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Urban design

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Ar. Ayaz Ahmad Khan

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Urban design

  2. 2. Contents What we will learn 1. Urban Design 2. Difference between Architecture, Urban Design & Urban Planning. 3. Elements of Urban Design 4. Principles of Urban Design 5. Case Study
  3. 3. What is Urban Design ? • Urban design is the process of designing and shaping cities, towns and villages. • In contrast to architecture, which focuses on the design of individual buildings, urban design deals with the larger scale of groups of buildings, streets and public spaces, whole neighbourhoods and districts, and entire cities, with the goal of making urban areas functional, attractive, and sustainable • Urban design isconcerned with the arrangement, appearance and function of our suburbs, towns and cities. • It is both a process and an outcome of creating localities in which people live, engage with each other,and engagewiththephysicalplacearound them. • Itinvolvesthedesignand coordination of all thatmakesup citiesand towns.
  4. 4. What is Urban Design ? • Urban design involves the arrangement and design of buildings, public spaces, transport systems, services, and amenities. Urban design is the process of giving form, shape, and character to groups of buildings, to whole neighbourhoods, and the city. • Urban design is about making connections between people and places, movement and urban form, nature and the built fabric. Urban design draws together the many strands of place-making, environmental stewardship, social equity and economic viability into the creation of places with distinct beauty and identity.
  5. 5. Architecture Urban Design Urban Planning
  6. 6. Architecture Urban Design Urban Planning
  7. 7. “Architecture isn’t just the reflection of the state of society, it’s the reflection of the mind”
  8. 8. Architecture The art or practice of designing& constructing buildings
  9. 9. Function: Fundamentally to provide shelter Form: An art that is appreciated by many its beauty. Firmness: Stability of structure THE 3 FS OF ARCHITECTURE
  10. 10. Urban DesignThe design of Functionality of spaces between buildings & structures
  11. 11. URBAN DESIGN? • Art of Making Places for People • Human Interaction with the environment as Squares, Piazza, Streets, Pedestrian• Involves places such
  12. 12. “A street is a spatial entity and not the residue between buildings.” –Anonymous
  13. 13. The Design & OrganisationOf Urban Space & Infrastructure URBAN PLANNING
  14. 14. WHAT’S UP? TAKINGA LOOK AT URBAN PLANNING • Layout of neighbourhoods, cities and regions • Fulfilling needs of community & economy
  15. 15. “If you can tell a man by his shoes, you can tell a city by its pavements” - RowanMoore
  16. 16. Architecture Urban Design Urban Planning Scale Individual building Spaces between buildings: street, park, transit stop Whole neighbourhoods, districts & cities Orientation Aesthetic and functional Aesthetic and functional Utility Treatmen t of space 2D & 3D 3D Predominantly 2D Time frame No definite time frame ShortTerm (<5years) LongTerm (5 to 20years)
  19. 19. BUILDINGS #ELEMENTSOFURBANDESIGN Buildings are the most pronounced elementsof urban design
  20. 20. BUILDINGS they shape and articulate space by forming the streetwalls of thecity. Well-designed buildings and groups of buildings work together tocreate a senseof place.
  21. 21. RESIDENTIAL Bldgs. these are structures where people dwell.
  25. 25. GOVERNMENT bldg.
  28. 28. PUBLIC SPACES #ELEMENTSOFURBANDESIGN Great public spaces are the living room of the city - the place where people come together toenjoy the city and each other.
  29. 29. PUBLIC SPACES  Public spaces make high quality life in the city possible - they form the stageand backdrop tothe drama oflife.  Public spaces range from grand central plazas and squares,to small, local neighborhood parks.
  30. 30. ST.PETERSQUARE Located directly in front of St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City.
  31. 31. New York’s famous city square, Times Square is located at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue and stretching from West 42nd to West 47th Streets. TIMES SQUARE
  32. 32. PLAZA MAYOR The best known plaza in Madrid, Spain, this impressive city square is one of the main stops on any tourist visit.
  33. 33. MANILA BAYWALK Located at Roxas Boulevard, this baywalk catches the beautiful view of the sunset.
  35. 35. STREETS #ELEMENTSOFURBANDESIGN These are the connections between spaces and places, as well as being spaces themselves. Theyare defined bytheir physical dimension and character aswell asthe size, scale, and character of thebuildings that linethem.
  36. 36. STREETS Thepattern of the streetnetwork ispart of what definesa city and what makes each city unique.
  37. 37. STREETS EXAMPLES Main street It is usually a focal point for shops and retailers in the central business district, and is most often used in reference to retailing and socializing. The term is commonly used in Scotland and the United States, and less often in Canada, Australia and Ireland.
  38. 38. STREETS EXAMPLES HIGH street Frequently used for the street name of the primary business street of towns or cities, especially in the United Kingdom.
  39. 39. STREETS EXAMPLES FORE street Often used for the main STREET of a town or village. Usage is almost entirely confined to the SOUTH WEST OF ENGLND. There is also a Fore Street in PORTLAND, UNITED STATES, presumably named by colonists from SW England.
  40. 40. STREETS EXAMPLES OVERPASS In many countries including India, an overpass is normally a bridge for motor vehicles to pass over other road or rail traffic.
  41. 41. STREETS EXAMPLES OVERPASS It would introduce confusion to call a pedestrian bridge or footbridge an overpass.
  43. 43. STREETS EXAMPLES SKYWAY Skyway is usually used in the US for long or high bridges for traffic.
  44. 44. STREETS EXAMPLES SKYWAY Example of skyway
  45. 45. A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic STREETS EXAMPLES freeway Is a type of highway which has been designed for high- speed vehicular traffic
  46. 46. freeway
  47. 47. BOULEVARD a type of large ROAD, usually running through a city.
  49. 49. STREETS e avenue is traditionally a straight route with a line of trees or large shrubs running along
  50. 50. STREETS ESPLANADE An esplanade is a long, open, level area, usually next to a river or large body of water, where people may walk. In NORTH AftERICA, an esplanade may often refer to a MEDIAN or the strip of raised land dividing a roadway or boulevard.
  51. 51. a narrow passageway between or behind buildings. alley STREETS
  52. 52. alley A narrow street between the fronts of houses or businesses. This type of alley is found in the older parts of many cities,
  53. 53. alley It can refer to a narrow, usually paved, pedestrian path, often between the walls of buildings in towns and cities.
  55. 55. TRANSPORT  Transportsystemsconnect theparts of citiesand help shape them, and enablemovement throughout the city.  Theyinclude road, rail, bicycle, and pedestriannetworks, and together form thetotal movement systemof a city.
  56. 56. TRANSPORT Thebalance of thesevarious transport systemsiswhat helps define the quality and character of cities, and makesthem either friendly or hostile to pedestrians.
  57. 57. TRANSPORT Thebestcitiesare theonesthat elevatethe experience of thepedestrian while minimizing the dominance of theprivate automobile.
  58. 58. Train A train is a form of rail transport consisting of a series of vehicles that usually runs along a rail track to transport cargo or passengers although magnetic levitation trains that float above the track exist too.
  59. 59. Train station
  60. 60. Bus A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses have utilitarian fittings designed for efficient movement of large numbers of people, and often have multiple doors
  61. 61. Bus station
  62. 62. Bus station
  63. 63. taxi A taxi is an automobile that carries passengers for a fare usually determined by thedistance traveled
  64. 64. Tricycle(TIRRI) a tricycle is a public utility vehicle consisting of a motorcycle and an attachedpassenger sidecar
  66. 66. BICYCLE
  67. 67. BICYCLE lane
  68. 68. sidewalks Sidewalks are also considered transport since it allows pedestrian to go to other places.
  70. 70. LANDSCAPE #ELEMENTSOFURBANDESIGN Itisthe green part of the city that weavesthroughout, in the form of urban parks, streettrees,plants, flowers, and water in many forms.
  71. 71. Thelandscape helps define the character and beauty of a city and creates soft, contrasting spaces and elements. Green spaces in cities range from grand parkstosmall intimate pocket parks. LANDSCAPE
  72. 72. CENTRAL PARK
  73. 73. STREETS POCKET PARK It is a small park accessible to the general public. Pocket parks are frequently created on a single vacant building lot or on small, irregular pieces of land. They also may be created as a component of the public space requirement of large building projects.
  74. 74. STREETS Treesalong boulevard
  75. 75. STREETS Planters along thesidewalk
  76. 76. STREETS walkways
  79. 79. CHARACTER A PLACEWITH ITS OWN IDENTITY,TO PROMOTE CHARACTER IN TOWNSCAPE & LANDSCAPE BY RESPONDINGTOAND REINFORCING LOCALLY DISTINCTIVE PATTERNSOF DEVELOPMENT, LANDSCAPE AND CULTURE. • Protect and enhance the buildings, street, materials, landmarks and views that are unique and give the campus/city its identity. • The appearance of the built environment defines an area’s identity and character and creates a sense ofplace. • Many areas of the campus have a well- established character that needs to be protected andenhanced. • No site is a blank slate. It will have shape and there will be adjacent development and a history which make it a distinctive place. • This context should be established for each site and responded to in order to build something that is recognizable and special
  80. 80. CONTINUITY & ENCLOSURE A PLACEWHERE PUBLICAND PRIVATE SPACES ARE CLEARLY DISTINGUISHED.TO PROMOTETHE CONTINUITYOF STREET FRONTAGES ANDTHE ENCLOSURE OF SPACE BY DEVELOPMENT WHICHCLEARLY DEFINES PRIVATE & PUBLICAREAS. • Create streets and public spaces that are well connected and enclosed by attractive building frontages. • Every building is just one part of the fabric of the campus/City which is held together by the network of streets and spaces. • Well enclosed and connected spaces allow using and enjoying the campus conveniently and in comfort • The street forms the interface between the public and private realm. • Developing and protecting the urban fabric or structure with strong spatial continuity and a good sense of enclosure will benefit the campus over time.
  81. 81. PUBLIC REALM A PLACEWITHATTRACTIVEAND SUCCESSFUL OUTDOOR SPACES.TO PROMOTE PUBLIC SPACES AND ROUTESTHATARE ATTRACTIVE,SAFE, UCLUTTERED ANDWORK EFFECTIVELY FOR ALL IN SOCIETY, INCLUDING DISABLED AND ELDERLY PEOPLE. • Create high quality public spaces that are attractive, safe, comfortable, well maintained, welcoming and accessible to everyone. • The term ‘public realm’ means any part of the campus that can be experienced by everyone, from buildings to bollards. Everything in the Public realm has an effect on the campus/City image and character. • A key principle is that ‘people attractpeople’. • Places which feel good will encourage people to use them and places which are well used stand a better chance of being well cared for. • The aim is to produce friendly, vibrant public places where people feel welcome to visit, socialize and go about their business and leisure in comfort and safety. • Buildings define spaces and good architecture is
  83. 83. EASE OF MOVEMENT A PLACETHAT IS EASYTO GETTO AND MOVETHROUGH.TO PROMOTE ACCESSIBILITYAND LOCAL PERMEABILITY BY MAKING PLACESTHATCONNECTWITH EACH OTHERAND ARE EASYTO MOVETHROUGH, PUTTING PEOPLE BEFORETRAFFICAND INTEGRATING LAND USES ANDTRASPORT.• Make the campus easy and safe to get to and move around in, particularly for pedestrians and cyclists. • Movement of all kinds is the lifeblood of any campus. • The movement network must operate in a way which brings the campus to life, yet high levels of traffic can impact negatively on quality of life and perception ofplace. • Transport planning should acknowledge that streets have vital social, economic and amenity roles in addition to that of being channels for vehicles. • A well designed urban structure will have a network of streets and spaces that can accommodate these roles as well as the traffic.
  84. 84. LEGIBILITY A PLACETHAT HAS A CLEAR IMAGEAND IS EASYTO UNDERSTAND.TO PROMOTETHROUGH DEVELOPMENTTHAT PROVIDES RECOGNISIBLE ROUTES, INTERSECTIONS AND LANDMARKSTO HELP PEOPLE FINDTHEIRWAY AROUND.• Create a place that both residents and visitors can understand and easily navigate. • Good urban design can help to create a campus that is easy to understand and find one’s way about. • Streets, buildings, vistas, visual details and activities should be used to give a strong sense of place and to provide an understanding of destinations and routes. • A legible urban environment is the sum of many of the urban design principles. clear – specific- and attractive
  85. 85. • ROUTES - the routes people take are a key element in the way the campus is perceived. • LANDMARKS - landmarks include public art or a unique lighting scheme, traffic signals, a strong element of urban character such as a distinctive building or a striking vista. • FOCAL POINTS - public spaces are key to the legibility of any place. the best are active areas where people gather and meet and such focal points should be emphasized, given clear definition and purpose. • VIEW- protect key views and create new vistas and landmarks to help people locate themselves in the campus and create links within and beyond the immediate area. LEGIBILITY
  86. 86. ADAPTABILITY A PLACETHAT CAN CHANGE EASILY.TO PROMOTE ADAPTABILITY THROUGH DEVELOPMENTTHAT CAN RESPONDTO CHANGING SOCIAL,TECHNOLOGICALAND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. • Create a campus that can adapt to change so that buildings may come and go, but the streets last a lifetime. • Successful campus’s accept change and continually adapt to remain vibrant over time. • Thoughtful and good urban design is required to achieve this flexibility. • New developments and public realm improvements should be designed both to respect the existing context and to accommodate future change.
  87. 87. DIVERSITY A PLACEWITHVARIETYAND CHOICE.TO PROMOTE DIVERSITYAND CHOICE THROUGHA MIX OF COMPATIBLE DEVELOPMENTS AND USESTHATWORKTOGETHERTO CREATE VIABLE PLACESTHAT RESPONDTO LOCAL NEEDS.• Create a campus with variety and choice. Encourage a mix of uses (institutional, residential, leisure, ) and architectural styles to create vibrant campus. • Housing, leisure, places to work and meet should interrelate to form an identifiable and walk able campus that meets the needs of residents. • The campus’s which benefit from a mixture of good amenities have the means to support their own requirements and reinforce a sense of community.
  88. 88. CASE STUDY IIT ROORKEECAMPUS Master plan of IIT Roorkee Campus
  89. 89. CASE STUDY IIT ROORKEECAMPUS •The main building shows the architecture of highest heritage and amenity value with a quality public realm. Analysis
  90. 90. CASE STUDY IIT ROORKEECAMPUS •Contemporary architectural style material and colour create a sense of coherency.
  91. 91. CASE STUDY IIT ROORKEECAMPUS •The tower structure of electronics department acting as landmark.
  92. 92. CASE STUDY IIT ROORKEECAMPUS •Good quality public realm of central library create a new identity for the area.
  93. 93. CASE STUDY IIT ROORKEECAMPUS •Good landscaping integrate the building and their external spaces into an imageablewhole.
  94. 94. CASE STUDY IIT ROORKEECAMPUS •Well treated junctions aid legibility and make easy to navigate into the campus.
  95. 95. CASE STUDY IIT ROORKEECAMPUS •Pedestrian and vehicular segregation of the street avoids conflicts.
  96. 96. CASE STUDY IIT ROORKEECAMPUS •Planting of different types ,using many species for their seasonal colour or texture complement the orchestration of built form.
  97. 97. CASE STUDY IIT ROORKEECAMPUS •Streets shows definition, active frontages and permeability.
  98. 98. CASE STUDY IIT ROORKEECAMPUS •U G Club encourages leisure use and temporary events.
  99. 99. CASE STUDY IIT ROORKEECAMPUS •Students centered activity area enhancesnatural surveillance to the campus.
  100. 100. THANKS