Greece was divided by many low mountains
that formed valleys and made
Coastline that formed many natural harbors.
As a result, they were good sailors and
The most important building material was
marble which was plenty near Athens
They constructed buildings suited to their
outdoor life such as administrative
buildings, theatres, agora- an open air
The island of Crete consisted about 100 cities.
Trade and commerce, science and astronomy
Greeks national games and festivals
encouraged literature, music and drama
Hence Greeks constructed stadiums
palaestra (wrestling school), theatres (for
dance, drama), hippo-drome (for horse and
chariot race), basilica (assembly hall) and
agora (open air market).
Rhea- the goddess of fertility.
The Greek temples were surrounded by
The Greek temples were usually oriented
towards east so that the statues of deities
were lit by the glory of the morning sun.
AEGEAN ARCHITECTURE (3000-
Ruled by King Minos of Knossos.
Island is full of beautiful hills and mountains
The people did not believe in life after
At 2000 B.C. onward palaces were built such
as palace of king Minos at Knossos.
In 1400 B.C. Minoan civilization was
destroyed due to oceanic floods.
Ordinary people lived in houses built in mud
Roofs were flat covered with terracotta tiles
Gypsum was used for floors
PALACE OF KING MINOS,
It stood on a rectangular plan surrounded by
buildings with flat roofs.
It contained halls, courts, chambers,
The palace was surrounded by buildings on
many terraced levels.
At Mycenae the fortress palace has a
monumental entrance, the lion gate.
It consists of 4 massive stones, one for
threshold, one for lintel and two for upright
Above the lintel is a triangular slab carved
out of pair of lions on either side.
Consists of 2 main periods:
THE HELLENIC PERIOD:
The term Hellenic is used to describe early
Spans were limited because of trabeated
Architraves were composed of single blocks
of stones or marbles.
They often used internal columns in temple
Arches, vaults & domes were not used by the
Greeks used timber in the beginning soon
they started using marble.
The walls were constructed from coursed
rubble to fine ashlars and no mortar was
used, they minimized the joints by using
large sized stones.
The exterior of the buildings was designed
The architecture had a religious character.
After 4th century B.C. public buildings
began to appear.
In 3rd century B.C. roof trusses were used to
cover large spaces.
The three orders of architecture were used.
ORDERS IN GREEK
The column consists of base, the bottom
part, shaft, the middle part and capital the
top part, while entablature consists of
architrave, the lower part, frieze, the middle
part and cornice the upper most part.
Types of Orders in Greek Architecture are:
Height of the column is 6-7 times its lower
The column has no base but stands directly
on a platform of three steps called
The bottom part is called plinth (stereobate)
the middle, dado or die and the top one, the
stylobate, each part being ¼ ‘D’ in height
The shaft in its length is divided into 20
flutes i.e. elliptical channels or grooves,
separated by sharp projections or ‘Arises’.
The capital consists of ‘Abacus’ and ‘Echinus’.
The abacus is a square block. The echinus has
a varying outline.
Below the echinus. There are horizontal
fillets 3-5 in numbers called ‘Annulets’ which
break the vertical lines of arises.
The column has a base.
The column height is 9 times the lower
The column has a base... The base consists of
upper and lower torus is separated by scotia
The circular shaft has 24 flutes separated by
fillets and not by arrises as in Doric order
The ionic order is remarkable for its volute
or capital or decorative motif
The capital has a pair of volutes both on the
front and the back of the column.
In between the volutes is necking enriched
with ornaments separating the capital from
The column including base, shaft and capital
is about 10 times its lower diameter in
The base is similar like Ionic order with its
upper and lower torus separated by scotia.
The shaft has 24 flutes separated by fillets
It has a distinctive capital
Usual type of capital contains rows of
Rectangular plan 71m long and 32 m wide.
Stands on crepidoma. A platform of 3 steps
The temple is designed in octastyle
17 columns on either side.
Temple is constructed facing east
In the west is the virgin’s chamber –the
Parthenon from which temple derived its
Its roof is supported by 4 ionic Columns.
AGORAS and STOAS
It was an open air market place.
It was also used for exhibitions, festivals and
as an open air meeting place. It was
surrounded by civic halls, council halls and
It is a long colonnaded building as a shelter
at religious shrines
It was a council hall and used as a meeting
This was used as a wrestling school or a
sports centre. The palaestra was open
attached to gymnasium, where the athletes
conducted events as running, jumping, and
wrestling. It also contained a large
swimming pool, dressing room, a club room
This was used for horse and chariot racing
The chariots were driven by four horses
The chariots belonged to different groups
with their banners in different colors
The race commenced after the emperor’s