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What's Agile ? Introduction to Agile methods

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What's Agile ? Introduction to Agile methods

  1. 1. What's Agile ? Introduc5on to Agile methods Agile Tour Brussels 2014 www.atbru.be 05/11/10 www.agiletour.org
  2. 2. Introduc5on Many of the coming slides are the property of Henrik Kniberg. Please visit his blog hIp://blog.crisp.se/author/ henrikkniberg www.agiletour.org
  3. 3. Henrik Kniberg 33
  4. 4. Objec5ves of this session • You understand “what’s Agile” enough to choose wisely your next sessions today
  5. 5. 5 Most IT projects don’t succeed The Standish Group has studied over 40,000 projects in 10 years. IT project success rate 1994: 15% Average cost & time overrun: ≈170% IT project success rate 2004: 34% Average cost & time overrun: ≈70% Henrik Kniberg Sources: http://www.softwaremag.com/L.cfm?Doc=newsletter/2004-01-15/Standish http://www.infoq.com/articles/Interview-Johnson-Standish-CHAOS Plan: €1,000,000 Actual: €2,700,000 Plan: €1,000,000 Actual: €1,700,000
  6. 6. 6 We tend to build the wrong thing Features and functions used in a typical system Half of the stuff we build is never used! Sources: Standish group study reported at XP2002 by Jim Johnson, Chairman Henrik Kniberg 6 Always 7% Often 13% Some-times 16% Rarely 19% Never 45% Cost # of features This graph courtesy of Mary Poppendieck
  7. 7. 7 Many SW projects are like a cannon ball Assumptions: The customer knows what he wants The developers know how to build it Nothing will change along the way Henrik Kniberg
  8. 8. 8 Agile is like a homing missile Assumptions: The customer discovers what he wants The developers discover how to build it Things change along the way Principle #2: Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. Henrik Kniberg
  9. 9. Agile Manifesto www.agilemanifesto.org We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Individer och interaktioner framför processer och verktyg Working software over comprehensive documentation Fungerande programvara framför omfattande dokumentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Kundsamarbete framför kontraktsförhandling Responding to change over following a plan Anpassning till förändring framför att följa en plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. Henrik Kniberg 99
  10. 10. 10 Principles behind the Agile Manifesto Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. Working software is the primary measure of progress. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
  11. 11. 11 Agile ”umbrella” Sources: 3rd Annual ”State of Agile Development” Survey June-July 2008 • 3061 respondents • 80 countries Scrum XP DSDM FDD Crystal Kanban
  12. 12. 12 Scrum in a nutshell 12
  13. 13. 13 Timeboxing A A A B (doomed to fail, but we don’t know it yet) X Quality X X Quality Henrik Kniberg C D Plan Traditional scenario Agile scenario Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 B A C D Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 B Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 A Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 B Week 5 Week 6 ”We will deliver ABCD in 4 weeks” ”We always deliver something every sprint (2 weeks)” ”We think we can finish ABCD in 4 weeks, but we aren’t sure” ”We always deliver the most important items first” Oops, we’re late. Oops, our velocity is lower than we thought. It looks like we’ll only finish AB by week 4. What should we do now? Scope Cost Time Scope Cost Time E
  14. 14. 14 Typical sprint Iteration1 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Timeline Sprint-planning Demo/Review Retrospective Product Backlog Daily Scrum release PO 1.3.0 SPRINT GOAL: Beta-ready release! Burndown Unplanned items Deposit 2d Sprint plan (Task board / Scrum board) Henrik Kniberg Not checked out Done! :o) Write failing test DAO DB design Integr test Migration tool Write failing test GUI spec Tapestry spike Impl. migration 2d Code cleanup 2d 1d 0.5d 1d 2d 8d 1d 2d 2d Backoffice Login Backoffice User admin Write failing test 3d 2d 1d Impl GUI Integr. 1d with 2d JBoss Write failing test3d Impl GUI 6d Clarify require-ments 2d GUI design (CSS)1d Fix memory leak (JIRA 125) 2d Sales support 3d Write whitepaper 4d Next Withdr aw Perf testWithdraw checked out Write failing test
  15. 15. Cross-functional, self-organizing Team - How much to pull in - How to build it - Quality - Sustainable pace 15 Scrum overview – structure Product owner - Vision: Where are we going & why? - Priorities & tradeoffs - Release planning Stakeholders Henrik Kniberg PO SM Users Helpdesk Operations Management Product Backlog Sprint Backlog ... etc ... Team Direct communication Scrum Master - Process leader/coach - Impediment remover
  16. 16. 16 Product backlog & user stories 16
  17. 17. 17 Balance the product backlog V V V Too big items? Too many items? Balanced
  18. 18. 18 Product backlog As a booker I want to receive notifications when new available slots appear in the calendar so that I don't have to keep checking manually Product vision Product Backlog Henrik Kniberg As a <stakeholder> I want <what> so that <why> As a buyer I want to save my shopping cart so that I can continue shopping later (... etc ...) Definition of Done • Releasable • User Acceptance tested • Merged to Trunk • release notes written • No increased technical debt = I haven’t messed up the codebase GUI Client Server DB
  19. 19. 19 User story As a buyer I want to save my shopping cart so that I can continue shopping later Henrik Kniberg Independent Negotiable Valuable Estimable Small Testable Acronym courtesy of Bill Wake – www.xp123.com As a <stakeholder> I want <what> so that <why> How to demo: 1) Enter store 2) Put a book in shopping cart 3) Press ”save cart” 4) Leave store, and enter it again 5) Check that the book is in my cart 8 C A B C GUI Client Server DB schema
  20. 20. 20 Estimating 20
  21. 21. 21 How estimates are affected by specification length Spec Same spec – more pages 2007-09-28 117 hrs 173 hrs Source: How to avoid impact from irrelevant and misleading info on your cost estimates, Simula research labs estimation seminar, Oslo, Norway, 2006
  22. 22. 22 How estimates are affected by irrelevant information 2007-09-28 20 hrs Spec 1 A B C Same spec + irrelevant details A B C 39 hrs Source: How to avoid impact from irrelevant and misleading info on your cost estimates, Simula research labs estimation seminar, Oslo, Norway, 2006
  23. 23. How estimates are affected by anchoring 23 456 hrs Spec 2007-09-28 Same spec 500 hrs Never mind me 555 hrs 50 hrs Same spec Never mind me 99 hrs Source: How to avoid impact from irrelevant and misleading info on your cost estimates, Simula research labs estimation seminar, Oslo, Norway, 2006
  24. 24. 24 Velocity 1 2 V= 8 V= 7 V= 9 1 1 2 Sprint 1 Sprint 2 Sprint 3 Henrik Kniberg Likely future velocity: 7-9 per sprint 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 2 1
  25. 25. Release planning – fixed date • Today is Aug 6 • Sprint length = 2 weeks • Velocity = 30 - 40 PO What will be done by X-mas? (10 sprints) 300 400 Scope Quality Cost Time 2007-09-28 25
  26. 26. Quality Cost Time 26 What have we learned? IT project success rate 1994: 15% Average cost & time overrun: ≈170% IT project success rate 2004: 34% Average cost & time overrun: ≈70% Henrik Kniberg “The primary reason [for the improvement] is that projects have gotten a lot smaller.” “Doing projects with iterative processes as opposed to the waterfall method, which called for all project requirements to be defined up front, is a major step forward.” Jim Johnson Chairman of Standish Group Top 5 reasons for success 1. User involvement 2. Executive management support 3. Clear business objectives 4. Optimizing scope 5. Agile process Scope Sources: http://www.softwaremag.com/L.cfm?Doc=newsletter/2004-01-15/Standish http://www.infoq.com/articles/Interview-Johnson-Standish-CHAOS ”My Life is Failure”, Jim Johnson’s book
  27. 27. Henrik Kniberg 2277
  28. 28. QUIZZ ! 50:50
  29. 29. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 $1 Million $500,000 $250,000 $125,000 $60,000 $30,000 $15,000 $7,500 $3,000 1 $1,000
  30. 30. What is Agile all about ? 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 $1 Million $500,000 $250,000 $125,000 $60,000 $30,000 $15,000 $7,500 $3,000 1 $1,000 B: It’s a receipt to apply to improve your productivity A: It’s a magical methodology. Juste apply it and success is here C: I don’t like this game, please show me more Powerpoint slides ! D: It’s more a direction to follow, not a place to reach 50:50 AGILE
  31. 31. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 $1 Million $500,000 $250,000 $125,000 $60,000 $30,000 $15,000 $7,500 $3,000 1 $1,000 B: It’s a receipt to apply to improve your productivity What is Agile all about ? A: It’s a magical methodology. Juste apply it and success is here C: It’s more a direction to follow, not a place to reach D: It’s more a direction to follow, not a place to reach 50:50 AGILE
  32. 32. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 $1 Million $500,000 $250,000 $125,000 $60,000 $30,000 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 1 $1,000
  33. 33. Agile is an iterative process, that means… 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 B: Always have a fixed Scope D: We do first analysis, then dev, then test A: We don’t fix anything C: Don’t try to get it all right from the beginning 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 $1 Million $500,000 $250,000 $125,000 $60,000 $30,000 $15,000 1 $1,000 50:50 Iterative
  34. 34. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 $1 Million $500,000 $250,000 $125,000 $60,000 $30,000 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 1 $1,000 Agile is an iterative process, that means… 50:50 Iterative A: We don’t fix anything B: Always have a fixed Scope D: We do first analysis, then dev, then test C: Don’t try to get it all right from the beginning
  35. 35. 10 9 8 7 6 $1 Million $500,000 $250,000 $125,000 $60,000 5 $30,000 4 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 1 $1,000
  36. 36. What’s the top 1 reason for the success 5 $30,000 4 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 B: Having a good lawyer D: Optimizing Scope of the project of a project A: User involvment C: A good technical team 10 9 8 7 6 $1 Million $500,000 $250,000 $125,000 $60,000 1 $1,000 50:50 Success
  37. 37. 10 9 8 7 6 $1 Million $500,000 $250,000 $125,000 $60,000 5 $30,000 4 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 1 $1,000 Success What’s the top 1 reason for the success 50:50 of a project A: User involvment B: Having a good lawyer D: Optimizing Scope of the project C: A good technical team
  38. 38. 10 9 8 $1 Million $500,000 $250,000 7 $125,000 6 $60,000 5 $30,000 4 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 1 $1,000
  39. 39. 7 $125,000 6 $60,000 5 $30,000 4 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 B: Estimation is easy if you are an expert D: Just ask them when it will be done ! Agile estimating means A: How many man-days do we need to finish the project ? C: Relative estimates -> Velocity -> Then derive a plan 10 9 8 $1 Million $500,000 $250,000 1 $1,000 50:50 Estimation
  40. 40. 10 9 8 $1 Million $500,000 $250,000 7 $125,000 6 $60,000 5 $30,000 4 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 1 $1,000 50:50 Estimation Agile estimating means B: Estimation is easy if you are an expert D: Just ask them when it will be done ! A: How many man-days do we need to finish the project ? C: Relative estimates -> Velocity -> Then derive a plan
  41. 41. 10 $1 Million 9 $500,000 8 $250,000 7 $125,000 6 $60,000 5 $30,000 4 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 1 $1,000
  42. 42. 10 $1 Million 9 $500,000 8 $250,000 7 $125,000 6 $60,000 5 $30,000 4 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 1 $1,000 D: I still can’t understand your English dude… What’s a retrospective ? A: It’s when we demonstrate the final product to the stakeholders C: When we discuss how much we can put in a Sprint B: The moment where an Agile team work on his continuous improvement 50:50 Retrospective
  43. 43. 10 $1 Million 9 $500,000 8 $250,000 7 $125,000 6 $60,000 5 $30,000 4 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 1 $1,000 50:50 Retrospective D: I still can’t understand your English dude… A: It’s when we demonstrate the final product to the stakeholders C: When we discuss how much we can put in a Sprint B: The moment where an Agile team work on his continuous improvement What’s a retrospective ?
  44. 44. 10 $1 Million 9 $500,000 8 $250,000 7 $125,000 6 $60,000 5 $30,000 4 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 1 $1,000
  45. 45. Agile methods 10 $1 Million Which answers are Agile methods ? 9 $500,000 8 $250,000 7 $125,000 6 $60,000 5 $30,000 4 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 F: You know what… I like your game AND your accent ! C: Scrum E: XP: eXtreme Programming D: KanBan 1 $1,000 A: PMI B: Prince2
  46. 46. 10 $1 Million 9 $500,000 8 $250,000 7 $125,000 6 $60,000 5 $30,000 4 $15,000 3 $7,500 2 $3,000 1 $1,000 Agile methods Which answers are Agile methods ? A: PMI C: Scrum B: Prince2 D: KanBan F: You know what… I like your game AND your accent ! E: XP: eXtreme Programming
  47. 47. Congratulations! Yo u a r e n o w (Almost) An Agilist!

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