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Cognitive development pp. 116 130

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NC FELD Cognitive Development pp. 116 - 130 including thinking and reasoning and creative expression

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Cognitive development pp. 116 130

  1. 1. Cognitive Development (pp. 116 – 130) North Carolina Foundations Task Force. (2013). North Carolina foundations for early learning and development. Raleigh: Author.
  2. 2. Cognitive Development Subdomains • Construction of Knowledge: Thinking and Reasoning • Creative Expression • Social Connections • Mathematical Thinking and Expression • Scientific Exploration and Knowledge • In addition to the Cognitive Development overview, the first 2 subdomains will be explored in this PPT.
  3. 3. Cognitive Development Overview • Cognitive development involves a child’s “ability to acquire, organize, and use information in increasingly complex ways”. • The focus is on the numerous ways in which children learn about, remember, and use information, concepts and knowledge about the world. • The use of prior knowledge, assimilation, and accommodation allows children to become more sophisticated in what they know and are able to understand. • Cognitive development is interrelated with other developmental domains
  4. 4. Cognitive Development Overview (2) • Positive and secure relationships maximize cognitive development • Increased awareness of self, family, and community • Awareness of impact their actions have on others and their environment • Become knowledgeable about things they may not see • Become part of their culture and related beliefs, values, and ideas • Cognitive development and scientific concepts can be enhanced through wonder, confidence, motivation, exploration, and questioning (Katz, 2013) • Cognitive development allows for problem solving, creativity, and academic thinking
  5. 5. Cognitive Development Overview (3) • Cognitive development is dependent on multiple influences • Home environments • Secure relationships • Experiences available and provided • Individual differences • Developmental abilities and/or delays • Dual language learners • Maximizing cognitive development is influenced through • Interesting materials and experiences • Opportunities and encouragement to explore and use materials in new and interesting ways
  6. 6. Construction of Knowledge: Thinking and Reasoning • There are 3 goals within this subdomain: • CD-1: Children use their senses to construct knowledge about the world around them • CD-2: Children recall information and use it for new situations and problems • CD-3: Children demonstrate the ability to think about their own thinking: reasoning, taking perspectives, and making decisions.
  7. 7. Construction of Knowledge: Thinking and Reasoning (2) • Note the progressive developmental indicators for each goal on pp. 121 – 123 • As with ECERS (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale) the developmental indicators provide specific observable examples of what each indicator might look like • Children who are confined to bouncy chairs, walkers, baby beds, and play pens are not free to explore • Adults are responsible for providing safe environments in which children can explore freely
  8. 8. Construction of Knowledge: Thinking and Reasoning (3) • The following is a fun example of a younger preschooler showing her ability to “apply what they know about everyday experiences to new situations”. CD-2p • “Stuffed giraffe teaches 3-year-old the meaning of “happy tears” • If the link does not work, copy and paste the following URL into your browser: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/stuffed-giraffe-teaches-3- year-old-the-meaning-of-happy-tears/ • As children gain the ability to think about their thinking, we use the term “metacognition”. This is a cognitive skill that emerges in developmentally typical preschool children.
  9. 9. Thinking and Reasoning: Strategies for Infants • Encourage questioning, model asking questions, and model your thinking processes aloud • Provide materials for collecting and sorting. Use pictures to help children organize classroom toys. • Provide multi-sensory, self-correcting toys and materials that can be used in multiple ways. (Remember Maria Montessori?)
  10. 10. Thinking and Reasoning: Strategies for Preschoolers • Provide safe, quiet spaces for children who may become overly stimulated. • For children with sensory processing issues or disorders, introduce sensory experiences carefully and gradually. • Help children problem solve rather than solving problems for them. This applies to both exploring and in social situations. • Reflect, call attention to, and expand on a child’s play
  11. 11. Creative Expression Goals • CD-4: Children demonstrate appreciation for different forms of artistic expression. • CD-5: Children demonstrate self-expression and creativity in a variety of forms and contexts, including play, visual arts, music, drama, and dance.
  12. 12. Creative Expression: Strategies for Infants and Toddlers • Place interesting laminated pictures and photographs at eye level of children • Allow infants and toddlers to feel and explore interesting multi- sensory materials. • Adapt materials as needed for younger children and children with developmental delays • Provide variety of materials and toys that can be explored in multiple ways, create scenes, and expand activities • Use creative materials indoors and outdoors
  13. 13. Creative Expression: Strategies for Preschoolers • Provide variety of materials and experiences that allow for exploration . • Change out materials periodically and provide new with the familiar • Allow children to use materials throughout the room rather than enforce confining materials to one area (Example: take large paper and markers to dramatic play area to create signs for upcoming production) • Provide extensive experiences through field trips to plays, productions, museums and other activities. • Encourage creative expression both indoors and outdoors

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