11 Race

College Instructor
4. Jan 2016

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11 Race

  1. Race and Human Diversity
  2. Race vs. Ethnicity • Ethnicity is about shared cultural and social characteristics. • Race is about shared physical characteristics
  3. Origins of Race in the West • Thinking about race originates largely in Europe during the 17th and 18th Century.
  4. Racial “Types”
  5. Racial Classifcation • Typically, racial classification ignored cultural differences between groups who shared physical similarities.
  6. Castas Painting
  7. Castas Painting
  8. Race and Racism • There was never a time when the idea of race, as formulated in 17th and 18th Century, wasn’t racist. • Races were always arranged in hierarchies…with Europeans inevitably at the top.
  9. Modern Humans • Modern Humans display considerable variation in skin color, facial features, hair form…etc.
  10. Variation • Some variation is due to natural selection. We find darker skin closer to the equator, as it provides additional protection from direct sun light. • Other variation may be due to sexual selection: people having physical traits that are seen as desirable are more likely to have offspring.
  11. Skin color geographically
  12. Range of Skin Tones
  13. Race: How different are we from each other? • We can clearly see that humans differ in appearance (phenotype). • The question that many scientists ask is: Just how different are we at the genetic level (genotype)?
  14. Fraternal Twin Daughters
  15. Problems with Race • Most genetic diversity is between any two individuals…only about 5% is between groups.
  16. Problems with Race • Humans are very genetically homogeneous. We don’t display a lot of genetic variation as a species.
  17. Problems with Race • Furthermore, genetic differences aren’t concentrated on racial lines. You may be more similar genetically to someone of a different racial appearance than to someone of a similar racial appearance
  18. Problems with Race A particular trait may be found more frequently in one group rather than another, but there is no trait or gene unique to only one “race.”
  19. Racial Classification • Racial classification is based on phenotype but ignores genotype (genetic differences). • Furthermore, racial classification differs from society to society: there is no universal agreement on what is “white” or “black”…etc.