP and 50-60% TDN
  32. 32. Nutrients Lactating Does Dry Does Kids Calcium, % 0.78 0.42 0.55 Phosphorus, % 0.45 0.24 0.30 Magnesium, % 0.25 0.16 0.16 Potassium, % 1.00 0.65 0.65 Sulfur, % 0.20 0.20 0.20 Iron, ppm 50 50 50 Manganese, ppm 40 40 40 Copper, ppm 12 12 12 Zinc, ppm 50 50 50 Selenium, ppm 0.3 0.3 0.3 Vitamin A, IU/kg 1800 1800 1000 Vitamin D, IU/kg 450 450 140 Vitamin E, IU/kg 10 40 11 Mineral & vitamin requirement for Goats (% of DM)
  33. 33. To obtain and utilize surplus or unusable feed stuffs and convert them to desirable products such as meat, milk, fiber and work.
  34. 34. The Six Nutrients Needed • Protein • Carbohydrates • Fats • Minerals • Vitamins • Water • Roughage • Concentrate • Supplement • Additive
  35. 35. Roughages • Contains more than 18% crude fiber and relatively low in digestible nutrients Hulls Straw Silage Roughage Hay Legume Pasture
  36. 36. Concentrates Contains less than 18% crude fiber and high in digestible nutrients: – Grains Maize Oats Barley Wheat – By-products – Wheat bran – Rice Polish – Cottonseed hulls
  37. 37. Concentrates…. – Liquid supplements • Molasses • Urea – Animal proteins • Fish meal • Meat scraps • Blood meal – Plant proteins • Soybean meal • Oil seed cake
  38. 38. Supplements • Supplements are extras that supply the body with additional nutrients. • Some of the supplements are minerals, salt, vitamins Salt Copper Iron
  39. 39. Feed Additives • Antibiotics: disease prevention • Coccidiostats: control parasites • Hormones: increases growth • Antioxidants: prevents rancidity • Pellet Binders: feed in pellet form • Flavoring Agents: feed taste better
  40. 40. Balancing Rations • Balanced to meet the animal’s needs at the least expense • Variety of fresh feeds – More palatable – Easier to balance • Bulky – Filling – Helps in digestion
  41. 41. Balancing Rations… • Slightly laxative – Improve feed efficiency – Prevent constipation • Economical – price per unit of energy and protein • Suitable – High protein for younger animals
  42. 42. Good Rations 1. Balanced – Has all the nutrients in the right amounts 2. Palatable – Taste good 3. Low Cost – Feed is about 75% of the cost of raising livestock
  43. 43. Good Rations…….. 4. Not harmful to the health of animals – Too much cotton seed can cause reproductive problems 4. Uniformly mixed – Micronutrients- vitamins and minerals – Feed additives
  44. 44. Methods of Balancing of nutrients: 1. By trial and error method: Feed ingredients are interchange by trial and error until the right combination is reached- most practical 2. Pearson square method: This is simple easy and direct method. But by this method only one nutrient can be balance (either protein or energy). 3. Algebric equations 4.By using computer/least cost formulation/ linear programming
  45. 45. Pearson Square 1) Draw a square with lines connecting opposite corners and write the percent crude protein needed at the cross 12
  46. 46. Pearson Square • Write the feeds to be used and their crude protein content in the left-hand corners – lowest at the top highest at the bottom 12 Maize 8.9 Soybean Meal 45.8
  47. 47. Pearson Square • Subtract the smallest number from the larger along the diagonal lines 12 Maize 8.9 Soybean Meal 45.8 45.8- 12= 33.8 12-8.9= 3.1
  48. 48. Pearson Square 12 Maize 8.9 Soybean Meal 45.8 33.8 parts Maize 3.1 parts soybean meal 36.9 total parts
  49. 49. Pearson Square 12 Maize 8.9 Soybean Meal 45.8 33.8 parts corn 3.1 parts soybean meal Maize- 33.8 divided by 36.9 multiplied by 100= 92% SBM- 3.1 divided by 36.9 multiplied by 100= 8%
  50. 50. Identify nutritional needs of goats  Remember that nutritional needs change throughout the production cycle. Match animal requirements to nutrient value of feeds.  Always have minerals and fresh water available. Conclusions:
  51. 51. Suggestions and Questions?
  52. 52. THANKS

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