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Module 2: Climate actions in agriculture and priority setting for investments

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Module 2: Climate actions in agriculture and priority setting for investments

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During the webinar, the speakers promoted a set of training materials that is freely available for those interested in learning more about the implementation of NDCs in the agriculture sector in Africa.

More info about the webinar: https://ccafs.cgiar.org/implementing-ndcs-agriculture-sector-across-africa-what-directions-capacity-building#.XxaxH_gzbfZ

During the webinar, the speakers promoted a set of training materials that is freely available for those interested in learning more about the implementation of NDCs in the agriculture sector in Africa.

More info about the webinar: https://ccafs.cgiar.org/implementing-ndcs-agriculture-sector-across-africa-what-directions-capacity-building#.XxaxH_gzbfZ

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Module 2: Climate actions in agriculture and priority setting for investments

  1. 1. Module 2: Climate actions in agriculture and priority setting for investments Organized by With support from
  2. 2. Introduce the premise of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) and other climate-resilient agriculture approaches Describe different CSA technology options Provide case-study examples of successful CSA technology options in Africa Discuss technical tools for ex-ante analysis of CSA options in agriculture Learning Objectives
  3. 3. Part 1: Climate-smart agriculture and other climate-resilient agriculture approaches
  4. 4. Climate-smart agriculture definition • Most common is from FAO: “agriculture that sustainably increases productivity, enhances resilience (adaptation), reduces/removes GHGs (mitigation) where possible, and enhances achievement of national food security and development goals”
  5. 5. Why CSA? • CSA addresses the relationship between climate change and agriculture • CSA addresses food security, misdistribution and malnutrition • Relationship between agriculture and climate change is a two-way street Source: Vermeulen 2014.
  6. 6. • CSA addresses the relationship between agriculture and poverty • 75% of the world’s poor live in rural areas • Agriculture is their most important income source  Agriculture is uniquely placed to propel people out of poverty Why CSA?
  7. 7. Source: Papusoi and Faraby 2013 What is CSA? Key characteristics: • Addresses climate change • Integrates multiple goals • Manages trade-offs
  8. 8. • Maintains ecosystem services: CSA adopts a landscape approach to ensure coordinated approaches to land use, planning and management • Multiple entry points at different levels • Not ‘just’ a set of practices and technologies • Also involves information technologies, insurance schemes, value chains, and institution and political enabling environments Additional characteristics of CSA
  9. 9. • CSA is context specific Source: Rosenstock and Lamanna 2015 Additional characteristics of CSA
  10. 10. • Does a practice need to achieve all three pillars, productivity, adaptation & mitigation? Not necessarily. In developing countries, mitigation is seen as a co-benefit rather than a requirement. Also, in a portfolio or landscape approach, some practices could focus on productivity and resilience while others focus on mitigation, as long as all objectives are being met in the entire area. • Isn’t this just the same as {sustainable agriculture, agroecology}? CSA’s “equal” focus on productivity, resilience, and mitigation differentiates it from other approaches, but it shares many characteristics with other approaches to sustainable food security. CSA is also not prescriptive, but must be tailored to the local context. • Other Questions? Source: ICRAF and CIAT 2020 CSA Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
  11. 11. Actions to achieve CSA Source: FAO (2017), Infographic on Climate- Smart Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
  12. 12. 1. Agro-ecology 2. Sustainable intensification 3. Nature-based solutions 4. Ecosystem-based adaptation 5. Conservation agriculture Other approaches related to building climate resilience in agriculture
  13. 13. Discussion: 1. What other approaches are being used in your country? 2. How do these approaches relate to the pillars of CSA?  There is not one correct solution. Here we will continue focusing on CSA, but other approaches can lead to similar outcomes. Other approaches related to building climate resilience in agriculture
  14. 14. 1. Weather-smart practices 2. Water-smart practices 3. Seed/breed-smart practices 4. Carbon/nutrient-smart practices 5. Institutional/market-smart activities Types of CSA options
  15. 15. Climate information services: • Help to build resilience by enabling farmers to better manage negative impacts of weather- related risks in poor seasons while taking greater advantage of average and better than average seasons 1. Weather smart practices Examples: PICSA use in 14 countries in Africa Climate info services in Senegal
  16. 16. • Index-based insurance • Uses a weather index, such as rainfall, to determine payouts for clearly defined hazards • Contribution to CSA: • Productivity: allows farmers to take additional risks and invest in improved practices • Adaptation through short-term climate risk management • Adaptation through longer-term risk management • Mitigation 1. Weather smart practices Photo: ILRI/Susan Macmillan Example: Kenya Livestock Insurance Program, see info here and here
  17. 17. • Different scales: farm level, irrigation systems or catchment level, and national or river basin level • Under rainfed agriculture: • Water harvesting • Soil management practices for capture and retention • Soil fertility and crop management innovations (Water use efficiency) 2. Water smart practices • Under irrigation: • From the source • Through conveyance and application systems • Through better scheduling and availability of water in the root zone Photo: ICRISAT (link to original)
  18. 18. • CSA contribution: • Productivity: improved growth (in absence of other limitations) • Adaptation through short-term risk management: reduction in the risk of crop water stress and yield loss • Adaptation through longer-term risk management: increase in water availability and greater water use efficiency • Mitigation: opportunities in rice alternate wetting and drying; possible reduced energy consumption for pumping • Decrease women’s and girls’ workload in fetching water and manual irrigation of fields 2. Water smart practices
  19. 19. • Forestry and agroforestry • Productivity: improved production of ecosystem services (food, fibre, fuel, soil quality) • Adaptation: healthy and diverse ecosystems are more resilient to natural hazards • Mitigation: increase in tree cover increases carbon sequestration and biomass above and below ground • Example: the Great Green Wall re- greening work in Burkina Faso and Niger (see pg. 9-10 here) 3. Nutrient/carbon-smart practices
  20. 20. Soil management practices • Productivity: improvements in fertility and soil water availability and reduction of losses through erosion will improve productivity • Adaptation: specific interventions can help reduce risk of run-off during intense rainfall events • Mitigation: improvements in carbon storage, reduction in emissions from excess fertilizer applications 3. Nutrient/carbon-smart practices Example: landscape-based adaptation in Doyogena, Ethiopia Climate-smart landscape in Doyogena, Ethiopia, fostering landscape rehabilitation and increased livelihood resilience. Photo: D. Solomon (CCAFS)
  21. 21. • Involves strategies to account for the different socio-economic, climatic and soil conditions of an area • Productivity: higher yielding varieties, better crop nutrient management, faster growing livestock • Short-term adaptation: breeding for drought tolerance, shorter duration varieties; breeding for resistance to pests and diseases • Longer-term adaptation: heat and salinity tolerance traits • Mitigation: reductions in emissions from soil and water management and more productive livestock breeds 4. Seed/breed-smart practices
  22. 22. • Policy engagement: appropriate policies and an enabling environment • Institutional arrangements: at all levels and between scales 5. Institutional/market-smart activities • Value chains: bring together relevant stakeholders from different parts of the chain to make decisions in a coordinated way  All activities affect productivity, adaptation and mitigation
  23. 23. • Example: policy frameworks that support climate actions, such as Ethiopia’s Climate Resilient Green Economy strategy • Example: community seed banks across East Africa, with policy support (info here) • Climate-smart input subsidy programs? Evidence is thin that these have been successful (see here) • Other macro level examples from your countries? 5. Institutional/market-smart activities
  24. 24. • What are your examples? • Please share successful CSA stories from your own countries Case studies of successful CSA
  25. 25. Part 2: Priority setting for CSA options using data Based on material from World Agroforestry (Hannah Kamau) and the Evidence for Resilient Agriculture (ERA) team
  26. 26. Climate hazards and risks • Any exercise on prioritization must first start with an understanding of the climate signals/hazards and risks Source: Girvetz et al. 2019
  27. 27. • Many countries already have National Agriculture Investment Plans (NAIPs) as part of their CAADP commitment— these have already prioritized interventions • Other publications that offer prioritizations: • NDCs, NAPs and NAMAs • CSA Profiles • CSA Investment Plans • Economic analyses from universities or policy think tanks Priority setting for CSA options Source: Nwafor 2018
  28. 28. CSA Country Profiles in Africa These give an overview of agricultural challenges and how CSA can help specific countries adapt to and mitigation climate change • 14 Profiles available in Africa (click here for access) • Under preparation for Niger, Ghana and Mali • Developed using participatory approaches by CIAT and CCAFS with in partnership with the World Bank, Costa Rica’s CATIE, and USAID
  29. 29. CSA Investment Plans (CSAIPs) • World Bank initiative building on the CSA Profiles • Identify concrete actions governments can take to boost CSA • Used for driving investments and policies CSAIP investment outcome example: In Lesotho, the CSAIP informed the design of the $50 million second phase of the Smallholder Agricultural Development Project (SADP 2), by highlighting the sector’s major climate change challenges and possible solution pathways, in particular related to the likely impacts of climate change on agricultural trade and comparative advantage across key commodities as well as key climate-resilient practices.
  30. 30. Make use of national universities and policy think tanks to assess the costs and benefits of policies that contribute to climate adaptation, such as: • Research and extension (e.g., climate forecasts) • Input quality and availability (e.g., improved seeds and fertilizers) • Water availability (e.g., irrigation and water-saving technologies) • Market access and infrastructure (e.g., roads, transport) • Improving value chains (e.g., on-farm storage, value addition) Economic evaluation tools: economics of different policies
  31. 31. • NAIPs and other existing policy documents should be used first to make sure other CSA plans are in alignment • But what if you need more details for your country or specific area? • Trying to decide what are the best-bet options can be challenging • The online database Evidence for Resilient Agriculture (ERA) can help • Here we provide an overview; the group exercise will provide hands-on exploration of the website Priority setting for CSA options
  32. 32. Priority setting for CSA options using data The challenge for decision makers Many Practices Many Goals Many Contexts MitigationResilience Productivity Of what? Most common crops? Most vulnerable crops? For whom? Most farmers? Most vulnerable farmers? Module 5 discusses social inclusion concerns
  33. 33. Priority setting for CSA options using data The importance of context Source: Bayala et al. 2012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.10.011 In a given farming system… Some practices improve outcomes Others do not…
  34. 34. Priority setting for CSA options Source: Pittelkow et al. 2014 Effect on Maize Yield (%) Conservation AgricultureFor a given option… It can improve outcomes in some places But not in others
  35. 35. How to determine the best-bet options to scale up? 1. Identify the context 2. Identify the options 3. Identify the outcomes CSA Options Yield Income Soil Health Gender Equity Adoption Potential etc.. Best-Best Options 4. Generate evidence 5. Evaluate the evidence 6. Choose the best-bet options
  36. 36. Trade-offs and synergies You may notice that some options have positive impacts for one outcomes, but neutral or negative impacts on other outcomes Increased Yield Inorganic Fertilizer GHG Emissions, Costs Less erosion, Improved soil quality, mitigation Agroforestry Lower yields Increased resilience to droughts Irrigation High cost, high labor demand Option
  37. 37. Determining best-bet options using scientific evidence How can we sift through the 1000s of studies on potential CSA options in Africa to decide what to recommend? 70 Practices x 20 Indicators Abstract/title review Full text review Key word search Data extraction +50,000 studies 1700 studies
  38. 38. Determining best-bet options using scientific evidence When compiled, all this evidence becomes stronger. Examining many different CSA experiments on different farms in different places – META- ANALYSIS 70 Practices x 20 Indicators The group exercise will now give you hands-on experience using ERA to examine outcomes, assess climate-smartness and identify interactions.
  39. 39. Key messages Climate-smart agriculture can help countries meet several of their development goals and NDC commitments Many CSA practices are context-specific and need to be evaluated for each agro-ecosystem where they will be applied. Models and prioritization tools can help evaluate CSA options to know which will provide the best return on investment.
  40. 40. Thank you Questions?

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • CSA is the main approach presented in this module because the training was originally designed and implemented in partnership with the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), which promotes the CSA approach in all its programs.
  • Emphasize that these kinds of activities are really meant to deal with the changing climate. It is not just sustainable agriculture practices repackaged.
  • Ask the participants to contribute examples with which they are familiar

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