Danny Maribao_Significance of studying culture, society and politics
SOCIETY AND POLITICS
ELEMENETS OF CULTURE
Culture is made up of many elements which
are interrelated with each other and unified into
A whole in order for all its aspects to functions
Natural Knowledge refers to the accumulated facts
about the natural world, including the biological
and physical aspects.
* Knowledge of nature which
Are useful in dealing with practi-
Supernatural knowledge – refers to perceptions about the actions
of gods, goddesses, demons, angels or spirits and natural beings
like shammans, witches or prophets about methods of influencing
supernatural events by manipulating certain laws of nature.
- an idea in the minds of the members of the group put
into a statement specifying what member of the group
should do, ought to do or ate expected to do under certain
What is important in it is that any
departure from it is followed by
some punishment or sanction.
- It is usually in a form of rules,
standards, or prescriptions and
socially shared expectations.
Folkways – are commonly known
as customs, traditions and
conventions of a society.
- They are the general rules
customary and habitual ways and
patterns given to the matter.
- These customary ways are
accumulated and become repetitive
patterns of expected behavior
which tend to be self-perpetuating.
Folkways include innumerable
group expectations like rule of
eating, drinking, smoking, dressing,
sleeping, dancing and working,
forms of greetings and farewell,
ceremonies and rituals, polite
behavior, and conduct in
Mores – are special folkways
which are important to the welfare
of the people and their cherished
They are based on ethical and
moral values which are strongly
hold and emphasized.
They are social norms associated
with strong feelings about what is
right and what is true.
Mores are coercive in nature as they are
considered important to societal welfare.
They embody the code of ethics and
standards of morality in a society.
Most of the mores have been
formulated into laws.
The Ten Commandments constitute an important source of mores.
The Mores apply not to sex behavior but also to marriage and family
relations, physical and moral aggression against members of the in-group,
betrayal of group, attitudes toward authority, religion and the unfortunates
in society, dealings in business and the varied professions, and other vital
matters which involve group welfare.
Law – are formalized norms, enacted by people who are vested
with government power and enforced by political and legal
authorities designated by the government.
Some of the laws grew out of the folkways and mores. They have
strong support of public opinion and tend to reinforce folkways
Enforcement is hard when the laws do
not reflect folkways and mores.
The need for increasing formulation of
law becomes necessary with increasing
social change and with the migration of
If laws are to be strong, society must
search for their bases is folkways and the
If laws at the early stage draw weak or no moral support from the
people, the government is obliged to execute the laws and look
for ways that will induce wide support and effective
3. Values – are abstract concepts of what is important
- are basis of judgment, of what we consider good,
desirable and correct as well as what is considered bad,
undesirable, ugly and wrong.
This remarks is made
when the behavior of an
individual is considered
undesirable and wrong.
We place a high value on love of
GOD, honesty, fair play, cleanliness,
and love of country.
They are the standards by which
persons, individually are in groups,
define their goals, select alternatives
and judge others as good or bad.
Every culture has a basic set
of values which make up its
Values indicate the social
conscience internalized nd
integrated by the individual
members of the society and
the dominant values which
gives culture its unity, form
and identity at a specific
Values depict how society changes and how they
change as society changes.
They basically direct people on what, where,
why, when, and how to choose.
Data on values may be obtained through direct
observation on human behavior, conversation
with person, and examination of indirect
evidences like aspirations, achievements,
expenditures, aesthetic standards, literary
interests, work efficiency rules, ideals or technical
skills, public opinionand, status symbols, system
of rewards and punishment, and other
4. Beliefs – embody people’s perceptions of reality and
include the primitive ideas of the universe as well as the
scientist’s view of the world.
They result from one’s experiences about the physical,
biological and social world in which the
Beliefs such as superstations, and those
that relate to philosophy, theology,
technology, art, and science are usually
incorporated into the whole vast body of
knowledge which has been accumulated
Some of these ideas are not scientifically proven but not
considered facts by those who hold them.
The idea held by the Pinatubo Negritos that nature spirits
help them in times of danger or punish them when they
are bad, or the idea held
by barrio folks that one has to ask
the help of Almighty GOD
For the bountiful harvest.
People consider, consult, and depend on their body
of beliefs for certain courses of actions.
5. Technology and Material Culture
Technology refers to techniques and know-how in utilizing
raw materials to produce food, tools, shelter, clothing,
means of transportations, and weapon.
The material objects that are
products of technology are
The extend and use of artifact
on society’s level of
Simple societies may just have stone tools, mortal and
pestle, nipa huts or hand-woven clothes as their artifacts.
On the other hand, complex societies, are equipped with
computers, cellular phones,
refrigerators, nuclear weapons,
spy satellites, jet planes, missile
launchers, apparatuses to per-
form heart or kidney transplant
and other highly sophisticated
- The quantity of artifacts provide clues to a society’s
level of technological development.
- The perception among people
is that cultures with low level of
technological development are inferior and
nonprogressive and thus, are
considered backward, while
those with a high level of tech-
nology are advanced and
Comes from Greek word “Ethnos” means people.
Means evaluating other people from one’s own
vantage-point and describing them in one’s own
The view to regard one’s culture as the best and better
than the others.
The view to regard one’s
culture as the best and better
than the others.
A belief that one’s group is at
“the center of everything and
are scaled and rated and
reference to it “.
Culture traits and patterns are
evaluated on the basis of what is
Considering their groups as
superior, the members
sometimes look with contempt
Since time immemorial, this has been the view of many
Pharisees of biblical time consider themselves as the
righteous group compared to the other Jewish sects
Greek look with contempt at foreigners; the colonizers
from the west considered the societies they colonized in
Africa, South America,
and Asia as barbaric,
primitive or uncivilized.
The Americans are considered themselves as the most
progressive nation in the world, view also held by the
German, Japanese, English, Russian and Chinese.
Filipinos take pride in calling their
country as the “Pearl of the
Orient” “Gateway to the East” or
window of democracy in the far
Even within in the society,
subgroup consider themselves as
superior to the other groups.
A view is similarly held by the Muslim, Kapampangan, and
One’s religion is spoken, of as the true religion is contrast
to that of the others.
A school may flaunt its having the highest educational
The feeling of ethnocentrism is a matter of training and
- In imbuing the individual with the ideal of loyalty to one’s
The feeling of
especially strong among
people who spend their
entire in the society and
have a little contact to
The functions of ethnocentrism is to increase one’s
appreciation and commitment to one’s cultural group.
blocks one’s understanding
of other culture and leads to
intolerance and prejudice.
-The inter-group conflict may ensue.
- The group may not like to mix with other people.
- Get themselves to be isolated and eventually stagnate.
- Prevent a person from learning about other culture and
deny basic oneness.
This is the idea that what is foreign is best and that
In the Philippines some
people manifest a mania
for imported goods and
This may have been brought about by our past
colonization and the socio cultural imposition of the
This attitude is what we call
It may also be observed that
a number of young people
focus their goals on going
abroad after graduation.
They believes that it is ore exciting to
live in foreign lands and that they can
easily earn the greenbucks abroad.
- All societies have culture although their cultures
- Culture refers to that complex whole which consists
of all knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, morals, customs
and any other capabilities and habits acquired by an
individual as a member of society.
Prepare a role play by group.
- how ethnocentrism and xenocentrism manifest in our
- How the Filipino beliefs affect the live of people’s life.
Present it to the class.
1. Concepts and terms to master
culture values norms folkways mores
laws technology beliefs ethnocentrism
2. Enumerate the culture patterns in your community. Break these
culture patterns into culture traits.
3. What were some of your unpleasant experiences when you
came to Manila for the first time?
4. Contrast the concepts of ethnocentrism and xenocentrism .
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