Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.

Pragmatics (Linguistics)

  • Als Erste(r) kommentieren

Pragmatics (Linguistics)

  1. 1. PRAGMATICS<br />The Study of Language Use<br />
  2. 2. Pragmatics<br />A subfield of linguistics which studies how people use language within a CONTEXTand why they use language in particular ways<br />
  3. 3. Context fills in the details and allows full understanding<br />
  4. 4. Consider the word “BALL” in the following sentences:<br />He kicked the ball into the net.<br />She dribbled the ball down the court and shot a basket.<br />She putted the ball from two feet away.<br />His racket missed the ball by mere inches.<br />The ball rocketed across the alley and took down all ten pins.<br />
  5. 5. Context<br />The discourse that surrounds a language unit and helps to determine its interpretation<br />
  6. 6. Subparts of Context<br />Physical Context<br /><ul><li>Where the conversation takes place
  7. 7. What objects are present
  8. 8. What actions are taking place</li></ul>Epistemic Context<br /><ul><li>Background knowledge shared by speakers and hearers</li></ul>Linguistic Context<br /><ul><li>Utterances previous to the utterance</li></ul>Social Context<br /><ul><li>Social relationship and setting of speakers and hearers</li></li></ul><li>Speech Acts<br />The use of language to perform some act<br />
  9. 9. Speech Acts<br />Other speech acts include:<br /><ul><li> Threats
  10. 10. Warnings
  11. 11. Bets
  12. 12. Advises
  13. 13. Promises</li></li></ul><li>Performative Verbs<br />Verbs that can be used to perform the acts they name<br />I assert that John Jones has bad breath.<br />I ask who ate my porridge.<br />I order you to leave me alone.<br />I request that you leave me alone.<br />I threaten you that if you do that again, I’ll punch you.<br />I warnthat there is a gremlin at the back of your car.<br />I betyou five bucks that they will win tonight.<br />I advise you to go to class at least once a quarter.<br />I promise to pass the requirement tomorrow.<br />
  14. 14. Direct and Indirect Speech Acts<br />Direct Speech Act<br />Indirect Speech Act<br />They perform their functions in a direct and literal manner<br />Can be performed by:<br />Making a direct, literal utterance, or<br />Using a performative verb<br />What the speaker actually means is different from what s/he literally says.<br />Never uses performative verbs<br />
  15. 15. To perform a particular speech act indirectly, one need only formulate a question, assertion, request, or order that evokes a felicity condition on that speech act.<br />
  16. 16. Felicity Conditions<br />Conditions that must be satisfied if a speech act is to be correctly and honestly performed<br />
  17. 17. Question Felicity Conditions<br />S questions H about P:<br />S does not know the truth about P.<br />S wants to know the truth about P.<br />S believes that H may be able to supply the information about P that S wants.<br />Where:<br />S is the Speaker,<br />H is the Hearer, and<br />P is some state of affairs<br />
  18. 18. Example<br />Direct Speech Act<br />Indirect Speech Act<br />Did John marry Helen?<br />I ask you whether or not John marry Helen.<br />I don’t know if John married Helen. (S does not know the truth about P)<br />I would like to know if John married Helen. (S wants to know the truth about P)<br />Do you know if John married Helen? (S believes that H may be able to supply the information about P that S wants)<br />
  19. 19. Request Felicity Conditions<br />S requests H to do A:<br />S believes A has not yet been done.<br />S believes that H is able to do A.<br />S believes that H is willing to do A-type things for S.<br />S wants A to be done.<br />Where:<br />S is the Speaker,<br />H is the Hearer, and<br />A is some action<br />
  20. 20. Example<br />Direct Speech Act<br />Indirect Speech Act<br />Please take out the garbage.<br />I request that you take out the garbage.<br />The garbage isn’t out yet. (S believes A has not yet been done)<br />Could you take out the garbage? (S believes that H is able to do A)<br />Would you mind taking out the garbage? (S believes that H is willing to do A-type things for S)<br />I would like for you to take out the garbage. (S wants A to be done)<br />
  21. 21. Promise Felicity Conditions<br />S promises H to do A<br />S believes that H wants A done.<br />S is able to A.<br />S is willing to do A.<br />A has not already been done.<br />Where:<br />S is the Speaker,<br />H is the Hearer, and<br />A is some action<br />
  22. 22. Example<br />Direct Speech Act<br />Indirect Speech Act<br />I will buy you a doll tomorrow.<br />I promise to buy you a doll tomorrow.<br />Would you like a doll tomorrow? (S believes that H wants A done)<br />I can buy you a doll tomorrow. (S is able to A)<br />I would love to buy you a doll. (S is willing to do A)<br />I still haven’t bought you a doll, have I? (A has not already been done)<br />
  23. 23. Threat Felicity Conditions<br />S promises H to do A<br />S believes that H does not want A done.<br />S is able to A.<br />S is willing to do A.<br />A has not already been done.<br />Where:<br />S is the Speaker,<br />H is the Hearer, and<br />A is some action<br />
  24. 24. Example<br />Direct Speech Act<br />Indirect Speech Act<br />If you do that again, I’ll punch you.<br />I threaten you that if you do that again, I’ll punch you.<br />You don’t want me to punch you, do you? (S believes that H does not want A done)<br />I can punch you, y’ know. (S is able to A)<br />I wouldn't mind punching you. (S is willing to do A)<br />Seems your face is not yet bruised, eh? (A has not already been done)<br />
  25. 25. Rules of Conversation<br />A set of conventions governing language use that preserves it integrity by requiring us, among other things, to be honestin its use, to have evidence for what we say, and to make what we say relevant to the speech context<br />
  26. 26. H.P. Grice’s Cooperative Principle<br />We are enjoined to make sure that what we say in conversation furthers the purposes of these conversations.<br />
  27. 27. Maxims of Quality<br />Do not say what you believe is false.<br />Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.<br />
  28. 28. Maxim of Relation/Relevance<br />Be relevant.<br />
  29. 29. Maxims of Quantity<br />Make your contribution as informative as required.<br />Do not make your contribution more informative than required.<br />
  30. 30. Maxims of Manner<br />Avoid obscurity of expression.<br />Avoid ambiguity.<br />Be brief.<br />Be orderly.<br />
  31. 31. Language in Advertising<br />Advertising is a business in which language is used to persuade people to do things (e.g. to buy some product, to vote for someone, or to believe things)<br />
  32. 32. Entailment<br />Logically valid inference<br />If sentence X entails sentence Y, then whenever X is true Y must also be true<br />
  33. 33. Example<br />Ian drives a Corvette.<br />Ian drives a car.<br />A entails B because B is true when A is true as all Corvettes are cars.<br />B cannot entail A because A can be false when B is true as not all cars are Corvettes.<br />
  34. 34. Implicature<br />Not logically valid but is nevertheless warranted<br />Sentence X implicates sentence Y if:<br />X does not entail Y<br />The speaker is warranted in believing that Y is true based on the meaning of X and Grice’s Maxims of Conversation.<br />
  35. 35. Example<br />Not everyone is going to come.<br />Someone is going to come.<br />A implicates B because:<br />A does not entail B<br />B can be false when A is true<br />Assuming that the speaker of A makes his contribution as informative as required (1st Maxim of Quantity), the more informative claim “no one is going to come” was not used because it was not known to be true. Thus the hearer of A is justified in believing that B is true.<br />
  36. 36. Leaving out of the than phrase<br />Campbell soups have one-third less salt.<br />Ford LTD was 700 percent quieter.<br />More people sleep on Sealy Posturpedic<br />The cars more Americans depend on.<br />Maytags are built to last longer and need fewer repairs.<br />
  37. 37. Fine Print<br />Fly anywhere Delta Airline goes.<br />Fine Print: Some restrictions apply.<br />Our UPS Next Day Air Letter. Guaranteed overnight delivery to any address from coast to coast.<br />Fine Print: See Air Service Guide for Guarantee Details.<br />Le Sabre is the most trouble-free American car.<br />Fine Print: Owner-related problems during the first 90 days of ownership.<br />
  38. 38. Idiomatic Language<br />Mercedes-Benz cars: engineered like no other car in the world.<br />In one out of two American homes you’ll find Kenmore appliances.<br />
  39. 39. Modal Auxiliaries or Adverbs<br />It may be one of the most powerful cars in the world.<br />It could save you up to 15% on Allstate homeowners insurance.<br />If you choose to finance or lease your new GMAC vehicle someplace other than GMAC, you might find yourself waiting in line instead of out hugging one.<br />It leaves clothes virtually static-free.<br />
  40. 40. Discourse Analysis<br />Analysis on how meaning is created as people tell personal experience stories using narrations<br />
  41. 41. Example<br />This is about a good-looking guy that made me a bit embarrassed of myself<br />It happened to me last semester before summer<br />Early morning, I rode a jeep on the way to school<br />Uh. It was –uh- really cold and –uh- cold<br />I was still sleepy but when I looked around the jeep the guy in front of me was so cute, not just cute –uh- gorgeous is more fitting<br />Another man said, “Para,” and –uh- and he was like –uh- preparing to go out of the jeep.<br />And so, while the gorgeous guy was fixing his bag –uh- <br />I winked and smiled at him<br />It was like so brave and stupid of me.<br />
  42. 42. Example<br />I was waiting for him to get up and leave, but guess what,<br />He didn’t, that gorgeous guy looked at me like he was creeped out.<br />When I left the jeep, he was right behind me… walking…gosh…<br />Until I reached a corner, and he was gone, it was still so embarrassing…<br />I realized that I shoulda ‘never’ –uh- do that again unless I’m sure that I won’t see him after the winking ever.<br />
  43. 43. Elements of Narration<br />Abstract<br />One or more clauses that summarizes the story<br />Orientation<br />Free clauses that provide relevant details about the background of the story<br />Complicating Action<br />Part of the story that answers : “Then what happened?”<br />Result or Resolution<br />Tells what finally happened<br />
  44. 44. Elements of Narration<br />Coda<br />Brings the hearer back out of the world of the story and into the present<br />Evaluation<br />Linguistic strategies a storyteller can use to underscore the fact that his/her story has a point<br />External – phrases and clauses that interrupt the narrative, thereby creating suspense<br />Internal – intensifiers, comparators, and modifiers<br />
  45. 45. aY0uwHn lNgpOewsz, ..tHnxuEsz..,<br />Eye Infection<br />Sam, Coltzﺕ, Luigi, Tammy, Angge<br />BLL 101 JX<br /> Ma’am Caguicla ♥<br />

×