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Hashim M. Hussein
M.Sc. of Conservative Dentistry
• The greatest No. of commercially available files utilized to shape root canals are
manufactured from NiTi and are mechanically driven in continuous rotation.
• Reciprocation, defined as any repetitive back-and-forth motion, has been
clinically utilized to drive S.S files since 1958.
• Initially, all reciprocating motors and related handpiece rotated files in large
equal angles of 90º CW and CCW rotation.
• Over time, all reciprocating systems in the marketplace began to utilize smaller
equal angles of CW/CCW rotation.
• Today, M4, Endo-Express are examples of reciprocating systems that utilize
small, equal 30º angles of CW/CCW rotation.
• Compared to reciprocation, continuous rotation requires less inward pressure
and improves capacity to auger debris out of a canal.
• On the other hand, a mechanical reciprocating movement:
Mimics manual movement.
Reduces the various risks associated with continuously rotating a file
through canal curvatures.
• However, motors that drive reciprocating shaping files through equal
Require multi-file sequences to adequately prepare a canal.
Decreased cutting efficiency.
Required inward pressure.
Limited capacity to auger debris out of a canal.
• Various brands of NiTi rotary systems introduced:
• The rotary instruments improve:
1. Working safety
2. Shorten working time
3. Well-shaped root canals
4. Few canal transportations
• These instruments are generally used in low speed torque control hand piece with 360
degree file rotation and rotation rate of 150-350 RPM; however, they differ from one to
another in the cross sectional geometry, rack angle, tip design and taper.
6. Flex Master
2. GT file
3. Light speed
4. Hero 642
• Dr. Ghassan Yared, a former student of Professor Machtou, performed
exhaustive work to identify the precise unequal CW/CCW angles that would
enable a single reciprocating 25/.08 PT file to optimally shape any canal.
• In 1998, Ben Johnson and Pierre Machtou co-discovered the unmistakable
advantages of reciprocating NiTi files utilizing unequal bidirectional
• In the late 1990s, Pierre Machtou and his endodontic residents extensively
analyzed unequal reciprocating movement.
• In 2008, a team of 8 international clinicians including (Drs. Ben Johnson,
Sergio Kuttler, Pierre Machtou, Wilhelm Pertot, Julian Webber, John West,
Ghassan Yared, and Cliff Ruddle), in collaboration with Dentsply
International, began the serious work of developing both a new reciprocating
file and motor for shaping canals.
• In 2011, following 4 years of research and development, both WaveOne
(Dentsply Maillefer) and RECIPROC (VDW) were internationally launched as
single-file shaping techniques.
• Its a new single-file mechanized shaping system. The WaveOne concept
provides a single file shaping technique, regardless of the length, diameter, or
curvature of any given canal.
• It utilizes unequal CW/CCW angles, and is over 4 times safer and almost 3
times faster than using multiple rotary files to achieve the same final shape.
• Only 1 file is generally utilized to fully shape any given canal.
1. WaveOne Small file (yellow ring): used in fine canals. The tip size is ISO 21 with
a continuous taper of 6%.
• However, there are 3 WaveOne files
available to prepare any canal.
2. WaveOne Primary file (red ring): used in the majority of canals. The tip size is
ISO 25 with an apical taper of 8% that reduces towards the coronal end.
3. WaveOne Large file (black ring): used in large canals. The tip size is ISO 40
with an apical taper of 8% that reduces towards the coronal end.
• WaveOne files have a reverse helix and 2 distinct cross-sections along the
length of their active portions. From D1-D8, the WaveOne files have a
modified convex triangular cross-section, whereas from D9-D16, these files
have a convex triangular cross-section.
• These files are made of a special NiTi
alloy called M-wire that is created by
an innovative thermal treatment
Increased flexibility of file.
Improved resistance to cyclic fatigue of
the file by almost 400% compared to
commercially available 25/04 NiTi files.
• The WaveOne files have changeable pitch
and helical angle along their active
• The WaveOne files have non-cutting modified
Enable these files to safely progress through any
Prevent file from screwing into
Optimize cutting efficiency.
Its specially engineered and
programmed to drive the new
WaveOne reciprocating files.
WaveOne motor is rechargeable
battery operated with a 6:1
This motor produces unequal
bidirectional file movement. CCW
engaging angle is 5 times the CW
This motor can drive any market
version file system in full CW
rotation at the desired speed and
-ProTaper® Universal, PathFile™, ProFile® as
well as the Gates files.
-15 free programs in continuous rotation.
• WaveOne system utilizes an engaging angle that is 5 times the disengaging
• An unequal bidirectional movement strategically enhances augering debris out
of the canal.
• Then, after three engaging/disengaging cutting cycles, the WaveOne file will
have rotated 360º, or turned one CCW circle. This unique reciprocating
movement enables the file to more readily advance toward the desired WL.
• One single file is able to transition a secured canal to a well-shaped canal, in
• Single WaveOne file is frequently used to prepare multiple canals in a single
• Single use of file provides the clinician with the following advantages:
Elimination of repeated usage of instruments= reduce the instrument
fatigue and decrease in instrument fracture.
Elimination of possible cross contamination that is associated by the
inability to adequately clean and sterilize previously used instruments.
• Guideline 1: Create straight line
• Guideline 2: Negotiate canals to
patency and create a reproducible glide
• Guideline 5: Irrigate and recapitulate the root canal system after each cutting
cycle, and lubricated canal before using file.
• Guideline 4: Clean the cutting flutes of the instrument after each cutting cycle.
• Guideline 3: Select the correct WaveOne file.
• Guideline 6: Faster preparation time requires longer irrigation times
preferably with activation of irrigation solution.
• Because of the reduced preparation time, the tissue in uninstrumented parts of
the root canal system have generally been exposed for a shorter period of time
to the irrigation solution of choice.
• A WaveOne file was used in a reciprocating motion according to the
manufacturer’s instructions using (WaveOneTM endo motor). The silicon
stopper was set on the WaveOne file at 2/3 of WL.
• Then, the file was introduced in the canal with a slow in (light apical directed
force) and out (circumferential brushing) motion without pulling the
instrument completely out of canal.
• After 3 in-and-out movements, the WaveOne file was
pulled out of the canal to clean the flutes, and the canal
• The WaveOne file was used until it had reached 2/3 of
the WL as indicated by stopper on the file. Then the file
was reused in the same manner until the WL had been