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IFI7159 M3
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IFI7159 M4

  1. 1. [M4] modern theories in general
  2. 2. situated action
  3. 3. situated action Food Practices as Situated Action: Exploring and designing for everyday food practices with households
  4. 4. Context/ setting Food purchasing, preparation and consumption. It involves multiple settings, such as homes, workplaces, mobile spaces, and sites for food purchasing and consumption. Participants and collaborators, such as partners, children, extended family, and friends, are also taken into account. A wide range of issues, such as food provisions and budget, personal preference and habit, scheduling and time management, shopping list creation, access to food, self-efficacy, family demands etc. are explored. Research problem Many people are unable to effectively respond to challenges in their food environment to maintain diets considered to be in line with national and international standards for healthy eating. Recognizing food practices as situated action helps to identify and design for practied local and achievable solutions to such food problems. They also research what people consider as healthy diet. Research questions 1. What are the food practices in households (fitting food, stocking up, food value transitions, having fun with others)? 2. How HCI might respond to these practices through issues of social fooding, the presence of others, conceptions about food practices and food routines? What were the methods and techniques used for data collection and analysis? 1. Interviews (audio-recorded, transcribed). Analysed using thematic analysis approach. 2. Shop-a-longs (audio-recorded, with observational notes). Participants did their shopping as they normally do, but were asked to talk about it while doing. What were the outcomes? After the contextual inquiry, several patterns of situated food practices were outlined, ranging from implicit planning and fitting food to stocking up on food, outsourcing and the social effects on food consumption. Some of these patterns suggested e.g. that people tend to pay more attention to food when they're cooking with or to others, as well as that people are aware of the general principles of balanced eating, but usually chose not to follow them for various reasons. Any implications? Conclusions drawn? Food practices are complex procedures and they're highly influenced by different factors - the daily/weekly/monthly timetables of households, whether there are kids in the household or not, whether the subject is cooking for him-/herself or for another person etc. That gives lots of possibilities to provide design solutions, which could help people tackle different food-related misconceptions. HCI should attend to food practices - not only as a context for design, but also as a site for the understanding of everyday life.
  5. 5. ethnography and ethnomethodology
  6. 6. ethnography and ethnomethodology Exploring the Use of the Human-Artifact Model for Studying Ubiquitous Interactions
  7. 7. Context/ setting 5 estonian schools with advanced technology usage/from 2nd to 12th grade/ subjects observed during the visits were Estonian, Russian and English languages, informatics, math, biology, history, society studies, and geography Research problem what to take into consideration when designing new digital artifacts for using alongside existing ones (both digital and physical), considering long-term developmental changes in users, technology, interactions, and the overall context Research questions How a data collection and analysis procedure can be carried out with the use of Human-Artifact model? What activities are taking place during the lesson? What artifacts are being used to support these activites? How are the artifacts being used to support these activities? What were the methods and techniques used for data collection and analysis? ethnography; artifacts were analyzed with the help of Human-Artifact Model; examples of personas and techsonas were studied What were the outcomes? 27 techsonas and 5 personas.Based on collected data were composed Structured techsona for teacher's computer, Personas( 2 teachers: a younger and older teacher, 3 student personas to cover primary, secondary and high school). research provided insights into how applying Human-Activity Model can highlight the different ways in which artifacts could work together as a whole, what are their specific roles, what motive do they serve, how are they meant to be used, and what are their affordance. Any implications? Conclusions drawn? Using Human-Artifact model for structuring and analyzing data helped identify specific aspects related to artifact usage in the context of the observed schools. The model facilitated a focus on underlying activities, which the artifacts are mediating. Helped highlight the perspectives of different personas and the particular tensions they might face. Information gained from the analysis can help the interaction designer become aware of what potential breakdowns can occur in artifact usage and suggest potential ways for minimizing the impact of those issues on the overall user experience.
  8. 8. CSCW & related theories and frameworks
  9. 9. CSCW & related theories and frameworks Using Social Psychology to Motivate Contributions to Online Communities
  10. 10. Context/ setting Online movie recommending community Research problem Under-contribution at online communities leads to providing low-quality service. The specific problem to be tackled with is the under-contribution in an online community MovieLens Research questions The authors propose two questions: does reminding the users their uniqueness and benefit they provide increase contribution? does having goals (both, individual and group related) increase contribution? What were the methods and techniques used for data collection and analysis? Data collection: sending motivating emails by mentioning user’s “uniqueness” or “benefit”. then tracking their activity ,during the week of the email, by keeping logs of their ID, movie rated, scores given and time of rating. Data analysis: descriptive analysis What were the outcomes? Initial hypotheses were proven to be true. (collective effort model) - reminding both individual and others benefit works and not these separately Any implications? Conclusions drawn? Mining social science theory to source of principles for design is a useful general strategy
  11. 11. activity theory
  12. 12. activity theory Prototyping in Game Design: Externalization and Internalization of Game Ideas
  13. 13. Context/ setting Prototyping in Interaction design. Game development, gaming companies. Research problem Prototyping practice has been unaccounted for in empirical studies Research questions How do game designers work with prototypes and what roles do the prototypes play in activity of game design? What were the methods and techniques used for data collection and analysis? Empirical - Interviews (semi-structured), recorded, transcribed. Analytical - qualitative content analysis. Interpreted - activity theory and Activity checklist. What were the outcomes? Prototypes are used as communication tools. Any implications? Conclusions drawn? Prototype in game design is an artefact used in the process of internalisation and externalisation (as communication tool).
  14. 14. grounded theory
  15. 15. grounded theory Persona Cases: A Technique for Grounding Personas
  16. 16. Context/ setting Personas are archetypes that represent the needs and goals of users and are thus used as the reference point in different approaches of design. Research problem A personas legitimacy can be threatened by challenging its characteristics. If some aspects of a persona are refuted or argued, the validity of a persona, used in design, can be called into question. Research questions How can qrounded theory be used to develop a theory from which personas are derived? How can one validate the personas? How to overcome the semantic difference of creating personas (using grounded theory) and using them in practice to elicit requirements in focus groups? What were the methods and techniques used for data collection and analysis? Grounded theory model is induced using data elicited from interviews or ethnographic research. What were the outcomes? Both personas were used to help elicit policy requirements. Any implications? Conclusions drawn? These findings suggest the re-use potential for other Grounded Theory models towards the design of personas.
  17. 17. hybrid theories
  18. 18. Group assignment
  19. 19. Group work: phase I Expert groups (3 people)
  20. 20. Read the assigned papers in your group. Discuss and prepare yourselves to explain the theory and case study. Focus on: Context/ setting Research problem Research questions What were the methods and techniques used for data collection and analysis? What were the outcomes? Any implications? Conclusions drawn? Template in shared folder!
  21. 21. Papers assigned to groups Group 1 - Situated Action Group 2 - CSCW Group 3 - Activity Theory Group 4 - Grounded Theory Group 5 - Ethnography
  22. 22. Group work: phase II 3 mixed groups - consisting of 5 experts on different theories
  23. 23. Explain the theory you focused on in the expert groups to your new group members. Each group will be assigned a research challenge scenario.
  24. 24. Scenarios
  25. 25. Scenario 1 In the digital age, the museum experience can be enhanced using digital technologies and expanded beyond the time and space of the visit. Instead of being just passive viewers in the exhibition, visitors can be engaged in creating and sharing digital artefacts and stories as a result of augmented museum experience. However with some exceptions, designing ICT solutions for museums is currently a variety of black art. While there are some extraordinary museum exhibits and settings designed by skilled and creative people, the results of the design processes related to the domain of cultural heritage are far too often discouraging.
  26. 26. Scenario 2 Timeliner is an Internet based tool designed to support collaborative scientific writing. The need for Timeliner rises from daily challenges regarding collaborative scientific writing processes. Challenges faced by our selves but also elaborated upon by both our local research community as well as by members of our international research projects’ teams. The problem we address by offering Timeliner is about supporting collaborative scientific writing with minimal disruption of concurrent practices and workflows.
  27. 27. Scenario 3 Human Computer Interaction as a body of knowledge has been investigated successfully by academics for decades and various findings have been discussed and published in notable conferences and conference proceedings and published in top journals. It is however uncertain if these results, although delivered to the software industry, are being implemented as most designs, services and software still fall short of considerations of HCI. This study aims to investigate the constraints faced by the software industry in implementing HCI approaches and values.
  28. 28. So, given the research challenge assigned to your group… What theoretical framework would you use to guide the research? How and Why? You should mention the context, problem and possible research questions; which methods and techniques would you use for data collection and analysis; expected outcomes
  29. 29. By the end of the session give an overview of the status of the group work i.e. results so far (3 min) Write up the proposed solution and post it to one of your blogs or share as a document in the course folder (1 page, i.e. 350 words or 2500 char) by Monday (incl.).

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides
  • cognitive dimensions, examples in following slides

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