2. • Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, The Simpsons -
are just some cartoons that have captivated the
minds of kids as well as adults. All these
cartoon characters are the creation of the
wonderful art of animation that captivates our
eyes and makes our childhood days full of fun.
So what is Animation and how can it be
• Animation is possible because of a biological
phenomenon called Persistence of Vision and a
physiological phenomenon called phi.
• An object seen by the human eye remains
chemically mapped on the eye’s retina for a brief
time after viewing. Combined with the human
minds need to conceptually complete a perceived
action, this makes it possible for a series of
images that are changed very slightly and very
rapidly, one after the other, to seemingly blend
together into a visual illusion of movement.
4. ANIMATION SPACE
• 2-D Space:
– Very simple and straight forward.
• 2-1 / 2D Space:
– An illusion of depth is created through
shadowing, highlighting and forced
perspective; though in reality images rest in
• 3-D Space:
– Complicated and realistic animations are
constructed and modeled.
6. CEL ANIMATION
• Cel animation or hand-drawn animation was the
process used for most animated films of the 20th
century. The individual frames of a traditionally
animated film are photographs of drawings,
which are first drawn on paper. To create the
illusion of movement, each drawing differs
slightly from the one before it.
• The animators' drawings are traced or
photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets
called cels, which are filled in with paints in
assigned colors or tones on the side opposite the
7. • Cel animation was a major technical breakthrough in
figurative animation. A technique in which the
figures to be animated are drawn and painted on
cels, placed over a background, and photographed
frame by frame. Cel animation has been the standard
technique for studio animation since its invention in
8. • Works on basis of the first and last frame of an
• The frames in between the key frames are
drawn in a Tweening process
– Depicts actions that take place between key
9. KEY FRAMES
• A key frame in animation and filmmaking is a
drawing that defines the starting and ending
points of any smooth transition. They are called
"frames" because their position in time is
measured in frames on a strip of film.
• A sequence of keyframes defines which
movement the spectator will see, whereas the
position of the keyframes on the film, video or
animation defines the timing of the movement.
Because only two or three keyframes over the
span of a second do not create the illusion of
movement, the remaining frames are filled with
11. KEY FRAME ANIMATION
• Limited animation is a process of making
animated cartoons that does not redraw entire
frames but variably reuses common parts
• The process of limited animation mainly aims at
reducing the overall number of drawings. Film is
projected at 24 frames per second.
• Some cartoons that still use these techniques are
Powerpuff Girls, The Pink Panther
and Samurai Jack.
12. KEY FRAME ANIMATION
• "Limited" animation creates an image that uses
abstract art, symbolism, and fewer drawings to
create the same effect, but at a much lower
production cost. This style of animation depends
upon animators' skill in emulating change without
additional drawings; improper use of limited
animation can be easily recognized as unnatural.
• Create a hand drawn animation.
• Create an animation that depicts a particular
• Needs to be submitted along with practical
journals on Tuesday; 7th
• Rotoscoping is a technique, patented by Max
Fleischer in 1917, where animators trace live-
action movement, frame by frame.
• This is a technique in which images are copied
from a moving video onto an animation. The
animator draws the motion and shape of the
object by referring to the video as opposed to
imagining the whole thing in his head.
• With the help of rotoscoping complex sceens that
are hard to visualize can be smoothly animated.
15. • The source film for animation is usually
directly copied from actors' outlines into
animated drawings, as in The Lord of the
Rings (US, 1978), used as a basis and
inspiration for character animation,used in a
stylized and expressive manner.
• One major drawback of this technique:
– You need to hunt for videos of exact
situations and scenes that you want to
16. LIVE ACTION
• A live-action/animation is usually viewed in
films that features a combination of real actors or
elements: live-action and animated elements,
• Combining hand-drawn characters into live
• Typical examples are “Who Framed Roger
Rabbit?” and “Space Jam”.
• The combination of live action
and animation is becoming very
common in TV commercials.
17. • Dragonheart: A New Beginning
• Fantasia 2000
• Stuart Little - Stuart Little 2
• Scooby Doo
• Looney Tunes: Back in Action
• The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie
• Garfield: The Movie
• Charlotte's Web
• Alvin and the Chipmunks
• WALL-E (live-action sequences)
18. STOP MOTION ANIMATION
• Stop-motion animation is used to describe
animation created by physically manipulating
real-world objects and photographing them one
frame of film at a time to create the illusion of
• There are many different types of stop-motion
animation, usually named after the type of media
used to create the animation. Computer software
is widely available to create this type of
19. MODEL ANIMATION
• Model animation refers to stop-motion animation
created to interact with and exist as a part of a
• Intercutting, matte effects, and split screens are
often employed to blend stop-motion characters
or objects with live actors and settings.
20. CLAY ANIMATION
• Clay animation, or Plasticine animation often
abbreviated as claymation, uses figures made of
clay or a similar malleable material to create
• Each animated piece, either character or
background, is “deformable”.
• As in other forms of object animation, the object
is arranged on the set (background), a film frame
is exposed, and the object or character is then
moved slightly by hand. Another frame is taken,
and the object is moved slightly again. This cycle
is repeated until the animator has achieved the
desired amount of film.
21. • Examples of clay-animated works include:
The Gumby Show
22. COMPUTER ANIMATION
• Quite similar to cel animation.
• The primary difference:
– How much is drawn by the animator and
how much is automatically generated by the
23. • Computer animation has become very common.
• Computer animation began about 40 years ago
when the first computer drawing system was
created by General Motors and IBM. It allowed
the user to view a 3D model of a car and change
the angles and rotation.
• Years later, more people helped make computer
animation better. Movies that used computer
animation are: The Abyss, Jurassic Park, Forrest
Gump, and more.
• A well-known computer animation company is
Pixar. They are responsible for making Toy Story,
A Bug's Life, Monsters Inc., Finding Nemo, and
24. • Kinematics:
– Study of movement of structures that have
– Animating a walking step or movement is
• One needs to calculate the position,
rotation, velocity and acceleration of all
the joints and articulated parts involved-
Knees bend, shoulders swing, head
bobs, fingers stretch etc.
25. • Inverse kinematics
– the process of linking objects (such as hands
to arms), and defining their relationship and
26. Making Successful Animations:
• High quality animations require superior
display platforms and hardware, as well as
raw computing horsepower.
• File compression is very important when
preparing animation files for the Web.
27. PROCESS OF ANIMATION
• Story Board Layout
• Object Definitions
• Key Frame Specifications
• Generation of in-between frames
• Rendering is the process of generating an image
from a model, by means of computer programs.
The model is a description of three-dimensional
objects in a strictly defined language or data
structure. It would contain geometry, viewpoint,
texture, lighting and shading information. The
image is a digital image or raster graphics
image. The term may be by analogy with an
"artist's rendering" of a scene. 'Rendering' is
also used to describe the process of calculating
effects in a video editing file to produce final
31. TYPES OF RENDERING
• Flat Shading
Computer creates an average color for an object and
renders each face with different amounts of black or
white added to simulate shading.
• Phong rendering
It probes every pixel in the visible area and tries to
determine a correct color for it.
• Ray Tracing
Everything is rendered, including shadows, lighting,
reflections and transparencies.
It figures out relationship of objects in a scene. It
produces extremely good results, realistic shading
and seems to better capture the 'ambience' of an
32. Some formats are designed specially to contain
animations, these formats include
• Director (dir)
• Animation Pro (fli, flc)
• 3D studio max (max)
• Windows audio video interleaved format (avi)
• Time based data format (quicktime, mov)
• Motion video (mpeg, mpg)
• Compuserve (gif)
• Shockwave (dcr)
File compression is an essential part of preparing
animation files for the web b/c file size should be
small for rapid downloading. For example a director
movie file can be compressed up to 75% by
converting into Shockwave file (dcr).
ANIMATION FILE FORMATS
• Animation is a gradual change over time and
this effect adds great power to multimedia.
• Computer animation has considerably eased
the process of animation.
• There are several types of animation
– Key Frame
– Cel Animation
– Clay Animation
– Model Animation etc.