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A New Look at Sustainable Food Systems November 14, 2011Panelists: Moderator:Jeanine DavisKeith Collins Jack BrittTony McGaha
Sustainable food systems…to feed the billions. • Intensification of agriculture • Examples of improved sustainability in US food systems Sustainability Institute 11/14/2011 • Examples of three different food systemsBlue Ridge • Tomatoes and tomato products • Milk and dairy products • Beef and beef products
Intense agriculture reduced carbon footprint for feeding the world Greenhouse Gas Mitigation by Agricultural Intensification Jennifer A. Burney, Steven J. Davis and David B. Lobella Stanford University, Stanford, CA and Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA Sustainability Institute 11/14/2011Blue Ridge Greater Than Land Mass Of Russia “…the net effect of higher yields has avoided emissions of 590 Gt CO2e since 1961.” Source: www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0914216107 published 2010
Sustainability Institute 11/14/2011 So how are we doing in the U.S. ?Blue Ridge
Farms and farmland in the United States, 2007 Ownership Type No. Farms % of Farms Acres % of Acres Family or individual 1,906,335 86% 574,150,050 62% Partnership 174,247 8% 161,416,999 18% Sustainability Institute 11/14/2011Blue Ridge Corporation* 96,074 4% 125,319,200 14% Other** 28,136 1% 61,208,981 7% 2,204,792 100% 922,095,230 100% *91% are family corporations **cooperative, estate, trust, institutional, etc. Buncombe County has enough farmland to support a population of 31,600, based on U.S. average of 3 acres of farmland per person. Source: 2007 Census of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistical Service, USDA. http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2007/Full_Report/usv1.pdf
Changes in land use in the United States 1982-2007 U.S. Population Grew 30% During this Period -8% -2% No change +55% Sustainability Institute -19% 11/14/2011Blue Ridge +17% +140% Cultivated Rangeland Forest Land Non-cultivated CRP Land Pasture Developed Cropland Cropland Land Land Source: Dale et al. Ecological Applications 24: 1039-1054, 2011.
How is the U.S. doing in production and sustainability? Rank in Examples of US Agriculture Rank World Arable and permanent cropland 1 Sustainability Institute Corn production, soybean production 11/14/2011 1Blue Ridge Milk yield per cow 1 Tractors 1 Meat production 2 Fresh citrus 2 Organic cropland 4 Fertilizer use per hectare of cropland 40 Pesticide use per hectare of cropland 43 Source: United Nations FAO most recent reports.
US excels in sustainability measures: GHG production by dairy systems across regions of the world Sustainability Institute 11/14/2011Blue Ridge C & S America N Africa &W Asia N America Subsar Africa E Europe Russian Fed South Asia W Europe Oceania East Asia World Source: FAO 2010. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Dairy Sector - A Life Cycle Assessment
Improvements in on-farm measures of sustainability by the US dairy farms from 1944 to 2007 Item 1944 2007 Change, % U.S. milk production, 53 84 +58% billion kg Sustainability Institute 11/14/2011 Resources per billion kg of milkBlue Ridge Cows, thousands 415 94 -77% Feed, billion kg 8.3 1.9 -77% Manure, billion kg 7.9 1.9 -76% Carbon footprint, 3.7 1.4 -62% billion kg CO2 Source: Capper, J. L., R. A. Cady, and D. E. Bauman. 2009. The environmental impact of dairy production: 1944 compared with 2007. Journal of Animal Science doi:10.2527/jas.2009-1781
Sustainability of Food System ? ? Processing Supermarket Farm Distribution Supermarket Center Supermarket Farm Processing Supermarket Sustainability Institute 11/14/2011Blue Ridge Distribution Center Supermarket Farm Processing Supermarket Farm Direct ? Consumer Sales Farm
Tomato Production and Products Sustainability Institute 11/14/2011 Dr. Jeanine DavisBlue Ridge Associate Professor & Extension Specialist
Blue Ridge 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 0 California Florida Indiana Ohio Michigan Georgia Virginia New Jersey Tennessee Tomatoes, acres, 2007 North Carolina Pennsylvania South Carolina New York Minnesota 11/14/2011 85% of U.S. tomatoes Texas are produced in two states Alabama Arkansas Kentucky Illinois Maryland Hawaii ConnecticutMassachusetts Missouri Mississippi Wisconsin Oregon Colorado Washington Oklahoma Louisiana New Mexico West Virginia Iowa Maine UtahNew Hampshire Kansas Rhode Island Delaware Nebraska Vermont Arizona Montana Idaho South Dakota Nevada North Dakota Sustainability Institute
Americans eat about 20 pounds oftomatoes per person, per year. Three- quarters of that is in processedform, e.g., ketchup, salsa, and sauce.
Where do all these tomatoes come from? • The U.S. produces about 2 million tons of fresh market tomatoes and 12 million tons of processing tomatoes each year. • We also import almost $900 million worth of tomatoes annually, mostly from Canada, Mexico, and the Netherlands. • Florida and California and the major tomato producing states; comprising over 2/3 of all the tomatoes grown in the U.S. • California produces 95% of the processing tomatoes.
Could we produce all the tomatoes we need within our own county?• In Buncombe county, we would need to devote about 25% of our existing vegetable acreage to tomatoes.• In Mecklenburg County, however, 6X the existing vegetable acreage in the county would be needed to provide for their population.• To provide for all 9.5 million people in the state, we would only need 4,768 acres of tomatoes.
We could produce all the tomatoes we currently consume, but…• For fresh-market tomatoes, it would cost us more, especially in the off- season, and we‟d have to convince more farmers to grow them, but we could do it.• For us to produce all the processed tomato products we consume would be much more difficult and costly;• we would need to develop new varieties and production methods, build processing plants, etc.
So what does it cost for us, environmentally and socially, to maintain the status quo, i.e., have just two states provide a ready supply of cheap tomatoes?• Let‟s focus on California processing tomato production since that really is the giant in the industry. Photo from GrowingProduce.com
Value-Chains for California tomatoes Note how much of the path is oriented towards marketers and processors.Graph from „A Value Chain Analysis of Selected California Crops‟ by M. Lowe and G. Gereffi, Duke University, 2008
Water Use Tomatoes are always irrigated and are mostly water, so expected this to be much higher!Graph from „A Value Chain Analysis of Selected California Crops‟ by M. Lowe and G. Gereffi, Duke University, 2008
Nitrogen fertilizer use Fertilizer use is very high! Run- off, groundwater contamination, a nd fossil fuel consumption during manufacturing are big concerns. This could be reduced with conservation tillage, drip- irrigation, and new varieties.Graph from „A Value Chain Analysis of Selected California Crops‟ by M. Lowe and G. Gereffi, Duke University, 2008
What about „food miles‟ and greenhouse gas emissions? • Many studies have demonstrated that agricultural production accounts for the bulk of the food systems greenhouse gas emissions; 80% or more of emissions occur before the product even leaves the farm. • In most cases, transportation plays a relatively minor role.Photo from Western Farm Press
Overall environmental impacts • In 1998 the Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology published a lifecycle analysis on tomato ketchup. • “The results showed that it was the hidden (and thus largely ignored by consumers) aspects of the product – its processing as well as its primary and secondary packaging along the supply chain – that had the most devastating consequences for climate and the environment.”Quote from Pat Thomas, Behind the Label: Tomato Ketchup, The Ecologist, 2010
What about social issues, such as how much are field workers paid? Workers on large Tomato Farming Labor Wages (U.S. Dollars) farms are usually paid less and there are many 6.6 6.5 Industrial issues about the U.S. 6.4 Dollars 6.3 Farm s number of hours per Hour 6.2 6.1 Local Farm s worked, pesticide 6 exposure, and working and living conditions.Graph from The Underlying Costs of Tomatoes, a report by Amanda Collins, Edgewood College, 2005
What is a sustainable tomato production system?• There is no simple answer.• It‟s not just “local” versus “industrialized”.• Lots of issues to consider and they are all interconnected.• We‟ve done a good job of raising awareness.• New studies will help us define what direction we need to go.
Sustainability Institute 11/14/2011 Milk and Dairy ProductsBlue Ridge Mr. Keith Collins President, Milkco Inc.
Blue Ridge 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 5,000 0 California: Wisconsin: New York: Pennsylvania: Idaho: Minnesota: New Mexico: states Michigan: Texas: Milk, Million Pounds Washington: is produced in 5 Ohio: 52% of U.S. milk Iowa: Arizona: Indiana: Vermont: Oregon: 11/14/2011 Florida: Kansas: Colorado: Illinois: Missouri: Virginia: Utah: Kentucky: Georgia: South Dakota: Oklahoma: Maryland: Tennessee: Nebraska: North Carolina: Maine: North Dakota: Nevada: Louisiana: Connecticut: Mississippi: Montana: Arkansas:New Hampshire: Massachusetts: South Carolina: Alabama: New Jersey: West Virginia: Delaware: Hawaii: Wyoming: Rhode Island: Alaska: Sustainability Institute
Blue Ridge Number of Milk Bottling Plants 0 5,000 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000195019521954195619581960196219641966 11/14/2011196819701972197419761978 Million Lbs19801982198419861988 Milk Bottling Plants1990199219941996199820002002200420062008 0 50 100 150 200 Million Pounds Processed Per Plant Sustainability Institute
Sustainability Institute 11/14/2011 Milk and Dairy ProductsBlue Ridge Mr. Keith Collins President, Milkco Inc.
Beef Production and Products Sustainability Institute 11/14/2011Blue Ridge Mr. Tony McGaha Extension Agent, Agriculture, Haywood County
Blue Ridge 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 Texas Oklahoma Missouri Nebraska South Dakota Kansas Montana Kentucky 8 states Tennessee Beef cows 1000 hd 53% of beef cows are in Arkansas Florida North Dakota Iowa Colorado Wyoming 11/14/2011 Virginia Alabama California Oregon Georgia Mississippi New Mexico Louisiana Idaho Minnesota Illinois North Carolina Utah Ohio Wisconsin Nevada Washington Indiana West Virginia South Carolina Arizona Pennsylvania Michigan New York Hawaii Maryland Maine Vermont New Jersey Massachusetts Alaska Connecticut DelawareNew Hampshire Rhode Island Sustainability Institute
Blue Ridge 0 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 500 Texas Nebraska Kansas Iowa Colorado California Cattle on feed, 1000 hdSouth Dakota Oklahoma 56% of cattle on Minnesota feed are in 3 states Arizona 11/14/2011 Idaho Wisconsin Washington Michigan Ohio Illinois Indiana OregonPennsylvania WyomingNorth Dakota Missouri Montana New York Utah Virginia Kentucky Maryland Tennessee Nevada ArkansasWest Virginia Sustainability Institute
Cow-Calf Background Stocker Supermarket Farm Packer Farm Distribution Supermarket CAFO Center Supermarket Farm Further Processing Supermarket Sustainability Institute Feedlot 11/14/2011Blue Ridge Distribution Supermarket Farm Farm Center Value Supermarket Added Farm CAFO Direct Consumer Farm Sales Farm Beef System from Farm to Consumer
Sustainability Institute 11/14/2011Blue Ridge Questions & Discussion