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Geodesic Dome - History and Construction

a descriptive research on history, types and construction method of a Geodesic Dome. Being sustainable, geodesic dome is being used very frequently from the past few decades. Currently, these domes are also used as residential constructions

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Geodesic Dome - History and Construction

  1. 1. GEODESIQUE DOME RESEARCH 2 Al Ghurair University, Dubai Academic City Done By: Azra Maliha Sara Hashim
  2. 2. CONTENTS:  Introduction  History  Methods of construction  Materials to be used in construction  Advantages  Disadvantages  Example in architecture  References
  3. 3. Introduction • A geodesic dome is a thin shelled arrangements made out of triangles connected together to form a true sphere. • The triangles are architecturally firm and distribute the stress throughout the dome, allowing the structure to bear heavy loads for their size. • Space frame is the three dimensional framework that makes the dome stabled. • The triangles are put as hexagons and pentagons to eventually form the dome.
  4. 4. History of geodesic dome • I the year 1919,Walter Bauersfelt who is fromGermany has decided to base a moveable projectors within a still dome. • The first model ever made was more that half a sphere butWalter Bauersfeld has fixed the issue of how to make a really huge sphere by approximating it. • After 30 years, an American architect R. Buckminster Fuller has invented a similar idea but the difference is that he designed it to be affordable and efficient that can be made fast. It was R. Buckminster Fuller who called it a geodesic dome. • The geodesic dome is the strongest, lightest and most cost-effective building that was ever made because it’s ability to cover space without any interior supports “such as columns” that usually cover up space in an interior. Not only is it cost effective but it is also easy to construct.
  5. 5. First build geodesic dome
  6. 6. In the year 1957, in Honolulu Hawaii, a geodesic dome was built so quickly it only took them 22 hours after all the parts/materials were delivered. Nowadays there is over 300,000 domes around the world
  7. 7. • R. Buckminster Fuller’s first world acceptance by the architectural community happened in the year 1954 where his cardboard dome was exhibited for the very first time. His cardboard dome was presented in the Milan triennale where they stage international exhibitions all over the world to show their most advanced and groundbreaking accomplishments in the field of design, architecture..etc
  9. 9. Planning the construction:  Designing the dome is the first step to start with. The size and amount of triangles and their calculations to form the dome is needed. For example, the basic dome has equilateral 20 triangle, which then further divided into smaller triangles to form the sphere. More triangles results in bigger and more complex domes.  Struts: these are the framework for the dome which are made up of rods. Normal geodesic domes have same length of struts where as complex ones have struts of different sizes.  Material selection should be made as different materials create different kinds of dome.  Finalizing the structure: several things should be kept in mind while putting all the pieces together, such as, the struts and their dimensions, their edges flattened so that they fall on the same plane when attached, and to make sure the flattened edges bend slightly (found by calculation).  The calculation differs by class of the dome, like 2V, 3V, 4V, etc.
  10. 10. Calculation sample
  11. 11. Strut preparation 1. Cutting the struts as per calculations 2. Flattening the edges 3. Drilling holes for joints 4. Bending the flattened edges 5. Sealing and painting the struts
  12. 12. Dome assembly method  The assembly should be planned according to the class and complexity of the dome constructed.  It also depend on what arrangement will the triangles be, for example pentagon, hexagon.  It is better to start the assembly from top pieces and gradually coming downwards.
  13. 13. Assembly sample
  14. 14. Materials used in construction • There are options when building the geodesic dome, you can choose to cover the triangular panels with either plastic, wood, drywall or plastic, you get to decide the material according to the different categories of geodesic domes. But the most common material used to build a geodesic dome is steel as they connect the network of the beams/struts together.
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES • Geodesic dome is a stable and easy construction which is very strong. they are ideal for almost any type of spaces • The even distribution of weight throughout the structure makes it stable during earthquakes and similar hazards • Geodesic domes have an aerodynamic shape which protects them against strong wind or storms. • Domes being spherical has less surface area per unit of internal volume, reducing the interior temperature and heat gain and enables uniform air flow. • This type of domes can be very large in size with less surface area, meaning less materials are required, hence lowering costs. • Very quick and easy assembly, making them less labor intensive • This type of domes are famous for their vast usage in sustainable projects, because the materials required are all environment friendly and the structure itself is very safe and creates healthy interior.
  16. 16. DISADVANTAGES • The unusable space inside of a geodesic dome. • Windows and doors: using a normal door in a geodesic sphere can cause a problem, you’d have to custom make all doors and windows needed. • The building’s permit can also be a problem as drainage and fire escapes can be an issue and they need to meet code requirements. • The financing and rescale . • Building a geodesic dome needs very skilled labors. • Strong wind will cause separation between the materials between the nozzle and the point of deposit. • geodesic knowledge is greatly required for such building.
  17. 17. Architectural examples: 1 BIOSPHERE  Constructed in 1947 for world expo  Largest geodesic dome in the worlds  Located in Canada, the only museum dedicated toWater
  18. 18. Architectural examples: 2 DISNEY’S EPCOT CENTER  Constructed based on Fuller’s plan for a temperature controlled dome  It is a theme park + greenhouse containing over 1500 species of plants  Located in Florida
  19. 19. Architectural examples: 3 THE EDEN PROJECT  The largest greenhouse in the world  Completed in 2001  Located in United Kingdom
  20. 20. Architectural examples: 4 TELUSWorld of Science  Science displays and exhibition center
  21. 21. REFERENCES • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geodesic_dome • http://www.madehow.com/Volume-6/Geodesic-Dome.html • http://www.sustainabledomes.com.au/flex/the-different-methods-of-constructing-geodesic-domes/22/1 • http://www.byexample.net/projects/current/dome_construction/ • https://waymoot.org/home/dome/ • geodesicgreenhouse.org/wp.../Modular-assembly-of-a-Geodesic-Dome-Frame.pdf • http://www.sustainabledomes.com.au/flex/the-benefits-of-geodesic-dome-homes/13/1 • https://sites.google.com/site/dsdomes/conceptos • http://www.kuriositas.com/2011/05/geodesic-magic-theres-no-place-like.html • http://www.brighthub.com/education/homework-tips/articles/60412.aspx • http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/geodesicdome.htm • http://www.sustainabledomes.com.au/flex/the-different-methods-of-constructing-geodesic-domes/22/1