SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere Nutzervereinbarung und die Datenschutzrichtlinie.
SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere unsere Datenschutzrichtlinie und die Nutzervereinbarung.
Scribd wird die Aktivitäten von SlideShare fortführen und den Betrieb von SlideShare ab 24. September 2020 übernehmen.Ab diesem Zeitpunkt liegt die Verwaltung Ihres SlideShare-Kontos sowie jeglicher Ihrer Inhalte auf SlideShare bei Scribd. Von diesem Datum an gelten die allgemeinen Nutzungsbedingungen und die Datenschutzrichtlinie von Scribd. Wenn Sie dies nicht wünschen, schließen Sie bitte Ihr SlideShare-Konto. Mehr erfahren
Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit Search This week we are launching Wikivoyage. Join us in creating a free travel guide that anyone can edit.Main pageContents Government of India From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFeatured contentCurrent events The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the CentralRandom article Republic of India Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union ofDonate to Wikipedia 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India. It is seated in New Delhi,Wikimedia Shop the capital of India. Interaction The government comprises three branches: Help the executive, About Wikipedia the legislative and Community portal the judiciary. Recent changes Contact Wikipedia The head of the executive branch is the President, who is the Head of State and exercises his or her power directly or through officers subordinate to him / her. Toolbox The legislative branch or the Parliament consists of the lower house, the Lok Sabha, and the upper house, Print/export the Rajya Sabha, as well as the President. Part of the series The judicial branch has the Supreme Court at its apex, 21 High Courts, and numerous civil, criminal and Politics and Government Languages family courts at the district level. India is the largest democracy in the world. of India অসমীয়া Union Government [show] The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary বাংলা Elections [show] Català legislation, such as the Civil Procedure Code, the Indian Penal Code, and the Criminal Procedure Code. The union and individual state governments consist of executive, legislative and judicial branches. The Political parties [show] ް ަ ިެި ދވހ ބ ސ Español legal system as applicable to the federal and individual state governments is based on the English Local and state govt. [show] Français Common and Statutory Law. India accepts International Court of Justice jurisdiction with several Government of India Portal ગુજરાતી reservations. By the 73rd and 74th amendments to the constitution, the Panchayat Raj system has been institutionalized for local governance. v · t · e· िह दी Bahasa Indonesia The legislature is the Parliament. It is bicameral, consisting of two houses: ಕನ ಡ the directly elected 552-member Lok Sabha ("House of the People"), the lower house, and മലയാളം the 250-member indirectly elected and appointed Rajya Sabha ("Council of States"), the upper house. मराठी The Parliament enjoys parliamentary supremacy. All the members of the Council of Ministers as well as the Prime Minister are members Bahasa Melayu of Parliament. If they are not, they must be elected within a period of six months from the time they assume their respective office. The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are responsible to the Lok Sabha collectively. Svenska தமி Contents [hide] ెల గ 1 Collective responsibility 2 Executive branch 2.1 President 2.2 Vice President 2.3 Cabinet, executive departments and agencies 3 Judicial branch 3.1 Supreme Court 3.1.1 Public interest litigation (PIL) 4 Civil service 4.1 Cabinet Secretary 5 Elections and voting 6 State and local governments 7 Finance 7.1 Taxation 8 Central Board of Direct Taxes 8.1 Organizational structure of the Central Board of Direct Taxes 8.2 General budget 9 Problems 9.1 Corruption 9.2 Spending priorities 9.3 Deficits 10 See also 11 Further reading 12 References 13 External links Collective responsibility  converted by Web2PDFConvert.com
The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are jointly accountable to the Lok Sabha. If there is a policy failure or lapse on the part ofthe government, all the members of the council are jointly responsible. If a vote of no confidence is passed against the government, thenall the ministers headed by the Prime Minister have to resign.Executive branch The executive branch of government is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of thestate bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation ofpowers. The separation of powers system is designed to distribute authority away from the executive branch – an attempt to preserveindividual liberty in response to tyrannical leadership throughout history.President  Main article: President of IndiaThe executive power is vested on mainly the President of India by Article 53 (1) of theconstitution. The President enjoys all constitutional powers and exercises them directly orthrough officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 53(1).The President is to actin accordance with aid and advise tendered by the head of government (Prime Minister ofIndia) and his or her Council of Ministers (the cabinet) as described in Article 74(Constitution of India).The Constitution vests in the President of India all the executive powers of the CentralGovernment. The President appoints the Prime Minister, the person most likely tocommand the support of the majority in the Lok Sabha (usually the leader of the majorityparty or coalition). The President then appoints the other members of the Council ofMinisters, distributing portfolios to them on the advice of the Prime Minister.The Council of Ministers remains in power during the pleasure of the President. However,In practice the Council of Ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a Presidentwere to dismiss the Council of Ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger aconstitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the Council of Ministers cannot be dismissed aslong as it commands the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha.The President is responsible for making a wide variety of appointments. These include: Rashtrapati Bhawan, the residence of the Governors of states President of India The Chief Justice, and other judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts of India. The Attorney General The Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners. The Central Vigilance Commissioner and the Vigilance Commissioners. The Presidents Officer The Comptroller and Auditor General The Cabinet Secretary-whose position is equivalent to the Ministers in Central Government. His work is to facilitate smooth transaction of business in Ministries/ Departments of the Government. The Secretariat held by Cabinet Secretary is termed as Cabinet Secretariat and assists in decision-making in Government by ensuring Inter-Ministerial coordination, ironing out differences amongst Ministries/ Departments and evolving consensus through the instrumentality of the standing/ adhoc Committees of Secretaries. The Chairman and other Members of the Union Public Service Commission Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countries.The President is the de jure Commander in Chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce thesentence of a convicted person for one time, particularly in cases involving punishment of death. The decisions involving pardoning andother rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the Prime Minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases,however, the President exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the Prime Minister.Vice President  Main article: Vice President of IndiaThe Vice-President of India is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Government of India, followingthe President. The Vice-President also has the legislative function of acting as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.Cabinet, executive departments and agencies  Main article: Cabinet of IndiaThe Cabinet of India includes the Prime Minister and 35 Cabinet Ministers. Each Minister must be a member of one of the houses ofIndias Parliament. The Cabinet is headed by the Cabinet Secretary, who is also acting as the head of the Indian Administrative Service.Other Ministers are categorized as Union Cabinet Ministers, who are heads of the various Ministries; Ministers of State, who are juniormembers who report directly to one of the Cabinet Ministers, often overseeing a specific aspect of government; and Junior Ministers ofState (Independent Charges), which do not report to a Cabinet Minister.Judicial branch Indias independent judicial system began under the British, and its concepts and converted by Web2PDFConvert.com
Indias independent judicial system began under the British, and its concepts andprocedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. The Supreme Court of Indiaconsists of a Chief Justice and 30 associate justices, all appointed by the Presidenton the advice of the Chief Justice of India. The jury trials were abolished in India inearly 1960s, after the famous case KM Nanavati v State of Maharashtra, for reasonsof being vulnerable to media and public pressure, as well as to being misled.Unlike its US counterpart, the Indian justice system consists of a unitary system atboth state and federal level. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of India, HighCourts of India at the state level, and District Courts and Sessions Courts at thedistrict level.Supreme Court  Supreme Court of India Main article: Supreme Court of IndiaThe Supreme Court of India has original jurisdiction, appellate jurisdiction and advisory jurisdiction. Its exclusive original jurisdictionextends to any dispute between the Government of India and one or more states, or between the Government of India and any state orstates on one side and one or more states on the other, or between two or more states, if and insofar as the dispute involves anyquestion (whether of law or of fact) on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends.In addition, Article 32 of the Indian Constitution gives an extensive original jurisdiction to the Supreme Court in regard to enforcement offundamental rights. It is empowered to issue directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus,prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari to enforce them. The Supreme Court has been conferred with power to direct transfer of any civil orcriminal case from one State High Court to another State High Court, or from a court subordinate to another State High Court.Public interest litigation (PIL) Although the proceedings in the Supreme Court arise out of the judgments or orders made by the subordinate courts, of late the SupremeCourt has started entertaining matters in which interest of the public at large is involved, and the Court may be moved by any individual orgroup of persons either by filing a Writ Petition at the Filing Counter of the Court, or by addressing a letter to Honble The Chief Justice ofIndia highlighting the question of public importance for invoking this jurisdiction.Civil service  Main article: Civil Services of IndiaThe Civil Services of India is the civil service and the permanent bureaucracy of the Government of India. The executive decisions areimplemented by the Indian civil servants. Civil servants are employees of the Government of India and not Parliament of India. Not allemployees of the Government of India are civil servants.In parliamentary democracy of India, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of thepeople which are the ministers. These ministers are accountable to the legislatures which are also elected by the people on the basis ofuniversal adult franchise. The ministers are indirectly responsible to the people themselves. But the handful of ministers cannot beexpected to deal personally with the manifold problems of modern administration. Thus the ministers lay down the policy and it is for thecivil servants to carry out this policy.Cabinet Secretary The Cabinet Secretary of India is the most senior civil servant in the country. TheCabinet Secretary is the Ex-Officio and Chairman of the Civil Services Board of theRepublic of India; the chief of the Indian Administrative Service and head of all civilservices under the rules of business of the Government of India. The CabinetSecretary is arguably Indias most powerful bureaucrat and right hand of PrimeMinister of India.The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the administration of the Government ofIndia Transaction of Business Rules, 1961 and the Government of India Allocation ofBusiness Rules 1961, facilitating smooth transaction of business inMinistries/Departments of the Government by ensuring adherence to these rules. The The Cabinet Secretariat of IndiaSecretariat assists in decision-making in Government by ensuring Inter-Ministerialcoordination, ironing out differences amongst Ministries/Departments and evolvingconsensus through the instrumentality of the standing/ad hoc Committees of Secretaries. Through this mechanism new policy initiativesare also promoted.The Cabinet Secretariat ensures that the President of India, the Vice-President and Ministers are kept informed of the major activities ofall Departments by means of a monthly summary report of their activities. Management of major crisis situations in the country andcoordinating activities of the various Ministries in such a situation is also one of the functions of the Cabinet Secretariat.Elections and voting  Main articles: Elections in India and Politics of IndiaIndia has a quasi federal government, with elected officials at the federal (national), state and local levels. On a national level, the head ofgovernment, the Prime Minister, is elected in-directly by the people, through a general election where the leader of themajority winning party is selected to be the Prime Minister. All members of the federal legislature, the Parliament, are directly elected.Elections in India take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.State and local governments  Main articles: State governments in India and Local government converted by Web2PDFConvert.com
State governments in India are the governments ruling States of India and the chief minister heads the state government.Power is dividedbetween central government and state governments. State governments legislature is bicameral in 6 states and unicameral in the rest.Lower house is elected with 5 years term, while in upper house 1/3 of the total members in the house gets elected every 2 years with 6year term.Local government function at the basic level.It is the third level of government apart from central and state governments.It consists ofpanchayats in rural areas and municipalities in urban areas .They are elected directly or indirectly by the people.Finance Taxation  Main article: Taxation in IndiaIndia has a three-tier tax structure, wherein the constitution empowers the union government tolevy income tax, tax on capital transactions (wealth tax, inheritance tax), sales tax, servicetax, customs and excise duties and the state governments to levy sales tax on intrastate saleof goods, tax on entertainment and professions, excise duties on manufacture of alcohol,stamp duties on transfer of property and collect land revenue (levy on land owned). The localgovernments are empowered by the state government to levy property tax and charge users forpublic utilities like water supply, sewage etc. More than half of the revenues of the unionand state governments come from taxes, of which 3/4 come from direct taxes. More than aquarter of the union governments tax revenues is shared with the state governments.The tax reforms, initiated in 1991, have sought to rationalise the tax structure and increase Regional office of the State Bank of Indiacompliance by taking steps in the following directions: (SBI), Indias largest bank, in Mumbai. The government of India is the largest Reducing the rates of individual and corporate income taxes, excises, customs and shareholder in SBI. making it more progressive Reducing exemptions and concessions Simplification of laws and procedures Introduction of permanent account number (PAN) to track monetary transactions 21 of the 28 states introduced value added tax (VAT) on 1 April 2005 to replace the complex and multiple sales tax systemThe non-tax revenues of the central government come from fiscal services, interest receipts, public sector dividends, etc., while the non-tax revenues of the States are grants from the central government, interest receipts, dividends and income from general, economic andsocial services.Inter-state share in the federal tax pool is decided by the recommendations of the Finance Commission to the President.Total tax receipts of Centre and State amount to approximately 18% of national GDP. This compares to a figure of 37–45% in the OECD.Central Board of Direct Taxes The Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) is a part of the Department of Revenue in the Ministry of Finance, Government of India. TheCBDT provides essential inputs for policy and planning of direct taxes in India and is also responsible for administration of the direct taxlaws through Income Tax Department. The CBDT is a statutory authority functioning under the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1963.It isIndias official Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) .The Central Board of Revenue as the Department apex bodycharged with the administration of taxes came into existence as a result of the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1924. Initially the Boardwas in charge of both direct and indirect taxes. However, when the administration of taxes became too unwieldy for one Board to handle,the Board was split up into two, namely the Central Board of Direct Taxes and Central Board of Excise and Customs with effect from1.1.1964. This bifurcation was brought about by constitution of the two Boards u/s 3 of the Central Boards of Revenue Act, 1963.Organizational structure of the Central Board of Direct Taxes The CBDT is headed by Chairman and also comprises six members, all of whom are ex officio Special Secretary to Government ofIndia.The Investigation Division of the Central Board of Direct Taxes is also headed by a member of the CBDT.The Chairman and Members of CBDT are selected from Indian Revenue Service (IRS), a premier civil service of India, whose membersconstitute the top management of Income Tax Department and other various departments.General budget The Finance minister of India presents the annual union budget in the Parliament on the last working day of February. The budget has tobe passed by the Lok Sabha before it can come into effect on 1 April, the start of Indias fiscal year. The Union budget is preceded by aneconomic survey which outlines the broad direction of the budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financialyear. This economic survey involves all the variousNGOs, women organizations, business people, old people associations etc.The 2009 Union budget of India had a total estimated expenditure for 2009-10 was₹1,020,838 crore (US$185.8 billion), of which₹695,689 crore (US$126.6 billion) was towards Non Plan and₹325,149 crore (US$59.2 billion) towards Plan expenditure. Total estimatedrevenue was₹619,842 crore (US$112.8 billion), including revenue receipts of ₹614,497 crore (US$111.8 billion) and capital receipts of₹5,345 crore (US$972.8 million), excluding borrowings. The resulting fiscal deficit was₹400,996 crore (US$73 billion) while revenue deficitwas ₹282,735 crore (US$51.5 billion).The gross tax receipts were budgeted at ₹641,079 crore (US$116.7 billion) and non-tax revenuereceipts at₹140,279 crore (US$25.5 billion).Indias non-development revenue expenditure has increased nearly fivefold in 2003–04 since 1990–91 and more than tenfold since 1985–1986. Interest payments are the single largest item of expenditure and accounted for more than 40% of the total non developmentexpenditure in the 2003–04 budget. Defence expenditure increased fourfold during the same period and has been increasing due to Indiasdesire to project its military prowess beyond South Asia. In 2007, Indias defence spending stood at US$26.5 billion.Problems  converted by Web2PDFConvert.com
Corruption  Main article: Corruption in IndiaNearly a quarter of the 543 elected members of parliament had been chargedwith crimes, including rape and murder, in 2009.Spending priorities  See also: Subsidies in IndiaThe government provides subsidies on consumable rations like kerosene andagricultural produce as a welfare state.[dead link] Statutory Corporations likeFood Corporation of India are compensated by the government for any potential Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2007losses. Progressive attempts since Liberalization have been madeboth at the state and the central level to rationalize these subsidies throughcommoditization & through economies of scale with varying results. Farmers are given electricity at nominal rates so as tostimulate agricultural production.On the other hand, India spends relatively little on education, health, or infrastructure. According to the UNESCO, India has a very lowpublic expenditure on higher education per student as compared to other developing and developed countries.Deficits As per the CIA World Factbook, in 2010, India ranks 60th in the world, with respect to the public debt, with a total of 48.50% of GDP.See also  Constitution of India Parliamentary democracy Government of India portal Union Council of Ministers of India India portal Foreign relations of India National Portal of IndiaFurther reading  Subrata K. Mitra and V.B. Singh. 1999. Democracy and Social Change in India: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National Electorate. New Delhi: Sage Publications. ISBN 81-7036-809-X (India HB) ISBN 0-7619-9344-4 (U.S. HB).References  1. ^ Ministry of Law and Justice, Govt of India: Constitution of India, updated up to 94th Amendment Act, page 26,http://lawmin.nic.in/coi/coiason29july08.pdf 2. ^ http://cabsec.nic.in 3. ^ Service tax and expenditure tax are not levied in Jammu and Kashmir; Intra-state sale happens when goods or the title of goods move from one state to another. 4. ^ a b Bernardi, Luigi and Fraschini, Angela (2005). Tax System And Tax Reforms In India . Working paper n. 51. 5. ^ Tax revenue was 88% of total union government revenue in 1950–51 and has come down to 73% in 2003–04, as a result of increase in non-tax revenue. Tax revenues were 70% of total state government revenues in 2002 to 2003. Indirect taxes were 84% of the union governments total tax revenue and have come down to 62% in 2003–04, mostly due to cuts in import duties and rationalisation. The states share in union governments tax revenue is 28.0% for the period 2000 to 2005 as per the recommendations of the eleventh finance commission. In addition, states that do not levy sales tax on sugar, textiles and tobacco, are entitled to 1.5% of the proceeds.Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M. (2005). Indian Economy. S.Chand. pp. 938, 942, 946. ISBN 81-219-0298-3. 6. ^ "Indif_real_GDP_per_capitaa says 21 of 29 states to launch new tax" . Daily Times. 25 March 2005. 7. ^ Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.. "55". Indian Economy. pp. 943–945. 8. ^ Kamdar, Mira (3 April 2008). "Indias budget may backfire | The Australian" . Theaustralian.news.com.au. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 9. ^ Washington Post:When the Little Ones Run the Show (quote from the New Delhi based Association for Democratic Reform) retrieved 14 May 2009 10. ^ "India should redirect subsidies to those who need them" . The International Herald Tribute. 2005. 11. ^ "Higher education spending: India at the bottom of BRIC" . Rediff. 2005. 12. ^ CIAWorld FactbookExternal links  Official Portal of the Indian Government Highest Executive, Judiciary and Legislative officers in India Search of Indian Government official web sites v · t · e· India topics [show] v · t · e· Cabinet of India [show] v · t · e· Governments of Asia [show] Rate this page View page ratings Whats this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written converted by Web2PDFConvert.com