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MINIMAL INTERVENTION
DENTISTRY
Dr.Rakesh Nair
PG Student
KVG Dental College
Sullia
India
Contents Introduction
 Definition
 Caries
 MID strategies
 New caries classification
 Early diagnosis
 Remineraliza...
Introduction
 Minimally invasive treatment in dentistry is not new
and was pioneered in the early 1970s with the
applicat...
 (ART) approach and Carisolv in the 1990s.
 These ultraconservative treatment concepts are
applied with the intention to...
Definition
 Minimum (or minimal) intervention dentistry (MI) can
be defined as a philosophy of professional care
concerne...
 The world congress of MID defines minimally invasive
dentistry as “those techniques, which respect health,
function and ...
 “Loss of even a part of a human tooth should be
considered “a serious injury,” and that dentistry’s goal
should be to pr...
Principles of MID
 It has been known for decades that dental caries is a
communicable, infectious disease caused by dental
plaque, an oral ...
 The limitation, which continues to affect decisions to restore
rather than monitor carious lesions over time, is the abi...
 “Extension for prevention” has given way to the new
paradigm of minimally invasive dentistry, as seen in a
refined model...
 Early caries diagnosis;
 Classification of caries depth and progression using
radiographs;
 Assessment of individual c...
A New Caries Classification
 In response to the importance of site and size of
carious lesions for treatment, G.J Mount a...
 Firstly, lesions are classified according to their
location:
 • Site 1: pits and fissures (occlusal and other smooth
to...
Secondly, the new classification identifies carious
lesions according to various sizes:
 Size 0: carious lesion without c...
Small carious lesion in an enamel pit on distofacial cusp of molar.
This type of lesion would be restored using a 1.2 mini...
Stained occlusal grooves in the premolars
These lesions would be classified as 1.1 preparations in
the minimal preparation...
Conservative cavity preparations can be used to
restore with either amalgam or composite as in
premolars and molars.
Early Diagnosis
 The goal of MI is to stop disease first and then to restore
lost structure and function.
 To be able to...
 Present caries activity can be determined from the speed
at which carious lesions progress.
 Earliest caries detection,...
Carious lesion detection:
laserfluorescence/
Diagnodent.
Quantitative light-induced
fluorescence.
REMINERALIZATION OF EARLY LESIONS
AND REDUCTION OF CARIOGENIC BACTERIA
 It now is well-recognized that it is possible to ...
 When the pH is less than 5.5, subsurface enamel or
dentin will demineralize.
 Fluoride enhances the uptake of calcium a...
 MI treatment on micro or molecular levels starts with
fighting the bacterial infection and healing reversible
carious le...
Chair side saliva test.
Antibacterial cavity treatment:
ozone.
Dental chewing gum containing
CPP-ACP.
Dentifrice containing CPP-ACP.
High fluoride-containing glass
ionomer
cement.
MATERIALS
 Adhesive dental materials make it possible to conserve
tooth structure using minimally invasive cavity
prepara...
Glass ionomer cement
 The advantages of GICs include adhesion to tooth and
release of fluoride and other ions.
 They per...
 Set glass ionomer is “rechargeable,” take up fluoride
from the environment, which is provided by exposure to
fluoride tr...
Disadvantages of GIC
 GICs’ disadvantages include technique sensitivity. The
handling properties and brittleness of the m...
 However, the introduction of a resin component has the
downside of also introducing polymerization shrinkage.
 GICs and...
Resin-based composite/
dentin bonding agents
 The effective bonding of resin to enamel is a key
factor in the selection o...
 Though etching dentin and enamel and formation of a
hybrid layer has improved the quality of the bond and
the technology...
Lamination.
 The process of lamination, also called the sandwich
technique, takes advantage of the physical properties of...
 Resin-based composite then is laminated over the GIC
for the purpose of improved occlusal wear or
esthetics.
IconTM
Atraumatic restorative technique
 First evaluated in Tanzania in 1980s.
 Its principles rely on minimum
intervention,min...
 While MID concept involves using all possible
technologies and instruments to achieve the best to
save natural tissues,
...
Cavity design
 Traditional cavity preparations were designed at a time
when carious lesions usually were diagnosed at a m...
 Another reason that dentists have modified techniques
for preparing and restoring teeth is that a traditional
approach t...
MINIMUM SURGICAL INTERVENTION OF
CAVITATED LESIONS
 Treatment of lesions confined to the inner one half of
enamel and eve...
MINIMAL INTERVENTION TOOTH
PREPARATIONS
 Preparations with high-speed handpieces.
 Some modified designs include tunnel ...
Tunnel preparation
 The tunnel preparation is performed by accessing the
carious dentin from the occlusal surface, while
...
Tunnel preparation and resin-based
composite were used to restore the lesion on
the distal of first premolar.
 Internal preparations preserve the marginal ridge and
the proximal surface enamel.
 A recent study showed that after th...
 Minibox or slot preparations involve the removal of
the marginal ridge, but do not include the occlusal pits
and fissure...
Preparations with air abrasion
 Air abrasion is a technique that uses kinetic energy to
remove carious tooth structure.
...
 Variables that affect speed of cutting include air
pressure(40-160psi) 80psi for etching, particle size(27-
50micro mete...
 The reported advantages of air abrasion include
 Reduced noise
 Vibration,
 Sensitivity,
 Though these are subjectiv...
Contraindications
 Severe dust allergy,
 Asthma,
 Chronic obstructive lung disease,
 Recent extraction or other oral s...
Restoring questionable pits….?
 Hailton and et`al have conducted an RCT the efficacy of
treating questionable occlusal in...
 The teeth in both groups were re-examined every six
months.
 After 12 months, two of 113 preventive resin restorations
...
 Long-term studies are in progress, and it remains to be
seen whether treating questionable occlusal incipient
lesions ha...
Laser cavity preparation.
 Erbium:yttriumaluminum garnet lasers and erbium,
chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet lase...
 They also can be used without anesthetic most of the
time.
 Preparations are similar to those made with air abrasion;
a...
 Advantages include no vibration, little noise, no smell
and no numbness associated with anesthesia.
 When dental lasers...
REPAIR VS. REPLACEMENT OF DEFECTIVE
RESTORATIONS
 It is estimated that worldwide, the replacement of
existing restoration...
Reasons for
replacing restorations
 Concerns about bond strength to previously placed
materials
 Residual caries left be...
 Considering all of these points, plus the fact that caries
under well-sealed restorations fails to progress and that
car...
 Cavity preparations should ensure independent retention
and resistance form for the repair.
 Repair with a GIC may be p...
DISEASE CONTROL
 There is a need to establish clear guidelines on the
management of caries as an infectious disease.
 St...
 Several strategies have potential to reduce caries
prevalence in early childhood:
 increasing access to care,
 educati...
 Several strategies have potential to reduce caries
prevalence in early childhood:
 increasing access to care
 educatin...
 Emerging technologies in this area include caries
vaccines and bacterial replacement therapy which has
been studied in r...
 This bacterial strain, JH1140, has been shown to
effectively colonize teeth, displace wild-type S. mutans
and produce le...
THE ISSUE OF REIMBURSEMENT
 The dentist is paid only if he or she does something; this
may create a conflict in the situa...
Minimal Intervention Endodontics
 With regards to endodontic procedures, it can range
anywhere from diagnosis to making a...
MIE
types of
crowns
Conservation
of dentin
Diagnosis
Conser
vation
of
cervical
dentine
Judiciou
s use of
preeo
and GG
Amou...
PRESERVING STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY
 Maintaining strength and stiffness that resists structural
deformation becomes the recog...
 There is currently an abundance of studies in human
teeth showing that the dentin properties of
endodontically treated t...
 Conversely, the predominant reason that endodontically
treated teeth are more prone to fracture relates more
than any ot...
Vertical root fracture originating from post
preparation in tooth 15; (a) Periapical radiograph
after attempted apical sur...
Minimally invasive access preparation in tooth 37.
(a) View of the access preparation; (b) After root
canal filling
MINIMALLY INVASIVE ACCESS
STRATEGIES
 Access cavities were to be prepared and expanded so
that their smallest dimensions ...
 Recently, maintaining structural integrity of the peri-
cervical area of the tooth (about four mm above and
below the al...
 In keeping with this philosophy of minimal invasion
of bulk dentin structure, the use of round burs and
Gates-Glidden bu...
SHAPING THE ROOT CANAL SPACE
 After biomechanical instrumentation, the completed
root canal shapes need to withstand the ...
 Kerekes and Tronstad found a wide range of
measurements at the apical constriction of all teeth, thus
creating two separ...
 Studies vary on which size diameter will accomplish
maximum cleaning. Some researchers have suggested
file diameters ran...
Pulpotomy
 MIE could also include the provision of a pulpotomy as
a definitive procedure, but only if the status of the
d...
Conclusion
 The management of dental caries has evolved from G.V. Black’s
“extension for prevention” to “minimally invasi...
 The goal is preservation of natural tooth structure.
 The future promises further evolution toward a more
primary preve...
Reference
 Minimally invasive dentistry. Carol anne murdoch-kinch, d.D.S., Ph.D.;
MARY ELLEN mclean, D.D.S. JADA, vol. 13...
Minimal intervention dentistry
Minimal intervention dentistry
Minimal intervention dentistry
Minimal intervention dentistry
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A powerpoint presentation on the concept of minimal intervention in dentistry with a note on minimal intervention endodontics.

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Minimal intervention dentistry

  1. 1. MINIMAL INTERVENTION DENTISTRY Dr.Rakesh Nair PG Student KVG Dental College Sullia India
  2. 2. Contents Introduction  Definition  Caries  MID strategies  New caries classification  Early diagnosis  Remineralization of early lesions and reduction of cariogenic bacteria.  Materials  Icon  Treatment techniques  Air abrasion  Laser  Repair vs replacemnt  Reimbursement  Disease control  Minimum intervention endodontics  Conclusion  Refernces
  3. 3. Introduction  Minimally invasive treatment in dentistry is not new and was pioneered in the early 1970s with the application of diammine silver fluoride.  This was followed by the development of the preventive resin restoration (PRR)in the 1980s
  4. 4.  (ART) approach and Carisolv in the 1990s.  These ultraconservative treatment concepts are applied with the intention to preserve as much tooth tissue as possible and to offer more patient-friendly care to fearful patients.
  5. 5. Definition  Minimum (or minimal) intervention dentistry (MI) can be defined as a philosophy of professional care concerned with the first occurrence, earliest detection, and earliest possible cure of disease on micro (molecular) levels, followed by minimally invasive and patient-friendly treatment to repair irreversible damage caused by such disease. Tyas MJ, Anusavice KJ, Frencken JE, Mount GJ. Minimal intervention dentistry—a review. FDI Commission Project 1-97. Int Dent J 2000;50:1–12.
  6. 6.  The world congress of MID defines minimally invasive dentistry as “those techniques, which respect health, function and esthetics of oral tissue by preventing disease from occurring, or intercepting its progress with minimal tissue loss ``(Nový and Fuller 2008)
  7. 7.  “Loss of even a part of a human tooth should be considered “a serious injury,” and that dentistry’s goal should be to preserve healthy, natural tooth structure.” (Miles Markley, one of several great leaders in preventive dentistry)  These words are perhaps even more relevant today than when he wrote them half a century ago, now that we have the scientific understanding and the means to realize his vision.
  8. 8. Principles of MID
  9. 9.  It has been known for decades that dental caries is a communicable, infectious disease caused by dental plaque, an oral biofilm, and by exposure to fermentable carbohydrates.  In the past, dentistry’s approach to treating caries has been surgical—removing diseased tissue and replacing it with a dental restorative material.
  10. 10.  The limitation, which continues to affect decisions to restore rather than monitor carious lesions over time, is the ability to detect the earliest signs of disease.  The accuracy of dental radiographs and visual inspection when used for caries detection is insufficient.  Research is ongoing to improve methods of early caries detection to allow us to fully implement new approaches to the management of dental caries.  In addition, new caries management protocols have been developed that differentiate between people with different levels of caries risk. Benn DK, Clark TD, Dankel DD 2nd, Kostewicz SH. Practical approach to evidence-based management of caries. J Am Coll Dent 1999;66(1):27-35. Summitt JB. Conservative cavity preparations. Dent Clin North Am 2002;46(2):171-84.
  11. 11.  “Extension for prevention” has given way to the new paradigm of minimally invasive dentistry, as seen in a refined model of care that has been modified from that described by  Tyas and colleagues have included the following concepts: Wait…?Drill…?Or…?
  12. 12.  Early caries diagnosis;  Classification of caries depth and progression using radiographs;  Assessment of individual caries risk (high, moderate, low);  Reduction of cariogenic bacteria and to decrease risk of further demineralization and cavitation  Arresting of active lesions;  Remineralization and monitoring of noncavitated arrested lesions;  Placement of restorations in teeth with cavitated lesions, using minimal cavity designs  Repair rather than the replacement of defective restorations;  Assessing disease management outcomes at pre-established intervals.
  13. 13. A New Caries Classification  In response to the importance of site and size of carious lesions for treatment, G.J Mount and colleagues have proposed a new classification, which classifies lesions by combining both their site and size
  14. 14.  Firstly, lesions are classified according to their location:  • Site 1: pits and fissures (occlusal and other smooth tooth surfaces);  • Site 2: contact area between two teeth;  • Site 3: cervical area in contact with gingival tissues.
  15. 15. Secondly, the new classification identifies carious lesions according to various sizes:  Size 0: carious lesion without cavitation, can be remineralized  Size 1: small cavitation, just beyond healing through remineralization;  Size 2: moderate cavity not extended to cusps;  Size 3: enlarged cavity, with at least one cusp which is undermined and which needs protection from occlusal load;  Size 4: extensive cavity, with at least one lost cusp or incisal edge.
  16. 16. Small carious lesion in an enamel pit on distofacial cusp of molar. This type of lesion would be restored using a 1.2 minimal preparation (according to the system proposed by Mount and Hume19).
  17. 17. Stained occlusal grooves in the premolars These lesions would be classified as 1.1 preparations in the minimal preparation classification system
  18. 18. Conservative cavity preparations can be used to restore with either amalgam or composite as in premolars and molars.
  19. 19. Early Diagnosis  The goal of MI is to stop disease first and then to restore lost structure and function.  To be able to stop caries as early as possible, future caries risk and present caries activity should be established.  Caries risk may be assessed from a number of predictors such as baseline caries prevalence, Streptococcus mutans levels, salivary buffering capacity and flow rate, as well as fissure retentiveness.
  20. 20.  Present caries activity can be determined from the speed at which carious lesions progress.  Earliest caries detection, traditionally by use of mirror and light, as well as bitewing radiographs, can now be aided by new innovations in dental magnification and imaging, laser fluorescence and quantitative light- induced fluorescence.
  21. 21. Carious lesion detection: laserfluorescence/ Diagnodent. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence.
  22. 22. REMINERALIZATION OF EARLY LESIONS AND REDUCTION OF CARIOGENIC BACTERIA  It now is well-recognized that it is possible to arrest and even reverse the mineral loss associated with caries at an early stage, before cavitation takes place.  Enamel and dentin demineralization is not a continuous, irreversible process.  Through a series of demineralization and remineralization cycles, the tooth alternately loses and gains calcium and phosphate ions, depending on the microenvironment.
  23. 23.  When the pH is less than 5.5, subsurface enamel or dentin will demineralize.  Fluoride enhances the uptake of calcium and phosphate ions and can form fluoroapatite.  Fluorapatite demineralizes at a pH less than 4.5, making it more resistant to demineralization from an acid challenge than hydroxylapatite.
  24. 24.  MI treatment on micro or molecular levels starts with fighting the bacterial infection and healing reversible carious lesions.  The bacterial infection can be controlled using a wide range of treatment methods, which may involve the use of chlorhexidine, diammine silver fluoride, ozone application, triclosan, or cavity seal by chemical material adhesion.
  25. 25. Chair side saliva test. Antibacterial cavity treatment: ozone.
  26. 26. Dental chewing gum containing CPP-ACP. Dentifrice containing CPP-ACP. High fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement.
  27. 27. MATERIALS  Adhesive dental materials make it possible to conserve tooth structure using minimally invasive cavity preparations, because adhesive materials do not require the incorporation of mechanical retention features.
  28. 28. Glass ionomer cement  The advantages of GICs include adhesion to tooth and release of fluoride and other ions.  They perform well in low stress areas. GICs release fluoride, calcium and aluminum ions into the tooth and saliva.
  29. 29.  Set glass ionomer is “rechargeable,” take up fluoride from the environment, which is provided by exposure to fluoride treatments and toothpaste
  30. 30. Disadvantages of GIC  GICs’ disadvantages include technique sensitivity. The handling properties and brittleness of the material can be overcome by adding resin to the material.  The resulting resin-modified glass ionomer cements, or RMGICs, are easier to place, are light-cured, and have improved esthetic qualities.
  31. 31.  However, the introduction of a resin component has the downside of also introducing polymerization shrinkage.  GICs and RMGICs are appropriate for cervical restorations, fissure sealants,proximal lesions in anterior permanent teeth and proximal lesions in anterior and posterior primary teeth.
  32. 32. Resin-based composite/ dentin bonding agents  The effective bonding of resin to enamel is a key factor in the selection of these materials.  Cavity preparations designed to conserve maximum enamel can eliminate the need for macromechanical retention.
  33. 33.  Though etching dentin and enamel and formation of a hybrid layer has improved the quality of the bond and the technology is constantly improving, polymerization shrinkage and marginal leakage continue to be a problem when margins are in dentin.  Newer flowable resin-based composites have low viscosity and often are used in smaller, preventive resin- type preparations, as well as in class V cavities.
  34. 34. Lamination.  The process of lamination, also called the sandwich technique, takes advantage of the physical properties of both the GIC and the resin-based composite.  The GIC is placed first because of its adhesion to dentin and fluoride release.
  35. 35.  Resin-based composite then is laminated over the GIC for the purpose of improved occlusal wear or esthetics.
  36. 36. IconTM
  37. 37. Atraumatic restorative technique  First evaluated in Tanzania in 1980s.  Its principles rely on minimum intervention,minimum invasion and minimal cavity preparation.  All the procedures are carries out only using hand instruments and adhesive restoration.
  38. 38.  While MID concept involves using all possible technologies and instruments to achieve the best to save natural tissues,  ART is helpful in eradicating or controlling caries spread in poor nations with minimally sophisticated technology.
  39. 39. Cavity design  Traditional cavity preparations were designed at a time when carious lesions usually were diagnosed at a more advanced state than are the incipient lesions dentists detect today.  Preparations also were designed for amalgam rather than for adhesive materials, and instrumentation was limited to slow rotary instruments and hand instruments.
  40. 40.  Another reason that dentists have modified techniques for preparing and restoring teeth is that a traditional approach to the control of caries inevitably leads to a destructive cycle:  Excessive tooth reduction for a relatively small lesion, followed by restoration replacement and additional loss of tooth structure.  Progressive loss of tooth structure and, in some cases, tooth loss are the result of this irreversible cycle
  41. 41. MINIMUM SURGICAL INTERVENTION OF CAVITATED LESIONS  Treatment of lesions confined to the inner one half of enamel and even slightly into dentin generally is not indicated.  This approach is justified on the basis that caries progression through the enamel, even in active lesions, is very slow.
  42. 42. MINIMAL INTERVENTION TOOTH PREPARATIONS  Preparations with high-speed handpieces.  Some modified designs include tunnel and internal preparations for proximal surface lesions (site 2 in Mount and Hume’s system).  A highspeed handpiece and small burs are used to prepare the cavity.
  43. 43. Tunnel preparation  The tunnel preparation is performed by accessing the carious dentin from the occlusal surface, while preserving the marginal ridge.  Tunnel preparations are technically difficult to do because of access and visibility and the small amount of tooth structure removed.
  44. 44. Tunnel preparation and resin-based composite were used to restore the lesion on the distal of first premolar.
  45. 45.  Internal preparations preserve the marginal ridge and the proximal surface enamel.  A recent study showed that after three years, tunnel preparations had better results than did slot class II restorations.  After five years, conventional amalgam class II restorations exhibited better survival rates than tunnel or slot preparations. Tyas MJ, Anusavice KJ, Frencken JE, Mount GJ. Minimal intervention dentistry: a review. FDI Commission Project 1-97. Int Dent J 2000;50(1):1-12.
  46. 46.  Minibox or slot preparations involve the removal of the marginal ridge, but do not include the occlusal pits and fissures if caries removal in these areas is not necessary.  These cavities may have either a box or a saucer shape and may be restored with resin-based composite or amalgam.  Clinical studies of these conservative restorations have shown 70 percent survival at an average of seven years Summitt JB. Conservative cavity preparations. Dent Clin North Am 2002;46(2):171-84.
  47. 47. Preparations with air abrasion  Air abrasion is a technique that uses kinetic energy to remove carious tooth structure.  A powerful narrow stream of moving aluminum oxide particles is directed against the surface to be cut.  When these particles hit the tooth surface, they abrade it, without heat, vibration or noise. The particles exit at the tip of the handpiece, so it is an end-cutting device.
  48. 48.  Variables that affect speed of cutting include air pressure(40-160psi) 80psi for etching, particle size(27- 50micro meter), powder flow, the tip’s size, the tip’s angle and the tip’s distance from the tooth.  It has been proposed that air abrasion technology can be used to both diagnose early occlusal-surface lesions and treat them with minimal tooth preparation. Hamilton JC, Dennison JB, Stoffers KW, Welch KB. A clinical evaluation of air- abrasion treatment of questionable carious lesions: a 12-month report. JADA 2001;132:762-9.
  49. 49.  The reported advantages of air abrasion include  Reduced noise  Vibration,  Sensitivity,  Though these are subjective and vary among patients.  Cavity preparations done with air abrasion have more rounded internal contours than those prepared with a handpiece and straight burs.  This may increase the longevity of restorations placed because it reduces the incidence of fractures, a consequence of decreased internal stresses as compared with those seen in angular preparations.
  50. 50. Contraindications  Severe dust allergy,  Asthma,  Chronic obstructive lung disease,  Recent extraction or other oral surgery,  Open wounds  Advanced periodontal disease  Recent placement of orthodontic appliances  Oral abrasions  Subgingival caries removal.  Many of these conditions increase the risk of air embolism in the oral soft tissues.  Dust control is a challenge, and it necessitates the use of rubber dam and high-volume evacuation.
  51. 51. Restoring questionable pits….?  Hailton and et`al have conducted an RCT the efficacy of treating questionable occlusal incipient lesions early, using air abrasion.  In the study, investigators randomly assigned 223 teeth with questionable occlusal carious lesions to either a treatment group or a control group.  Each tooth in the treatment group was air-abraded and restored with a flowable resin-based composite.
  52. 52.  The teeth in both groups were re-examined every six months.  After 12 months, two of 113 preventive resin restorations in the treatment group required retreatment.  In the control group, only nine of 86 recalled teeth were diagnosed as having caries and were treated.  This was fewer than expected. Therefore, the authors concluded that the merit of treating questionable incipient pit and fissure carious lesions had not been demonstrated after 12 months.
  53. 53.  Long-term studies are in progress, and it remains to be seen whether treating questionable occlusal incipient lesions has any benefit.
  54. 54. Laser cavity preparation.  Erbium:yttriumaluminum garnet lasers and erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet lasers are being used to cut dental hard tissues.  These lasers can remove soft caries, as well as hard tissue. Lasers reportedly can allow the dentist to remove caries selectively while maintaining healthy dentin and enamel.
  55. 55.  They also can be used without anesthetic most of the time.  Preparations are similar to those made with air abrasion; adhesive dental materials must be used for restoration.
  56. 56.  Advantages include no vibration, little noise, no smell and no numbness associated with anesthesia.  When dental lasers are used correctly, excessive heat generation and its detrimental effects on dental pulp can be avoided.
  57. 57. REPAIR VS. REPLACEMENT OF DEFECTIVE RESTORATIONS  It is estimated that worldwide, the replacement of existing restorations accounts for 50 to 71 percent of each general dentist’s activities.  The replacement of amalgam and resin restorations leads to larger restorations with successively shorter life spans than their predecessors. Tyas MJ, Anusavice KJ, Frencken JE, Mount GJ. Minimal intervention dentistry: a review. FDI Commission Project 1-97. Int Dent J 2000;50(1):1-12.
  58. 58. Reasons for replacing restorations  Concerns about bond strength to previously placed materials  Residual caries left behind (especially in sites restored by another dentist)  Recurrent caries around the margin of a restoration implying an increased risk of developing caries in other sites, including under existing restorations.
  59. 59.  Considering all of these points, plus the fact that caries under well-sealed restorations fails to progress and that caries progresses slowly in most populations, repairing defective restorations rather than replacing them is a valid and more conservative option for treatment.
  60. 60.  Cavity preparations should ensure independent retention and resistance form for the repair.  Repair with a GIC may be preferable in cervical areas, because of the potential for fluoride release and GICs’ excellent adhesion.  The decision to repair rather than replace a restoration always must be based on the patient’s risk of developing caries, the professional’s judgment of benefits vs. risks and conservative principles of cavity preparation.
  61. 61. DISEASE CONTROL  There is a need to establish clear guidelines on the management of caries as an infectious disease.  Strategies include bacterial identification and monitoring, diet analysis and modification, use of topical fluorides and use of antimicrobial agents.
  62. 62.  Several strategies have potential to reduce caries prevalence in early childhood:  increasing access to care,  educating patients and their parents and using targeted preventive therapies,  including treating the family in hopes of decreasing transmission of virulent Streptococcus mutans and other bacterial species from caregiver to child.
  63. 63.  Several strategies have potential to reduce caries prevalence in early childhood:  increasing access to care  educating patients and their parents  using targeted preventive therapies, including treating the family in hopes of decreasing transmission of virulent Streptococcus mutans and other bacterial species from caregiver to child.
  64. 64.  Emerging technologies in this area include caries vaccines and bacterial replacement therapy which has been studied in rodents to date.  In bacterial replacement therapy, gene manipulation yields a strain of S. mutans unable to produce lactic acid through fermentation of carbohydrates. Fontana M, Dunipace AJ, Stookey GK, Gregory RL. Intranasa immunization against dental caries with a Streptococcus mutansenriche fimbrial preparation. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1999;6(3):405-9. Michalek SM, Katz J, Childers NK. A vaccine against denta caries: an overview. BioDrugs 2001;15(8):501-8.
  65. 65.  This bacterial strain, JH1140, has been shown to effectively colonize teeth, displace wild-type S. mutans and produce less acid and fewer carious lesions than wild-type S. mutans.  It could be used to prevent dental caries by replacing wild-type S. mutans in humans with high caries risk.
  66. 66. THE ISSUE OF REIMBURSEMENT  The dentist is paid only if he or she does something; this may create a conflict in the situation where doing nothing is appropriate.  The cost-benefit ratio of a minimally invasive approach needs to be analyzed and presented to the public and third-party payers.  The benefits not only will improve the oral health of the public but also will reduce health care costs in the long run and provide satisfaction for dentists, who will know that they have done their best to preserve patients’ natural tooth structure.
  67. 67. Minimal Intervention Endodontics  With regards to endodontic procedures, it can range anywhere from diagnosis to making a decision not to treat, to a minimally but purposefully crafted treatment.  To be more specific with regards to endodontics and root canal procedures the essence of what is needed to be achieved within the scope of minimally invasive endodontics (MIE) are……
  68. 68. MIE types of crowns Conservation of dentin Diagnosis Conser vation of cervical dentine Judiciou s use of preeo and GG Amount of Apical preparatio n
  69. 69. PRESERVING STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY  Maintaining strength and stiffness that resists structural deformation becomes the recognised goal of all restorative procedures, especially in endodontics.  widely held clinical perception that endodontically treated teeth are more brittle and hence more vulnerable to fracture
  70. 70.  There is currently an abundance of studies in human teeth showing that the dentin properties of endodontically treated teeth do not differ in any meaningful way from vital dentin. Sedgley C M, Messer H H. Are endodontically treated teeth more brittle? J Endod 1992; 18: 332–335. Huang T J, Schilder H, Nathanson D. Effects of moisture content and endodontic treatment on some mechanical properties of human dentin. J Endod 1992; 18: 209–215
  71. 71.  Conversely, the predominant reason that endodontically treated teeth are more prone to fracture relates more than any other attribute to the structural loss of those root treated teeth requiring restoration.  Collectively, these studies show minimal dehydration effects from pulpal removal and demonstrate biomechanical behaviours in strength and toughness testing that are similar to vital dentin. Sedgley C M, Messer H H. Are endodontically treated teeth more brittle? J Endod 1992; 18: 332–335.
  72. 72. Vertical root fracture originating from post preparation in tooth 15; (a) Periapical radiograph after attempted apical surgery; (b) Extracted tooth 15 after complete fracture. Note large and long post
  73. 73. Minimally invasive access preparation in tooth 37. (a) View of the access preparation; (b) After root canal filling
  74. 74. MINIMALLY INVASIVE ACCESS STRATEGIES  Access cavities were to be prepared and expanded so that their smallest dimensions were dictated by the separation of the orifices on the pulpal floor and their widest dimensions were at the occlusal.  In this era of enhanced lighting and magnification, as well as highly flexible rotary instruments, this approach to access is being questioned as perhaps overly invasive of the tooth and an approach that may condemn a tooth to structural failure. Peters O A. Accessing root canal systems: knowledge base and clinical techniques. ENDO 2008; 2: 87–104.
  75. 75.  Recently, maintaining structural integrity of the peri- cervical area of the tooth (about four mm above and below the alveolar crest) has been emphasised.  Maintenance of the peri-cervical dentin (PCD), especially in molars is felt to be critical to their long- term survivability and optimum function
  76. 76.  In keeping with this philosophy of minimal invasion of bulk dentin structure, the use of round burs and Gates-Glidden burs is now discouraged.  While both of these types of instruments have been essential in endodontics for decades, they are now recognised in endodontic treatment as instruments that commonly gouge the endodontic access and the coronal third of the root canal. Gouging of middle canal third due to use of Gates- Glidden bur in tooth 46
  77. 77. SHAPING THE ROOT CANAL SPACE  After biomechanical instrumentation, the completed root canal shapes need to withstand the internal compressive forces of obturation; provide sufficient resistance form to contain softened and compressible filling materials and retain enough strength for mastication
  78. 78.  Kerekes and Tronstad found a wide range of measurements at the apical constriction of all teeth, thus creating two separate philosophies.  In another study that questioned our understanding of the true horizontal diameters necessary to clean the terminus, Jou et al.28 coined the term ‘working width’ to alert clinicians to the critical need to understand the horizontal dimension of apical size and its clinical implication in cleaning the apical terminus.
  79. 79.  Studies vary on which size diameter will accomplish maximum cleaning. Some researchers have suggested file diameters ranging from #35-#45 to accomplish significant bacterial reduction.  Others have shown that minimal sizes can accomplish this task as adequately as larger diameters. Yared G M, Dagher F E. Influence of apical enlargement on bacterial infection during treatment of apical periodontitis. J Endod 1994; 20: 535–537. Ørstavik D, Qvist V, Stoltze K. A multivariate analysis of the outcome of endodontic treatment. Eur J Oral Sci 2004; 112: 224–230.
  80. 80. Pulpotomy  MIE could also include the provision of a pulpotomy as a definitive procedure, but only if the status of the dental pulp can be determined much better than we do today.  There are many patients who could be helped in this way, especially if there are financial constraints to having a root canal procedure.
  81. 81. Conclusion  The management of dental caries has evolved from G.V. Black’s “extension for prevention” to “minimally invasive.”  This concept includes early detection of lesions; individual caries risk assessment; nonsurgical interventions; and a modified surgical approach that includes delayed restoration, smaller tooth preparations with modified cavity designs and adhesive dental materials and repair rather than replacement of failing restorations.
  82. 82.  The goal is preservation of natural tooth structure.  The future promises further evolution toward a more primary preventive approach, facilitated by emerging technologies for diagnosis, prevention and treatment.
  83. 83. Reference  Minimally invasive dentistry. Carol anne murdoch-kinch, d.D.S., Ph.D.; MARY ELLEN mclean, D.D.S. JADA, vol. 134, january 2003.  An introduction to minimum intervention dentistry. Steffen mickenautsch. Singapore dental journal .December 2005 :vol 27 ;no 1.  Minimally invasive endodontics: challenging prevailing paradigms. A. H. Gluskin,c. I. Peters,o. A. Peters. British dental journal volume 216 no. 6 mar 21 2014.  Minimally invasive dentistry (endodontics). James L gutmann.  The advantages of minimally invasive dentistry. Gordon j. Christensen. JADA, vol. 136. November 2005.

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