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API Gateways and Service Meshes:
Opening the Door to Application Modernisation
Daniel Bryant
Product Architect, Datawire
tl;dr
▪ App modernisation is often about incrementally decoupling apps from infra
– An API gateway and service mesh can help with this migration
▪ API gateway handles ingress traffic
▪ Service mesh handles service-to-service comms
▪ You can decouple apps via two patterns
– Outside-in, using an API gateway
– Bulkanization, using a service mesh on a segment of services
Product Architect at Datawire
Freelance Tech Consultant and Writer
@danielbryantuk
Why App Modernisation?
▪ Lead time
▪ Deployment frequency
▪ Mean time to restore (MTTR)
▪ Change fail percentage
CIOs: “We want to go faster, and not fall over
(and if it breaks we want to detect and fix it fast)”
App Modernisation
▪ Refactoring, repurposing, or consolidation of “heritage” software to align it
more closely with current business needs
▪ Decoupling applications from infrastructure
– Moving workloads to take advantage of cloud-based (AI) services
– Retiring old systems (saving infra/hosting costs)
– Reducing operational burden (e.g. toil and security patching)
App Modernisation: What’s Involved?
▪ Microservices!
▪ Cloud!
▪ Containers!
▪ Kubernetes!
App modernisation: Not an overnight thing
Decoupling Infrastructure Strategies
▪ Bring the cloud hardware to you:
– AWS Outposts; custom hardware that is fully managed by AWS.
▪ Bring the cloud experience to you:
– Azure Stack; run hybrid applications across the Azure cloud and their own
on-premises hardware.
Decoupling Infrastructure Strategies
▪ Bring the cloud software to you:
– Google Anthos; software abstraction (VMware -> k8s/GKE, Istio, Stackdriver)
▪ Bring the cloud traffic management to you
– API gateway + service mesh; dynamically route traffic across any
infrastructure (which is routable via the network)
Software-focusedHardware-focused
Small commitmentBig commitment
Complete access to
cloud primitives
Small subset of
abstractions
Decoupling Infrastructure Strategies
Outside-in migration: API gateway
Outside-in migration: API gateway
Outside-in migration: API gateway
API Gateway: Edge proxy, ingress, ADC...
▪ Exposes internal services to end-users (often via multiple domains)
▪ Encapsulates backends: k8s, VMs, bare metal etc
▪ Focused on managing ingress (“north-south”) traffic
▪ Engineer-driven product release (often) happens here
▪ You don’t control the client
API Gateway: Self-Serve Routing & Security
▪ Self-serve routing
– Traffic routing, splitting, and shaping (to dynamic backends)
– Release functionality (A/B, canary, dark launch etc)
▪ Security
– End-user authentication/authorization
– TLS termination, rate limiting, WAF, DDoS protection, etc
API Gateway Options
Ambassador config
Bulkanization: service-to-service comms
“Service mesh”, you say?
https://twitter.com/cesarTronLozai/status/1175327326218915840
https://twitter.com/wm/status/1173350339946274816
Service Mesh: Proxy mesh, Fabric model...
▪ Exposes internal services to internal consumers
▪ Encapsulates service infra: across k8s, VMs, bare metal etc
▪ Dynamic routing for service-to-service (“east-west”) traffic
▪ Ops apply “sane defaults” and top-level platform monitoring
▪ You generally control the client (or at least can influence this...)
Service mesh architecture: Envoy
Service Mesh: Three Pillars
▪ Observability
– “Golden signals”: latency, errors, traffic, saturation (USE, RED)
– Both global and service-to-service
▪ Reliability
– Abstracting health checks, retries, circuit breakers etc.
– Providing sane default to protect system
▪ Security
– Authn/z propagation, mTLS, ACLs, network segmentation
Service Mesh: Three Pillars
▪ Observability
– “Golden signals”: latency, errors, traffic, saturation (USE, RED)
– Both global and service-to-service
▪ Reliability
– Abstracting health checks, retries, circuit breakers etc.
– Providing sane default to protect system
▪ Security
– Authn/z propagation, mTLS, ACLs, network segmentation
https://www.infoq.com/podcasts/
Service Mesh Options
Consul config
Migration tactics
▪ Outside in
– Start with a gateway
– Identify a endpoint/service
▪ Balkanization
– Start with a service mesh
– Identify a service segment
▪ Easy install
▪ Conceptually easy to understand
▪ Less intrusive for all platforms
▪ (Potentially) higher blast radius
▪ Less new functionality
▪ Potentially high value functionality
▪ “Easy” to deploy in Kubernetes
▪ Can support multi-cluster (beta)
▪ Operationally complex
▪ (Potentially) challenging to unwind
▪ Expectation management… :-)
bit.ly/2mr58C1
Learn more
Explore in browser
https://instruqt.com/hashicorp/tracks/sock-shop-tutorial
Hat tip to:
Todd Radel, Nic Jackson & Eric Veld!
Conclusion
▪ App modernisation is often about decoupling apps from infra
– One way to do this incrementally is via an API gateway and service mesh
▪ API gateway handles ingress traffic
▪ Service mesh handles service-to-service comms
▪ You can decouple apps via two patterns
– Outside-in, using an API gateway
– Bulkanization, using a service mesh
References
▪ Context:
– https://www.infoq.com/articles/api-gateway-service-mesh-app-modernisation/
▪ Reference:
– https://www.getambassador.io/user-guide/consul-connect-ambassador/
– https://www.getambassador.io/user-guide/consul/
– https://www.consul.io/docs/platform/k8s/ambassador.html
– https://www.hashicorp.com/blog/hashicorp-consul-supports-microsoft-s-new-service-mesh-framework
Experiment in an Instruqt sandbox: https://instruqt.com/hashicorp/tracks/sock-shop-tutorial
Code examples: https://github.com/emojify-app
Copyright © 2019 HashiCorp
Thanks!
@danielbryantuk

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API Gateways and Service Meshes: Opening the Door to Application Modernisation

  • 1. API Gateways and Service Meshes: Opening the Door to Application Modernisation Daniel Bryant Product Architect, Datawire
  • 2. tl;dr ▪ App modernisation is often about incrementally decoupling apps from infra – An API gateway and service mesh can help with this migration ▪ API gateway handles ingress traffic ▪ Service mesh handles service-to-service comms ▪ You can decouple apps via two patterns – Outside-in, using an API gateway – Bulkanization, using a service mesh on a segment of services
  • 3. Product Architect at Datawire Freelance Tech Consultant and Writer @danielbryantuk
  • 4. Why App Modernisation? ▪ Lead time ▪ Deployment frequency ▪ Mean time to restore (MTTR) ▪ Change fail percentage CIOs: “We want to go faster, and not fall over (and if it breaks we want to detect and fix it fast)”
  • 5. App Modernisation ▪ Refactoring, repurposing, or consolidation of “heritage” software to align it more closely with current business needs ▪ Decoupling applications from infrastructure – Moving workloads to take advantage of cloud-based (AI) services – Retiring old systems (saving infra/hosting costs) – Reducing operational burden (e.g. toil and security patching)
  • 6. App Modernisation: What’s Involved? ▪ Microservices! ▪ Cloud! ▪ Containers! ▪ Kubernetes!
  • 7. App modernisation: Not an overnight thing
  • 8. Decoupling Infrastructure Strategies ▪ Bring the cloud hardware to you: – AWS Outposts; custom hardware that is fully managed by AWS. ▪ Bring the cloud experience to you: – Azure Stack; run hybrid applications across the Azure cloud and their own on-premises hardware.
  • 9. Decoupling Infrastructure Strategies ▪ Bring the cloud software to you: – Google Anthos; software abstraction (VMware -> k8s/GKE, Istio, Stackdriver) ▪ Bring the cloud traffic management to you – API gateway + service mesh; dynamically route traffic across any infrastructure (which is routable via the network)
  • 10. Software-focusedHardware-focused Small commitmentBig commitment Complete access to cloud primitives Small subset of abstractions Decoupling Infrastructure Strategies
  • 14. API Gateway: Edge proxy, ingress, ADC... ▪ Exposes internal services to end-users (often via multiple domains) ▪ Encapsulates backends: k8s, VMs, bare metal etc ▪ Focused on managing ingress (“north-south”) traffic ▪ Engineer-driven product release (often) happens here ▪ You don’t control the client
  • 15. API Gateway: Self-Serve Routing & Security ▪ Self-serve routing – Traffic routing, splitting, and shaping (to dynamic backends) – Release functionality (A/B, canary, dark launch etc) ▪ Security – End-user authentication/authorization – TLS termination, rate limiting, WAF, DDoS protection, etc
  • 19. “Service mesh”, you say? https://twitter.com/cesarTronLozai/status/1175327326218915840 https://twitter.com/wm/status/1173350339946274816
  • 20. Service Mesh: Proxy mesh, Fabric model... ▪ Exposes internal services to internal consumers ▪ Encapsulates service infra: across k8s, VMs, bare metal etc ▪ Dynamic routing for service-to-service (“east-west”) traffic ▪ Ops apply “sane defaults” and top-level platform monitoring ▪ You generally control the client (or at least can influence this...)
  • 22.
  • 23. Service Mesh: Three Pillars ▪ Observability – “Golden signals”: latency, errors, traffic, saturation (USE, RED) – Both global and service-to-service ▪ Reliability – Abstracting health checks, retries, circuit breakers etc. – Providing sane default to protect system ▪ Security – Authn/z propagation, mTLS, ACLs, network segmentation
  • 24. Service Mesh: Three Pillars ▪ Observability – “Golden signals”: latency, errors, traffic, saturation (USE, RED) – Both global and service-to-service ▪ Reliability – Abstracting health checks, retries, circuit breakers etc. – Providing sane default to protect system ▪ Security – Authn/z propagation, mTLS, ACLs, network segmentation https://www.infoq.com/podcasts/
  • 27. Migration tactics ▪ Outside in – Start with a gateway – Identify a endpoint/service ▪ Balkanization – Start with a service mesh – Identify a service segment ▪ Easy install ▪ Conceptually easy to understand ▪ Less intrusive for all platforms ▪ (Potentially) higher blast radius ▪ Less new functionality ▪ Potentially high value functionality ▪ “Easy” to deploy in Kubernetes ▪ Can support multi-cluster (beta) ▪ Operationally complex ▪ (Potentially) challenging to unwind ▪ Expectation management… :-)
  • 30. Conclusion ▪ App modernisation is often about decoupling apps from infra – One way to do this incrementally is via an API gateway and service mesh ▪ API gateway handles ingress traffic ▪ Service mesh handles service-to-service comms ▪ You can decouple apps via two patterns – Outside-in, using an API gateway – Bulkanization, using a service mesh
  • 31. References ▪ Context: – https://www.infoq.com/articles/api-gateway-service-mesh-app-modernisation/ ▪ Reference: – https://www.getambassador.io/user-guide/consul-connect-ambassador/ – https://www.getambassador.io/user-guide/consul/ – https://www.consul.io/docs/platform/k8s/ambassador.html – https://www.hashicorp.com/blog/hashicorp-consul-supports-microsoft-s-new-service-mesh-framework Experiment in an Instruqt sandbox: https://instruqt.com/hashicorp/tracks/sock-shop-tutorial Code examples: https://github.com/emojify-app
  • 32. Copyright © 2019 HashiCorp Thanks! @danielbryantuk