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Mapeh.theory

  1. 1. Epistemology / Knowledge based theory of instructional design Prepared by: BSE 2- Mapeh Majors
  2. 2.  During meaningful learning, the person “subsumes,” or organizes or incorporates, new knowledge into old knowledge.  Subsumption theory suggests that our mind has a way to subsume information in a hierarchical or categorical manner if the new information is linked/incorporated with prior knowledge/familiar patterns.  As a result prior knowledge is given absolute importance.  Teachers are encouraged to teach prior knowledge first rather than new information to help information subsume.  Advance organizers provide concepts and principles to the students directly in an organized format.  The strategy of “advance organizers” basically means to classify/ categorize/ arrange (organize) information as you proceed (advance) to the next complex level.
  3. 3.  Ausubel proposed four processes of meaningful learning: - Derivative subsumption - Correlative subsumption - Superordinate learning - Combinatorial learning
  4. 4.  New material or relationships can be derived from the existing structure. Information can be moved in the hierarchy, or linked to other concepts or information to create new interpretations or meaning.
  5. 5.  New material is an extension or elaboration of what is already known.
  6. 6.  An individual is able to give a lot of examples of the concept but does not know the concept itself until it is taught.
  7. 7.  The first three learning processes all involve new information that "attaches" to a hierarchy at a level that is either below or above previously acquired knowledge. Combinatorial learning is different; it describes a process by which the new idea is derived from another idea that is neither higher nor lower in the hierarchy, but at the same level.
  8. 8.  Advance organizers are used to relate prior information to new concepts.  They are part of Ausubel's subsumption theory that "contends that meaningful learning and permanent retention of material is a function of the stability of existing anchoring ideas" (Applin).  Can be classified : expository or comparative.
  9. 9.  While presenting new material.  Use beginning of lesson.  Presents several encompassing generalizations where detailed contents will be added later.
  10. 10.  Useful when the knowledge to be presented is new to learner.  Compares new material with knowledge already known by emphasizing the similarities between 2 types of material & showing the information that is to be learnt.  Ausubel’s teaching approach is deductive in nature.
  11. 11. Advance Organizer This is a major instructional tool proposed by Ausubel.
  12. 12. Advance organizer Two Benefits of advance organizer: 1. You will find it easier to connect new information with what you already know about the topi. 2. You can readily see how the concepts in certain topic are related to each other.
  13. 13. Types of advance organizer 1. Expository – describes the new content 2. Narrative – Presents ne information in the form of story. 3. Skimming – is done by looking over the new material to gain basic overview. 4. Graphic organizer- visuals is set up or outline the new information.
  14. 14.  Ausubel’s theory is concerned with how individuals learn large amounts of meaningful material from verbal/ textual (lecture/ books) presentations in a school setting as opposed to theories developed based on experimental settings.  Therefore, learning is based upon the kinds of superordinate, representational, and combinatorial processes that occur during the presentation of information.

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