SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 26
Introduction to
Public Health
HEALTH


Health is a state of complete
physical, mental and social well being and
not merely the absence of disease or
infirmity
SPECTRUM OF HEALTH







Ideal health
Positive health
Negative or marginal health
In apparent disease
Apparent disease
Death
Ideal health:
This conforms to the WHO definition of
health
Positive health
Perfect continuing adjustment between
the individual and the environment.

This definition indicates that health is a
positive dynamic interaction between the
individual and his surroundings with
proper acclimatization to maintain health.

Negative or marginal
health:


If the individual is in a state of
equilibrium, he looks healthy, but he has
no ability to adjust himself to his
surroundings, then he is going to fall ill on
the slightest adverse stimulus.
In-apparent disease:


Disease is a state of departure from
normal to the extent that the ordinary
physiologic processes of the tissues and
organs are not enough to restore the body
to its normal functions. Unapparent
disease (also called pre-clinical) is not
recognized by the individual, but can be
discovered by examination and screening
tests.
Apparent disease:


The individual is aware that s/he is
suffering from an illness, whether s/he
seeks medical care or not.
Epidemiology (Epi = on,
and demos = people)
Epidemiology is the subject concerned
with study of what happens to people
when involved by disease, whether
communicable or non-communicable
 It is defined as the study of distribution,
frequency, determinants, and dynamics of
diseases in human populations.

Factors affecting the
occurrence of a disease




Human being (host factors)
Environment
Causative Agent
Host Factors








Heredity and genetic factors
Age and sex
Health status
Previous immunologic experience
Physiologic state
Life style: e.g. smoking.
Socio-economic status
Environmental Factors




The physical environment
The Biologic environment
The social/cultural environment
Disease Causation and
Epidemiological Triad:
Risk Factors and Etiological
Factors:
Simple disease caustaion & Multiple risk
factors
Causative Agent:









Biologic agents
Nutritional agents
Chemical agents: Examples are
poisons, insecticides, and even some drugs.
Physical agents: Excessive heat or cold
, electricity, irradiation, ....
Mechanical agents: causing injuries or
accidents.
Metabolic agents:
e.g., phenylketonuria, galactosemia,..
Genetic agents: as in Down's syndrome.
Functional: Dysfunction of certain organs or
gland may produce disease, e.g., Diabetes
Mellitus.
Risk Factors:
These are factors that make an
individual, a family, a group of
individuals, or a community, more prone
to a specific disease due to the presence
of a certain factor which is not the direct
causative agent.
 The causative agent may be known or
unknown.
 The risk factors are related to the host or
his/her self specific environment.

PUBLIC HEALTH
Public health is "the art and science of
promoting health, preventing disease and
increasing the span of healthy life through
organized efforts of the society".
 Another definition, which has almost the
same meaning "public health can be
defined as the combination of sciences,
skills and beliefs that are directed to the
maintenance and improvement of the
health of all the people."

Essential public health
functions includes:
Protection of the environment
Health education
Health legislation, and health regulations
Prevention and control of communicable
diseases
 Care for special groups as mothers,
children, and workers in certain hazardous
occupations
 Assessment of health needs, plans and
supports the provision of health care
services to the population




Community Health /
Community Medicine:
Is the application of the principles of
public health to communities.
 A community is a group of individuals
sharing an identity, culture, and operates
through common institutions and
organizations. A health Center in a rural
or an urban area is responsible for the
health of the community they serve within
their catchment area.

Preventive Medicine:


is the science and art of application of the
different levels of prevention at the
population, community, and individual
levels.
PATTERNS OF CARE



PREVENTIVE CARE
CURATIVE CARE
Levels of Prevention:


Primary

 Health Promotion
 Specific Prevention



Secondary

 Early detection of diseases
 Prompt and appropriate treatment



Tertiary

 Rehabilitation
Patterns of curative
care:





Emergency care
Episodic care
Continuous care
Terminal care
Comparison between clinical
medicine and community
medicine
Clinical Medicine
Community Medicine
_________________________________________________________________
Objective
Patient cure
Health improvement
Information

Complaint, history
and related factors

morbidity, mortality

Investigations

Laboratory tests,

Survey studies

Diagnosis

X-ray, other tests
Differential diagnosis

Resources

Available therapy

Management

Treatment

Evaluation
status

Follow-up of patient

Community diagnosis &
priority setting
Health & Health related
services
Health programs
Assessment of health
THANK YOU

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Was ist angesagt?

Concept of health and disease
Concept of health and diseaseConcept of health and disease
Concept of health and diseasesirjana Tiwari
 
Introduction to community medicine ppt
Introduction to community medicine pptIntroduction to community medicine ppt
Introduction to community medicine pptDr.Farhana Yasmin
 
Concept of health and disease
Concept of health and diseaseConcept of health and disease
Concept of health and diseaseAmany El-seoud
 
History of public health
History of public healthHistory of public health
History of public healthArjun Hamal
 
Concept of Public Health and Its Challenges
Concept of Public Health and Its ChallengesConcept of Public Health and Its Challenges
Concept of Public Health and Its ChallengesZulfiquer Ahmed Amin
 
Natural history of disease
Natural history of diseaseNatural history of disease
Natural history of diseaseBrijesh Kumar
 
Public health concept, i ketut swarjana
Public health concept, i ketut swarjanaPublic health concept, i ketut swarjana
Public health concept, i ketut swarjanaswarjana2012
 
Basic concepts of community medicine
Basic concepts of community medicineBasic concepts of community medicine
Basic concepts of community medicineDalia El-Shafei
 
Evolution of public health.pptx ug
Evolution of public health.pptx ugEvolution of public health.pptx ug
Evolution of public health.pptx ugSachin Patne
 
Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Infectious Disease EpidemiologyInfectious Disease Epidemiology
Infectious Disease EpidemiologyArvind Kushwaha
 
introduction-to-health-policy
introduction-to-health-policyintroduction-to-health-policy
introduction-to-health-policyNayyar Kazmi
 
Concepts of disease
Concepts of diseaseConcepts of disease
Concepts of diseaseVineetha K
 
Social determinants of health
Social determinants of healthSocial determinants of health
Social determinants of healthDr. Anees Alyafei
 
Social medicine community medicine,preventive medicine, community health
Social medicine community medicine,preventive medicine, community healthSocial medicine community medicine,preventive medicine, community health
Social medicine community medicine,preventive medicine, community healthsirjana Tiwari
 
Function , Core competencies and scope of public health
Function , Core competencies and scope of public healthFunction , Core competencies and scope of public health
Function , Core competencies and scope of public healthsirjana Tiwari
 
Social Determinants of Health
Social Determinants of HealthSocial Determinants of Health
Social Determinants of HealthChad Leaman
 

Was ist angesagt? (20)

Concept of health and disease
Concept of health and diseaseConcept of health and disease
Concept of health and disease
 
Introduction to community medicine ppt
Introduction to community medicine pptIntroduction to community medicine ppt
Introduction to community medicine ppt
 
Concept of health and disease
Concept of health and diseaseConcept of health and disease
Concept of health and disease
 
History of public health
History of public healthHistory of public health
History of public health
 
Introduction to epidemiology
Introduction to epidemiologyIntroduction to epidemiology
Introduction to epidemiology
 
Concept of Public Health and Its Challenges
Concept of Public Health and Its ChallengesConcept of Public Health and Its Challenges
Concept of Public Health and Its Challenges
 
Natural history of disease
Natural history of diseaseNatural history of disease
Natural history of disease
 
Public health concept, i ketut swarjana
Public health concept, i ketut swarjanaPublic health concept, i ketut swarjana
Public health concept, i ketut swarjana
 
Basic concepts of community medicine
Basic concepts of community medicineBasic concepts of community medicine
Basic concepts of community medicine
 
Evolution of public health.pptx ug
Evolution of public health.pptx ugEvolution of public health.pptx ug
Evolution of public health.pptx ug
 
Concept of public health.pdf
Concept of public health.pdfConcept of public health.pdf
Concept of public health.pdf
 
Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Infectious Disease EpidemiologyInfectious Disease Epidemiology
Infectious Disease Epidemiology
 
15 Role of epidemiology in public health
15 Role of epidemiology in public health15 Role of epidemiology in public health
15 Role of epidemiology in public health
 
introduction-to-health-policy
introduction-to-health-policyintroduction-to-health-policy
introduction-to-health-policy
 
Chetan epidemiology
Chetan epidemiologyChetan epidemiology
Chetan epidemiology
 
Concepts of disease
Concepts of diseaseConcepts of disease
Concepts of disease
 
Social determinants of health
Social determinants of healthSocial determinants of health
Social determinants of health
 
Social medicine community medicine,preventive medicine, community health
Social medicine community medicine,preventive medicine, community healthSocial medicine community medicine,preventive medicine, community health
Social medicine community medicine,preventive medicine, community health
 
Function , Core competencies and scope of public health
Function , Core competencies and scope of public healthFunction , Core competencies and scope of public health
Function , Core competencies and scope of public health
 
Social Determinants of Health
Social Determinants of HealthSocial Determinants of Health
Social Determinants of Health
 

Ähnlich wie Introduction to Public Health: Understanding the Spectrum of Health and Disease

community medicine curriculum
community medicine curriculumcommunity medicine curriculum
community medicine curriculumAmany El-seoud
 
health and wellness fundamental of nursing full chapter
health and wellness fundamental of nursing full chapterhealth and wellness fundamental of nursing full chapter
health and wellness fundamental of nursing full chapterpinkijat
 
Theories of disease causation-1.pptx
Theories of disease causation-1.pptxTheories of disease causation-1.pptx
Theories of disease causation-1.pptxSaeedAbdiali
 
pathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptx
pathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptxpathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptx
pathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptxSavitaHanamsagar
 
pathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptx
pathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptxpathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptx
pathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptxSavitaHanamsagar
 
19 con health.pdf good quality content help students
19 con health.pdf good quality content help students19 con health.pdf good quality content help students
19 con health.pdf good quality content help studentskush23316
 
1 topic social med.pptx
1 topic social med.pptx1 topic social med.pptx
1 topic social med.pptxMrMedicine
 
Concept of health and illnes lecture 2
Concept of health and illnes lecture 2Concept of health and illnes lecture 2
Concept of health and illnes lecture 2Muhammadasif909
 
CONCEPTS OF HEALTH BY Segufta Dilshad (SgD), MDS, EMPH
CONCEPTS OF HEALTH BY Segufta Dilshad (SgD), MDS, EMPHCONCEPTS OF HEALTH BY Segufta Dilshad (SgD), MDS, EMPH
CONCEPTS OF HEALTH BY Segufta Dilshad (SgD), MDS, EMPHModupe Sarratt
 
Concept of health and Disease
Concept of health and DiseaseConcept of health and Disease
Concept of health and DiseaseKailash Nagar
 
community health nursing / concept of heath and disease.ppt
community health nursing / concept of heath and disease.pptcommunity health nursing / concept of heath and disease.ppt
community health nursing / concept of heath and disease.pptelizakoirala3
 

Ähnlich wie Introduction to Public Health: Understanding the Spectrum of Health and Disease (20)

community medicine curriculum
community medicine curriculumcommunity medicine curriculum
community medicine curriculum
 
Family Planning AND Epidemiology
Family Planning AND EpidemiologyFamily Planning AND Epidemiology
Family Planning AND Epidemiology
 
Community tyba (1).pptx
Community tyba (1).pptxCommunity tyba (1).pptx
Community tyba (1).pptx
 
health and wellness fundamental of nursing full chapter
health and wellness fundamental of nursing full chapterhealth and wellness fundamental of nursing full chapter
health and wellness fundamental of nursing full chapter
 
Theories of disease causation-1.pptx
Theories of disease causation-1.pptxTheories of disease causation-1.pptx
Theories of disease causation-1.pptx
 
pathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptx
pathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptxpathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptx
pathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptx
 
pathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptx
pathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptxpathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptx
pathophysiology and psychodynamics of disease causatioon.pptx
 
19 con health.pdf good quality content help students
19 con health.pdf good quality content help students19 con health.pdf good quality content help students
19 con health.pdf good quality content help students
 
1 topic social med.pptx
1 topic social med.pptx1 topic social med.pptx
1 topic social med.pptx
 
dpt
dptdpt
dpt
 
50321.ppt
50321.ppt50321.ppt
50321.ppt
 
Dheeraj ppt
Dheeraj pptDheeraj ppt
Dheeraj ppt
 
50321.ppt
50321.ppt50321.ppt
50321.ppt
 
vivek ppt.ppt
vivek ppt.pptvivek ppt.ppt
vivek ppt.ppt
 
50321.ppt
50321.ppt50321.ppt
50321.ppt
 
1. concepts of community health
1. concepts of community health1. concepts of community health
1. concepts of community health
 
Concept of health and illnes lecture 2
Concept of health and illnes lecture 2Concept of health and illnes lecture 2
Concept of health and illnes lecture 2
 
CONCEPTS OF HEALTH BY Segufta Dilshad (SgD), MDS, EMPH
CONCEPTS OF HEALTH BY Segufta Dilshad (SgD), MDS, EMPHCONCEPTS OF HEALTH BY Segufta Dilshad (SgD), MDS, EMPH
CONCEPTS OF HEALTH BY Segufta Dilshad (SgD), MDS, EMPH
 
Concept of health and Disease
Concept of health and DiseaseConcept of health and Disease
Concept of health and Disease
 
community health nursing / concept of heath and disease.ppt
community health nursing / concept of heath and disease.pptcommunity health nursing / concept of heath and disease.ppt
community health nursing / concept of heath and disease.ppt
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptxGlomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptxDr.Nusrat Tariq
 
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes FunctionsHematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes FunctionsMedicoseAcademics
 
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls ServiceCall Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Servicesonalikaur4
 
Call Girl Surat Madhuri 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Surat
Call Girl Surat Madhuri 7001305949 Independent Escort Service SuratCall Girl Surat Madhuri 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Surat
Call Girl Surat Madhuri 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Suratnarwatsonia7
 
Glomerular Filtration and determinants of glomerular filtration .pptx
Glomerular Filtration and  determinants of glomerular filtration .pptxGlomerular Filtration and  determinants of glomerular filtration .pptx
Glomerular Filtration and determinants of glomerular filtration .pptxDr.Nusrat Tariq
 
Call Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Bangalore
Call Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service BangaloreCall Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Bangalore
Call Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Bangalorenarwatsonia7
 
Call Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Availablenarwatsonia7
 
call girls in Connaught Place DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...
call girls in Connaught Place  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...call girls in Connaught Place  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...
call girls in Connaught Place DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...saminamagar
 
Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...
Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...
Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...rajnisinghkjn
 
VIP Call Girls Mumbai Arpita 9910780858 Independent Escort Service Mumbai
VIP Call Girls Mumbai Arpita 9910780858 Independent Escort Service MumbaiVIP Call Girls Mumbai Arpita 9910780858 Independent Escort Service Mumbai
VIP Call Girls Mumbai Arpita 9910780858 Independent Escort Service Mumbaisonalikaur4
 
Call Girls In Andheri East Call 9920874524 Book Hot And Sexy Girls
Call Girls In Andheri East Call 9920874524 Book Hot And Sexy GirlsCall Girls In Andheri East Call 9920874524 Book Hot And Sexy Girls
Call Girls In Andheri East Call 9920874524 Book Hot And Sexy Girlsnehamumbai
 
Housewife Call Girls Bangalore - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash o...
Housewife Call Girls Bangalore - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash o...Housewife Call Girls Bangalore - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash o...
Housewife Call Girls Bangalore - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash o...narwatsonia7
 
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdfHemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdfMedicoseAcademics
 
Kolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call Now
Kolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call NowKolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call Now
Kolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call NowNehru place Escorts
 
Call Girls Service in Bommanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone nu...
Call Girls Service in Bommanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone nu...Call Girls Service in Bommanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone nu...
Call Girls Service in Bommanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone nu...narwatsonia7
 
call girls in munirka DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in munirka  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in munirka  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in munirka DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️saminamagar
 
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Availablenarwatsonia7
 
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service NoidaCall Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service NoidaPooja Gupta
 
Call Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Availablenarwatsonia7
 
Call Girls Kanakapura Road Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...
Call Girls Kanakapura Road Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...Call Girls Kanakapura Road Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...
Call Girls Kanakapura Road Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...narwatsonia7
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptxGlomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
 
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes FunctionsHematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
 
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls ServiceCall Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
 
Call Girl Surat Madhuri 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Surat
Call Girl Surat Madhuri 7001305949 Independent Escort Service SuratCall Girl Surat Madhuri 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Surat
Call Girl Surat Madhuri 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Surat
 
Glomerular Filtration and determinants of glomerular filtration .pptx
Glomerular Filtration and  determinants of glomerular filtration .pptxGlomerular Filtration and  determinants of glomerular filtration .pptx
Glomerular Filtration and determinants of glomerular filtration .pptx
 
Call Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Bangalore
Call Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service BangaloreCall Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Bangalore
Call Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Bangalore
 
Call Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
 
call girls in Connaught Place DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...
call girls in Connaught Place  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...call girls in Connaught Place  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...
call girls in Connaught Place DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service ...
 
Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...
Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...
Dwarka Sector 6 Call Girls ( 9873940964 ) Book Hot And Sexy Girls In A Few Cl...
 
VIP Call Girls Mumbai Arpita 9910780858 Independent Escort Service Mumbai
VIP Call Girls Mumbai Arpita 9910780858 Independent Escort Service MumbaiVIP Call Girls Mumbai Arpita 9910780858 Independent Escort Service Mumbai
VIP Call Girls Mumbai Arpita 9910780858 Independent Escort Service Mumbai
 
Call Girls In Andheri East Call 9920874524 Book Hot And Sexy Girls
Call Girls In Andheri East Call 9920874524 Book Hot And Sexy GirlsCall Girls In Andheri East Call 9920874524 Book Hot And Sexy Girls
Call Girls In Andheri East Call 9920874524 Book Hot And Sexy Girls
 
Housewife Call Girls Bangalore - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash o...
Housewife Call Girls Bangalore - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash o...Housewife Call Girls Bangalore - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash o...
Housewife Call Girls Bangalore - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash o...
 
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdfHemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
 
Kolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call Now
Kolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call NowKolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call Now
Kolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call Now
 
Call Girls Service in Bommanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone nu...
Call Girls Service in Bommanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone nu...Call Girls Service in Bommanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone nu...
Call Girls Service in Bommanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone nu...
 
call girls in munirka DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in munirka  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in munirka  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in munirka DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
 
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
 
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service NoidaCall Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
 
Call Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
 
Call Girls Kanakapura Road Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...
Call Girls Kanakapura Road Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...Call Girls Kanakapura Road Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...
Call Girls Kanakapura Road Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...
 

Introduction to Public Health: Understanding the Spectrum of Health and Disease

  • 2. HEALTH  Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
  • 3. SPECTRUM OF HEALTH       Ideal health Positive health Negative or marginal health In apparent disease Apparent disease Death
  • 4. Ideal health: This conforms to the WHO definition of health
  • 5. Positive health Perfect continuing adjustment between the individual and the environment.  This definition indicates that health is a positive dynamic interaction between the individual and his surroundings with proper acclimatization to maintain health. 
  • 6. Negative or marginal health:  If the individual is in a state of equilibrium, he looks healthy, but he has no ability to adjust himself to his surroundings, then he is going to fall ill on the slightest adverse stimulus.
  • 7. In-apparent disease:  Disease is a state of departure from normal to the extent that the ordinary physiologic processes of the tissues and organs are not enough to restore the body to its normal functions. Unapparent disease (also called pre-clinical) is not recognized by the individual, but can be discovered by examination and screening tests.
  • 8. Apparent disease:  The individual is aware that s/he is suffering from an illness, whether s/he seeks medical care or not.
  • 9. Epidemiology (Epi = on, and demos = people) Epidemiology is the subject concerned with study of what happens to people when involved by disease, whether communicable or non-communicable  It is defined as the study of distribution, frequency, determinants, and dynamics of diseases in human populations. 
  • 10. Factors affecting the occurrence of a disease    Human being (host factors) Environment Causative Agent
  • 11. Host Factors        Heredity and genetic factors Age and sex Health status Previous immunologic experience Physiologic state Life style: e.g. smoking. Socio-economic status
  • 12. Environmental Factors    The physical environment The Biologic environment The social/cultural environment
  • 14. Risk Factors and Etiological Factors:
  • 15. Simple disease caustaion & Multiple risk factors
  • 16. Causative Agent:         Biologic agents Nutritional agents Chemical agents: Examples are poisons, insecticides, and even some drugs. Physical agents: Excessive heat or cold , electricity, irradiation, .... Mechanical agents: causing injuries or accidents. Metabolic agents: e.g., phenylketonuria, galactosemia,.. Genetic agents: as in Down's syndrome. Functional: Dysfunction of certain organs or gland may produce disease, e.g., Diabetes Mellitus.
  • 17. Risk Factors: These are factors that make an individual, a family, a group of individuals, or a community, more prone to a specific disease due to the presence of a certain factor which is not the direct causative agent.  The causative agent may be known or unknown.  The risk factors are related to the host or his/her self specific environment. 
  • 18. PUBLIC HEALTH Public health is "the art and science of promoting health, preventing disease and increasing the span of healthy life through organized efforts of the society".  Another definition, which has almost the same meaning "public health can be defined as the combination of sciences, skills and beliefs that are directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of all the people." 
  • 19. Essential public health functions includes: Protection of the environment Health education Health legislation, and health regulations Prevention and control of communicable diseases  Care for special groups as mothers, children, and workers in certain hazardous occupations  Assessment of health needs, plans and supports the provision of health care services to the population    
  • 20. Community Health / Community Medicine: Is the application of the principles of public health to communities.  A community is a group of individuals sharing an identity, culture, and operates through common institutions and organizations. A health Center in a rural or an urban area is responsible for the health of the community they serve within their catchment area. 
  • 21. Preventive Medicine:  is the science and art of application of the different levels of prevention at the population, community, and individual levels.
  • 23. Levels of Prevention:  Primary  Health Promotion  Specific Prevention  Secondary  Early detection of diseases  Prompt and appropriate treatment  Tertiary  Rehabilitation
  • 24. Patterns of curative care:     Emergency care Episodic care Continuous care Terminal care
  • 25. Comparison between clinical medicine and community medicine Clinical Medicine Community Medicine _________________________________________________________________ Objective Patient cure Health improvement Information Complaint, history and related factors morbidity, mortality Investigations Laboratory tests, Survey studies Diagnosis X-ray, other tests Differential diagnosis Resources Available therapy Management Treatment Evaluation status Follow-up of patient Community diagnosis & priority setting Health & Health related services Health programs Assessment of health