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EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION <ul><li>Fossil Record </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemical </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative Anatomy </li></ul...
EVOLUTION IS <ul><li>Genetic change in a population through time . </li></ul>
Charles Darwin <ul><li>On his journey around the world, Darwin found evidence of gradual change (evolution). </li></ul><ul...
Evidences of Evolution <ul><li>Today most evidences for evolution are grouped into four main categories: </li></ul><ul><li...
1 - FOSSIL RECORD <ul><li>Paleontology – study of fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil – remains or traces of an organism that...
1 - FOSSIL RECORD <ul><li>Most fossils are found in layered sedimentary rock </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest fossils are on the l...
1 - FOSSIL RECORD <ul><li>Comparing fossils from different layers shows: </li></ul><ul><li>Life on Earth has changed </li>...
2 - BIOCHEMICAL <ul><li>THE GENETIC CODE </li></ul><ul><li>Triplets of DNA nitrogen-base sequences that code for specific ...
2 - BIOCHEMICAL <ul><li>The similarity of triplet DNA codes making-up amino acids shows: </li></ul><ul><li>A probable comm...
2 - BIOCHEMICAL <ul><li>“ Universal” GENETIC CODE </li></ul><ul><li>Similar genes </li></ul><ul><li>Over the ages, the  ge...
2 - BIOCHEMICAL <ul><li>AMINO ACID SEQUENCING </li></ul><ul><li>The amino acid sequence in a particular protein is compare...
2 - BIOCHEMICAL <ul><li>Comparing amino acid sequence shows: </li></ul><ul><li>Closeness of relationship </li></ul><ul><li...
2 - BIOCHEMICAL <ul><li>CLADOGRAM: diagram that shows the evolutionary relationship among a group of organisms. </li></ul>...
3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY <ul><li>HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES </li></ul><ul><li>structures with similar structure but different func...
3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY <ul><li>Homologous structures show </li></ul><ul><li>Similar genes </li></ul><ul><li>Descent from a ...
3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY <ul><li>VESTIGIAL STRUCTURES </li></ul><ul><li>organs so reduced in size that they are nonfunctionin...
3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY <ul><li>Vestigial structures show: </li></ul><ul><li>an organism’s evolutionary past </li></ul><ul><...
3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY <ul><li>EMBRYOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Embryos of different species may appear similar in early stages...
3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY <ul><li>Comparison of similarities in embryos can show: </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to a common a...
4 - OBSERVABLE EVENTS <ul><li>Some changes in species have been observed and studied: </li></ul>Peter & Rosemary Grant’s S...
4 - OBSERVABLE EVENTS <ul><li>Observable events show that evolution is an ongoing process </li></ul>Peter & Rosemary Grant...
Works Cited <ul><li>“ Geographic Distribution of Organisms” photo: Miller, Kenneth and Levine, Joseph.  (2004).  Biology ....
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Evidences of evolution

Evidences of evolution

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Evidences of evolution

  1. 1. EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION <ul><li>Fossil Record </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemical </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Observable Events </li></ul>
  2. 2. EVOLUTION IS <ul><li>Genetic change in a population through time . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Charles Darwin <ul><li>On his journey around the world, Darwin found evidence of gradual change (evolution). </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin cited evidences he found in fossil records, geographic distribution and homologous structures. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Evidences of Evolution <ul><li>Today most evidences for evolution are grouped into four main categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemical </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil Record </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Observable Events </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1 - FOSSIL RECORD <ul><li>Paleontology – study of fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil – remains or traces of an organism that lived long ago </li></ul><ul><li>Remains: ex. bone, tooth, or shell </li></ul><ul><li>Traces: ex. burrow, footprint, or imprint </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1 - FOSSIL RECORD <ul><li>Most fossils are found in layered sedimentary rock </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest fossils are on the lowest layer </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1 - FOSSIL RECORD <ul><li>Comparing fossils from different layers shows: </li></ul><ul><li>Life on Earth has changed </li></ul><ul><li>Increased number of life forms </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2 - BIOCHEMICAL <ul><li>THE GENETIC CODE </li></ul><ul><li>Triplets of DNA nitrogen-base sequences that code for specific amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>The amino acid triplet is the same in almost all organisms. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2 - BIOCHEMICAL <ul><li>The similarity of triplet DNA codes making-up amino acids shows: </li></ul><ul><li>A probable common ancestor for all life on Earth </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2 - BIOCHEMICAL <ul><li>“ Universal” GENETIC CODE </li></ul><ul><li>Similar genes </li></ul><ul><li>Over the ages, the genetic code </li></ul><ul><li>has passed unchanged (or nearly so) from parent to offspring. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2 - BIOCHEMICAL <ul><li>AMINO ACID SEQUENCING </li></ul><ul><li>The amino acid sequence in a particular protein is compared between organisms. </li></ul>Number of differences from human hemoglobin 45 1 67 8 27 125
  12. 12. 2 - BIOCHEMICAL <ul><li>Comparing amino acid sequence shows: </li></ul><ul><li>Closeness of relationship </li></ul><ul><li>A probable common ancestor </li></ul>Amino Acid Difference in Hemoglobin Compared with Human Human hemoglobin has 146 amino acids Amino Acid Sequencing is probably the STRONGEST evidence for relationships among organisms. Species Difference Gorilla 1 Rhesus Monkey 8 Mouse 27 Chicken 45 Frog 67 Lamprey 125
  13. 13. 2 - BIOCHEMICAL <ul><li>CLADOGRAM: diagram that shows the evolutionary relationship among a group of organisms. </li></ul>What organism belongs at each branch? Amino Acid Difference in Hemoglobin Compared with Human G F E D C B A Common ancestor Where would the common ancestor be? Species Difference Gorilla 1 Monkey 8 Mouse 27 Chicken 45 Frog 67 Lamprey 125 Number of Amino Acid Differences 150 100 50 0 40 20 30 10
  14. 14. 3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY <ul><li>HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES </li></ul><ul><li>structures with similar structure but different function </li></ul><ul><li>ex: limbs of vertebrates (turtle, alligator, bird, mammal) </li></ul>Turtle Alligator Bird Mammal
  15. 15. 3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY <ul><li>Homologous structures show </li></ul><ul><li>Similar genes </li></ul><ul><li>Descent from a common ancestor </li></ul>Turtle Alligator Bird Mammal Ancient lobe-finned fish
  16. 16. 3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY <ul><li>VESTIGIAL STRUCTURES </li></ul><ul><li>organs so reduced in size that they are nonfunctioning remnants of similar organs in other species </li></ul><ul><li>ex: human tailbone, appendix, whale pelvis </li></ul>
  17. 17. 3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY <ul><li>Vestigial structures show: </li></ul><ul><li>an organism’s evolutionary past </li></ul><ul><li>a common ancestor with species that have similar structures that are still functioning </li></ul>
  18. 18. 3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY <ul><li>EMBRYOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Embryos of different species may appear similar in early stages of development </li></ul><ul><li>ex: vertebrate development </li></ul>
  19. 19. 3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY <ul><li>Comparison of similarities in embryos can show: </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to a common ancestor </li></ul>
  20. 20. 4 - OBSERVABLE EVENTS <ul><li>Some changes in species have been observed and studied: </li></ul>Peter & Rosemary Grant’s Study of Beak Size Shift in Darwin’s Finches H. Kettlewell’s Study of Peppered Moth Color Shifts
  21. 21. 4 - OBSERVABLE EVENTS <ul><li>Observable events show that evolution is an ongoing process </li></ul>Peter & Rosemary Grant’s Study of Beak Size Shift in Darwin’s Finches H. Kettlewell’s Study of Peppered Moth Color Shifts
  22. 22. Works Cited <ul><li>“ Geographic Distribution of Organisms” photo: Miller, Kenneth and Levine, Joseph. (2004). Biology . Prentice Hall. </li></ul>

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