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Operational research in Public Health in India

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Operational research in Public Health in India

  1. 1. OPERATIONAL RESEARCH In public health Dr. Dharmendra Gahwai M.D. (Community Medicine) Assistant Professor Deptt. Of Community Medicine CIMS, Bilaspur (C.G.)
  2. 2. • Why Domiciliary care in treatment of T.B. ? • Why only Two sputum smear examination ? • HBNC - Is it more beneficial ?
  3. 3. • Operational Research is scientific study of operations with the purpose of making better decisions.
  4. 4. • Keyword in OR is improvements • the research tools are utilized to bring about improvements in performance of disease control programmes.
  5. 5. • In simple terms it can be described as - “Science of better”
  6. 6. Basic approach - • Identifying problems in a timely manner, • generating evidence based solutions. • act according more effective and feasible solution. • yield maximum benefit in public health.
  7. 7. DEFINITION • A global meeting held in Geneva in April 2008 defined OR as “Any research producing practically usable knowledge which can improve program implementation regardless of the type of research falls within the boundaries of operations research”. • 1- knowledge - (evidence, findings, information, etc.) • 2- program implementation- (e.g. effectiveness, efficiency, quality, access, scale up, sustainability) • 3- research - (design, methodology, approach)
  8. 8. OBJECTIVES • To study about the systems, organiztions, institutions, programmes, socio-cultural behavior of the people and economic factors that exist as bottleneck to effective implementation. • To develop more effective approaches to the programmes. • To secure optimum utilization of resources.
  9. 9. Process in Operational Research 1. Identification of problems of programme. 2. Collection of data. (If neccessary) 3. Analysis of data and formulation of hypothesis. 4. Deriving of possible solutions from Hypothesis or Model . 5. Choosing of optimal solution and forecasting. 6. Testing of potential solution/hypothesis. (Pilot projects) 7. Results utilization. 8. Results dissemination.
  10. 10. PROCESS OF OPERATIONAL RESEARCH
  11. 11. HEALTH PROGRAMME (Typical Logic Model) INPUT Resources for services—technical and financial PROCESS Programme activities such as training, logistics, etc. OUTPUT Results at the programme level—services, service use. OUTCOME Results at the level of target population - behavior, practices. IMPACT Ultimate effect of project in long-term in Society.
  12. 12. • Operational Research typically tries to • Modulate - inputs and processes • Measure - outputs, outcomes and impact.
  13. 13. Operational Research Team in Public Health 1. Public Health Administrator. 2. Epidemiologist. 3. Statistician and 4. Social scientist. 5. Auxiliary staff.
  14. 14. SYNONYMS 1. Operations research 2. Operational research 3. Implementation research 4. Action research 5. Health systems research 6. Health service research 7. Health practices research and 8. Decision-linked research.
  15. 15. Approaches of OR in Public Health • There are two main approaches 1. Secondary data analysis - retrospective record reviews, utilizing data that is already generated in the programmes. 2. Primary Level Research
  16. 16. • There are four types of Primary level Operation Research studies as defined by the Population Council - 1. Exploratory/diagnostic studies. 2. Intervention studies. 3. Monitoring and Evaluation. 4. Economic Analysis.
  17. 17. OPERATIONAL RESEARCH 1. Exploratory study Carried out to find extent of problem. Community need study. 2. Interventional Study RCT and Community Trial for reduction of Neonatal Mortality. 3. Monitoring and Evaluation M’OR’E Monitoring – Input and Process Evaluation – Output, Outcome and Impact 4. Economic Analysis Cost effective analysis. - Zinc and Copper supplementation in the treatment of acute diarrhea.
  18. 18. Uses in Public Health 1. Identify and solve the problems of program in timely manner. 2. Helps policy maker and program manager to make evidence based program decisions. 3. Improve program quality and performance by using scientifically valid methods.
  19. 19. Operational Research in Health Services 1. Optimal size of area/population for ANM ? 2. Basic Health Unit? 3. Ideal architectural design of hospital? 4. Queuing problem in OPD. 5. Length of stay in hospital. 6. Quality of medical care services.
  20. 20. THANK YOU

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